Project Selection

Student List

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 402 4 Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound perpetual_wound_device Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Medicine
2 402 5 Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity blood_viscosity_chip Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
3 402 4 Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery delivery_device Biomechanics Obstetrics/Gynecology
4 402 3 Electronic voice output for children with verbal apraxia voice_output Bioinstrumentation Rehabilitation
5 402 5 Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam breast_exam Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
6 402 5 Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games biofeedback_games Bioinstrumentation Urology
7 402 4 Cataract surgery manual cortex aspiration pressure sensor, display, and regulator cataract_surgery Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Ophthalmology
8 402 4 Modified inkjet printer for multi-channel bioprinting bioprinting Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering Surgery
9 402 4 Microfluidic device to study biofilm infection on a vascular catheter microfluidic_catheter_model Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering Cardiology
10 402 4 Bladder cancer resectoscope: The Badger Bladder Tumor Removal Device badger_resectoscope Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Urology
11 402 3 Pulsatile pump for in vitro patient specific cardiovascular flow experiments cardiovascular_model Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Medical Imaging Simulation
12 402 4 Emergency medicine – simulation of a difficult pediatric airway pediatric_airway Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation
13 402 4 Lipoma extraction device lipoma_extraction Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
14 402 4 Smartphone anemia detection application and device smartphone_anemia Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Global Health Engineering, Cellular Engineering Medical Imaging, Pathology, Rural/Global Medicine
15 402 4 Automated system for rat gavage rat_gavage Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
16 402 5 Peripheral nerve stimulator tester nerve_stimulator_tester Bioinstrumentation Anesthesiology
17 402 4 GE Healthcare: Uniform definition and management of contact surface biological hazards GE_bological_hazards Biomaterials, Biomechanics Radiology
18 301 4 RaDistance safety meter radiation_meter Bioinstrumentation Radiology
19 301 4 Optimizing filtration and preservation of epithelial cells from urine stem_cell_collector Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials Neurology, Urology
26 301 4 Impact wrench for orthopedics orthopedic_wrench Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
27 301 4 Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain IVD_drain_leveller Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Neurosurgery
28 301 4 Spider cage to support cerebral palsy patient spider_cage Biomechanics, Human Factors Pediatrics
29 301 4 Wireless ECG tank top ecg_tank_top Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
30 301 4 Individualized functional finger prosthesis finger_prosthesis Biomechanics, Biomaterials Plastic Surgery
32 301 4 Standardization of hapten delivery in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis hapten_delivery Biomechanics, Biomaterials Pharmacy
35 301 4 SLIP project (Solution for Leakage through an Innovative Pessary) innovative_pessary Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Human Factors Geriatrics
36 301 4 Posture monitor for vibration exercise training posture_monitor Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors Physical Therapy, Geriatrics
38 301 4 Measurement of muscle function and balance to assess risk of falling balance_measurement Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics Geriatrics, Physical Therapy
39 301 5 Atrial fibrillation screener afib_screener Bioinstrumentation Medicine
41 301 4 GE Healthcare: MR phantom development GE_MR_phantom Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medical Imaging
42 301 5 Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace dynamic_leg_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
44 402 4 Water resistant cast boot cast_boot Biomaterials, Biomechanics Rehabilitation, Surgery, Prosthetics
47 301 4 Personalized medication disposal system med_drop Biomaterials Pharmacy
48 301 4 Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention dialysis_infection Bioinstrumentation Urology
50 301 4 Thyroid palpation movement model thyroid_model Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Biomechanics Medical Simulation
51 301 4 Teflon-coated surgical suction catheter tip suction_tip Biomaterials, Biomechanics Surgery
54 301 4 Device to monitor and quantify early hypovolemia due to hemorrhage hypovolemia_monitor Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics Cardiology
55 301 5 Transplant organ coolant management system organ_cooler Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery


1. Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound

perpetual_wound_device

BME 402
Students assigned: Ryan Lane, Michael Martinez, Matthew Reagan, Ryan Rinehart
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
The collective migration of epithelial cells is a fundamental phenomenon that occurs in a diversity of physiological processes, from early embryonic development to homeostasis in the adult intestine. One of the main ways in which collective migration is studied in vitro, is through a wound healing assay. In a wound healing assay, a monolayer of epithelial cells is grown on a coverslip, and then physically scratched, or wounded. The wound removes a strip of cells from coverslip, creates free space, and the cells that remain migrate collectively to close the space. An alternative to this experiment, is a microfluidic wound healing assay. In this assay, a monolayer of cells is grown inside of a microfluidic channel. Instead of scratching the monolayer, laminar fluid flows within the microfluidic channel are used to deliver a stream of trypsin, an enzyme which cleaves cell adhesions. The trypsin stream is thinner than the width of the channel (or the width of the cell population), and thus selectively cleaves a strip of cells from the chip, and washes them away, leaving behind free space. The trypsin is then removed, and replaced by cell culture media. Like the wound healing assay, the cells will migrate to close the gap. The microfluidic method has significant advantages over the physical scratch. First, there is never physical abrasion or cell death associated with removing the strip of cells. Thus, the effect of physical abrasion can be isolated from the effect of free space on the induction of cell migration. Second, the microfluidic method may be automated. My goal is to develop an automated system for trypsinzing and culturing the cells within the microfluidic chip for very long time in order to observe how the migration of cells changes with age. Thus, roughly every 24 hrs (or 1 generation), the monolayer will be trypsinized, the cells will migrate, reproduce and repopulate the channel, and then this process will repeat for many generations, thus creating a perpetual wound.

References
http://go.wisc.edu/5zzlj0

Client:
Dr. John Puccinelli
Biomedical Engineering
(608) 890-3573
puccinelli@bme.wisc.edu


2. Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity

blood_viscosity_chip

BME 402
Students assigned: Tyler Lieberthal, Christopher Patterson, Ross Paulson, Anthony Prostrollo, Jared Warczytowa
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Blood viscosity has been shown to have significant implications in a clinical setting. Changes in blood viscosity can be related to inflammation, tissue injuries, cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. Current methods to characterize blood viscosity involve centrifuging the blood plasma out of whole blood and measuring the viscosity of the plasma alone using capillary or falling-sphere viscometers. Blood plasma by itself is considered a Newtonian fluid, with its viscosity remaining independent of shear-rate and temperature. Measuring changes in blood plasma viscosity can give physicians further insight into the presence or progression of diseases that lead to changes in clotting cascade activation, immunoglobulin concentration, inflammatory biomarkers. However, while highly sensitive to multiple diseases, plasma viscosity is lacking in disease specificity, leading to its underutilization in the clinical workflow in a hospital.

The measurement of whole blood viscosity, on the other hand, incorporates the highly-compressible and aggregating element of red blood cells (RBCs). As a result, whole blood is considered a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, with viscosities that change with temperature and velocity. Measuring the response of whole blood viscosity across different temperatures and velocities can potentially offer more discriminating information about certain disease process, leading to increased specificity in disease diagnosis or progression.

Arranging and measuring multiple combinations of velocity and temperature of blood can be labor-intensive and prohibitively time consuming due to the rapid onset of coagulation once blood is removed from the patient. Our proposal is to overcome this challenge by leveraging advances in microfluidic technology to make temperature adjustments and viscosity measurements within seconds of leaving the blood vessel. Microfluidic devices are small and inexpensive, necessitating only minimal sample volumes and can be multiplexed in a manner that can run multiple studies simultaneously. The high surface-area to volume ratio associated with using microfluidics allows for near instantaneous heating of blood samples and associated viscosity measurements. The rapid execution of the viscosity measurements will ensure that the viscosity changes are derived exclusively from flow and temperature, and not platelet activation from oxygen exposure.

The successful completion of this project will lead to a novel diagnostic platform that can uniquely characterize the progression of a wide variety of diseases using whole blood viscosity. The microfluidic platform lends itself well to being scaled up and modified for immediate clinical applications.

Materials
Animal surgery lab and access to fresh in-vivo porcine blood

Microfabrication/instrumentation lab supplies

Microwave/radiofrequency heating technology

References
[1] E. Y. Yang Jun Kang, A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 7, 2013.
[2] K. F. Lei, K.-H. Chen, P.-H. Tsui, and N.-M. Tsang, Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, p. e76243, Oct. 2013.
[3] G. Késmárky, P. Kenyeres, M. Rábai, and K. Tóth, Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable, Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., vol. 39, no. 1-4, pp. 243-246, 2008.
[4] E. W. MERRILL, E. R. GILLILAND, G. COKELET, H. SHIN, A. BRITTEN, and R. E. WELLS Jr, Rheology of human blood, near and at zero flow. Effects of temperature and hematocrit level, Biophys. J., vol. 3, pp. 199-213, May 1963.

*Merrill has around 20 articles on blood viscosity theory and practice. They're easy to find on PubMed.

Client:
Prof. Christopher Brace
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 265-9051
clbrace@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Jason Chiang
(310) 923-1577
cjchiang@wisc.edu


3. Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery

delivery_device

BME 402
Students assigned: Alenna Beroza, Kimberly Buchanan, Emily Junger, Ana Lara Santiago
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Mechanics, Software

Summary
A cylindicrical, helically wound, braided device would be designed which could be placed into the birth canal around the fetal head.

Pulling on the braid would lenghthen and narrow it. This would reduce the radial distance between opposite sides (ie. the fetal head and the operator providing traction) and the overall circumference around the fetal head.

By placing traction in the plane of the birth canal, the fetal head should be delivered without trauma. (this cannot always be accomplised by traditional devices in use now such as vacuums and forceps).

This device would allow for a much safer delivery than traditional forceps or vacuum.

Design would be similar to devices used in orthopedics to fix Bennet\'s fractures or designs of Chinese finger traps.

The overall goal would be to reduce birth injury, reduce cesearean section rate, and design a device that would require minimal training in use.

I am very confindent that this idea would work well and would be a cost effective tool to manufacture.

Materials
open

References
See design for Kellem\'s grip
See design for Chinese Finger Trap

Client:
Dr. Jay Lick
Ob/Gyn
The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine
(608) 576-6977
jclick@wisc.edu


4. Electronic voice output for children with verbal apraxia

voice_output

BME 402
Students assigned: Kaitlyn Laning, Samantha Mccarthy, Kelsey Veserat
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
Children with congenital verbal apraxia may often understand spoken and written language and may be socially motivated to communicate, but are physically unable to speak. Because there are few, if any, treatments for this condition, children with this disorder are occasionally taught to communicate by using touch-activated voice output devices, which produce spoken words elicited by pressing buttons or touchscreens. However, for toddlers with severe verbal apraxia, commercially available touch-activated voice output systems present several logistical drawbacks. This project is to equip a wearable arm band with electronics to emit spoken words on demand. The client for this project is a toddler who presently communicates by selectively tapping on a list of 30 words printed on an armband that currently has no voice-output functions. The toddler would benefit from having his communication armband design equipped with voice-output capability. This will act as a wearable, fixed display voice-output communication device. The weight and bulk of the design solution must be low enough for the toddler to tolerate as a wearable item.

Materials
Armbands with printed keypads are available. All materials needed for creating modified wearable armbands and modified printed keypads are also available. Pre-recorded voice messages in childrens\\\' voices are available. The design team must determine, procure, or assemble the necessary electronics.

References
More details about this project, including video of prototypes in action, are available upon request. An introduction to this area is:
Speech generating device

Client:
Mrs. Tiffany Glass
(651) 343-6048
glass@surgery.wisc.edu


5. Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam

breast_exam

BME 402
Students assigned: Timothy Abbott, Clair Kurzynski, Megan Platner, Kristen Rasske, Lauren Stopfer
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics

Summary
The clinical breast examination (CBE) is intended to detect palpable lesions and guide further diagnostic workup and treatment. Despite the widespread practice of this examination, there is little standardization in the way that it is performed [1,2]. In addition, evidence regarding the actual technique performed in the clinical setting and how it relates to the ability of a practitioner to detect a breast lesion is lacking.

In our lab, we have developed a large range of sensored silicone breast models. We embedded force sensitive resistors (FSR) at the base of the models. Using these FSRs we can recode and track the performance of the CBE. Since these FSRs are made of plastic and are soldered and wired we are limited to placing them on the bottom of the model relatively far from the surface, otherwise they would be felt by the practitioner preforming the exam.
During the last few years, a broad range of new materials has been developed. These include conductive cloth, piezoresistive fabrics, conductive paint and more. These new materials provide an opportunity to develop a new sensor that is smaller, soft and more flexible. The goal of this project is to develop these sensors and embed them in our breast models in a way that won’t be felt by the examiner. The project includes the development and fabrication of the sensors, measurement and categorization of their performance and embedding them in our models. This project will be part of our ongoing CBE research and successful models will be used in our future data collection sessions (by now we have collected more than 250 exams and we expect to collect hundreds more).

Materials
We have a variety of silicone breast models that can be used. We have a sample of different materials and more can be purchased if needed. We have the electronic equipment for measuring the resistivity both NI based and Arduino based. We have just started our research regarding these new materials and we are open to student’s suggestions.

References
[1] Pugh, C.M., Domont, Z.B., Salud, L.H., & Blossfield, K.M. (2008), A simulation-based assessment of clinical breast examination technique: Do patient and clinician factors affect clinical approach? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 874-880.
[2] Salud, L.H., & Pugh, C.M. (2011). Use of sensor technology to explore the science of touch. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163, 542-548.

Usage of these materials by other groups:
http://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?cat=24
http://hlt.media.mit.edu/

Client:
Dr. Shlomi Laufer
Surgery
SMPH
(608) 556-1026
slaufer2@wisc.edu


6. Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games

biofeedback_games

BME 402
Students assigned: Samuel Jensen, Samual Lines, Shawn Patel, Michael Simonson, Andrew Vamos
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Dr. Patrick McKenna joined the UW Department of Urology in September 2012 as the Chief of Pediatric Urology. He brought a new clinical program to our center, whereby children learn to control their pelvic floor muscles using biofeedback. The aspect of his program that is unique nationally is that he utilizes video games in the pelvic floor training. Biofeedback "leads" attached to the patient's pelvic floor muscles connect to an electronic interface that is about 2"x5"x7" in size and connects to a computer that runs the video games. Currently we have two of the electronic interfaces, one in use and one backup. The backup unit will be soon be deployed in a satellite clinic location. The devices have a history of "burning up" after a few years.
Our initial goal is the creation of extra interfaces that can be used if the existing ones fail because the devices are no longer commercially available. A more ambitious goal is the creation of a new interface and video games that run on a modern operating system with high resolution graphics.

Materials
Access to current biofeedback set-up outside normal clinic hours.
Access to a broken interface.
Funds for equipment and supplies with pre-approval.

Client:
Dr. Patrick H. McKenna, MD, FACS, FAAP
Urology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-0475
mckenna@urology.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Stephen Hall, Department Administrator
(608) 263-9032
hall@urology.wisc.edu

Sarah Novinsie, Medical Staff Assistant to Pediatric Urology Division
(608) 262-0475
novinskie@urology.wisc.edu


7. Cataract surgery manual cortex aspiration pressure sensor, display, and regulator

cataract_surgery

BME 402
Students assigned: Mohammed Hayat, Dalton Hess, Alice Huang, Scott Schulz
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
BACKGROUND:
Cataract surgery involves removing a patient's diseased lens. After the hard lens nucleus has been removed using an ultrasound handpiece, the softer lens cortex is aspirated using a vacuum-based handpiece. The ultrasound and aspiration systems are paired to an irrigation system to ensure balanced fluid exchange and intraocular stability within the closed system of the eyeball. Total volume of the system is approximately 2.5 cc.


Automated cortex aspiration may be performed using a handpiece attached to a low-compliance, small-diameter (<3mm), long length (approx 1.5 m) flexible silicone tube attached to a machine governed by a proprietary microprocessor that generates vacuum levels ranging from 0-650 mmHg. Minimum and maximum vacuum levels may be defined and set by the user and actual vacuum levels are displayed instantaneously and continuously in real-time.

Manual cortex aspiration may be performed using a handpiece attached to a high-compliance, small-diameter (<3mm), short length (approx 25 cm) flexible silicone tube attached to a handheld 10 cc syringe. We do not have a mechanism to measure, display or limit the vacuum levels using this system.

PROJECT:
1a. Design a pressure sensor to measure vacuum levels within a high-compliance, small-diameter (<3 mm) variable vacuum (0-500 mmHg) flexible silicone tubing system of approximately 25 cm in length.
1b. Design a remote digital vacuum level display unit for this system to display vacuum levels instantaneously and continuously in real-time.
1c. Design a pressure-release valve for this system with user-adjustable upper limit (up to 500 mmHg).

Materials
Will provide access to:
- cataract surgery instruments
- cataract surgery videos
- cataract surgery wetlab
- porcine and human eyes
- disposables for project

Client:
Dr. Stephen Sauer
Ophthalmology
UWSMPH
(608) 263-4758
sksauer@wisc.edu


8. Modified inkjet printer for multi-channel bioprinting

bioprinting

BME 402
Students assigned: Jack Goss, Karl Kabarowski, Evan Lange, Tyler Max
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics, Software, Tissue Engineering

Summary
Bio-printing or the process of depositing living cells using the printer technology brings the dream of creating an artificial organ through tissue-engineering closer to reality. Several printer technologies including the laser-jet, bubble-jet, and ink-jet methods have been explored for bio-printing. Of these, the ink-jet technology where the ink is pressure-ejected by a piezo-electric device appears to be least damaging to live cells. Much advance has been made but the ability to eject a precise mixture of different bio-ink (e.g. different cells or growth factors) to create an optimal environment for cell growth has been under utilized.

The goal of this project is to modify a readily available inexpensive commercial ink-jet printer with the following design goals: 1. create a mechanical interface for translating the paper-advance information delivered to the printer to translate a plate for receiving the deposited cells (y-axis translation), 2. modify the ink-jet printer head to accommodate "bio-ink" while providing the x-axis translation for depositing the bio-ink, 3. control the duration of bio-ink ejection to accommodate bio-ink of different viscosity, 4. allow a controlled mixture of different "color" (i.e. growth factors or different cells) bio-ink, and 5. develop a user friendly software interface (Visual Basic preferred)for controlling the bio-printer. An additional capacity for z-axis translation will enhance the printer to allow 3D printing of biomaterials.

Design and development of this bio-printing device and making it available to a larger scientific audience will advance the field of tissue engineering.

Materials
Cell culture hood, various primary cells and cell lines, and a fully-equipped lab located in WIMR for conducting biomedical research. Various electro-mechanical translation devices previously used as part of an electrophysiology set up are also available.

References
Reviews on bio-printing.

Boland et al. Application of inkjet printing to tissue engineering. Biotechnol J 2006, 1:910-917.

Ringeisen et al. Jet-based methods to print living cells. Biotech J 2006 1: 930-948.

Ozbolat and Yu. Bioprinting toward organ fabrication: Challenges and future trends. IEEE Biomed Engng 60: 691-699.

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
SMPH
(608) 265-6710
jyang75@wisc.edu


9. Microfluidic device to study biofilm infection on a vascular catheter

microfluidic_catheter_model

BME 402
Students assigned: Jacob Hindt, Amy Kim, Stephanie O'leary, Steve Wang
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Imaging

Summary
The goal of the project is to develop a microfluidic device that mimics a vascular catheter infection in a patient and can be used for microscopy experiments examining the immune response. The device would have an outer endothelial layer and an inner “catheter”. The areas would have an interface at the tip of the catheter. The lumen of the catheter would be able to be inoculated to produce a biofilm. Some of the future applications for this device may include examining how neutrophils migrate to biofilms in the presence and absence of an endothelial cell lining, comparing immune recognition of biofilm and free floating cells, measuring the cytokine responses, and examining the impact of disrupting genetic pathways in either the microorganism or immune cells.

Patients with indwelling medical devices, such as venous catheters, are at risk for serious infection. Bacteria and fungi can adhere to the surface of the medical device and proliferate as a biofilm, a resilient community of cells encased in an extracellular matrix. The host immune response and anti-infective therapies are frequently ineffective against this process and these infections can have devastating consequences. Much of how transitioning to the biofilm lifestyle protects organisms from immune clearance remains a mystery.

The goal of our laboratory is to identify the mechanisms of immune evasion for biofilms formed by Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens. We currently use a combination of rodent models and in vitro models. The focus of our in vitro models is examining the neutrophil response to biofilms infections. Development of this microfluidic device would allow us to examine the role of the endothelial lining in biofilm pathogenesis in vitro.

Materials
Through our laboratory, the students would have access to neutrophils or neutrophil-like cells, biofilm producing organisms, an endothelial cell line, and a microscope for confocal microscopy. We have media, incubators, and supplies to maintain the cell lines and microorganisms. We have fluorescent stains to visualize both microorganisms and neutrophils. We have two full time research scientists who maintain the cell lines. They would be able to assist students with biological aspects of the project and/or provide these cells and reagents as needed. We have funds to purchase engineering supplies and materials.

References
For a review of Candida biofilms:

Ramage G1, Martínez JP, López-Ribot JL.2006. Candida biofilms on implanted biomaterials: a clinically significant problem.FEMS Yeast Res. 979-86.

I can provide additional references regarding microfluidic devices, endothelial cells, or patient catheters.

Client:
Dr. Jeniel Nett
Medicine-Infectious Disease, Medical Microbiology & Immunology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-7494
jenett@medicine.wisc.edu


10. Bladder cancer resectoscope: The Badger Bladder Tumor Removal Device

badger_resectoscope

BME 402
Students assigned: Katherine Baldwin, Alyssa Mitchell, Tyler Moon, Ryan Reynebeau
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The goal of this project is to design a new and novel equipment to aid in the removal of bladder tumors.

My name is Tracy Downs, I am an associate professor of urology at UW SMPH. I have been in clinical practice for 11 years. In the past decade it has become very clear to me that we need a different way to remove bladder tumors. Traditionally, we pass a long instrument called a cystoscope through a patient’s urethra (male - penis and female - shorter urethra). This provides us access into the bladder where we "cut" the tumor 4-5 cm or smaller ones 1-2 cm into small pieces to facilitate tumor removal. The problem with this approach is that we have to violate the tumor by cutting through it, which can lead to tumor spillage leading to "seeding" and frequent recurrences of these bladder tumors.

Materials
Access to currently used bladder cystoscopies and resectoscopes
Access to observe live surgery to understand how contemporary equipment is used and their limitations to aid in novel redesign.

References
Non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) Early stage urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is the fourth most common site of new human cancer diagnoses (1). It is estimated that there are 585,390 urinary bladder cancer survivors living in the United States and an additional 73,510 new cases will be diagnosed in 2012, with an estimated 14,880 deaths occurring in the United States as a result of this disease (1). The two most well established risk factors for bladder tumors are cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to urothelial carcinogens. Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor, accounting for 50% of cases in men and 35% in women (2). Most new bladder cancer cases (≈ 50,000 patients) are diagnosed early with disease limited to the mucosal epithelium (Ta/Tis, Stage 0) and immediate connective tissue layer beneath the mucosa (T1, Stage I). Collectively these tumor stages (Ta, Tis, T1) are referred to as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) or superficial bladder cancer. The clinical course of early stage Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), is dominated by frequent recurrences and surveillance testing (cystoscopy, bladder biopsy, urine cytology, etc.) (3). The need for long-term invasive monitoring and treatment has significant cost and morbidity consequences for UCB patients. In fact, 53% of patients diagnosed with superficial bladder cancer will experience a recurrence within 2 years of diagnosis (4). Compared to other malignancies, UCB ranks highest in lifetime per patient costs, between $96,000 to $187,000 with total costs at a population level estimated at $3.7 billion annually (5).

1.Siegel R, DeSantis C, Virgo K et al. Caner treatment and survivorship statistics 2012. CA Cancer J Clin: 62 (5): 232, 2012.

2.Zeegers MP; Tan, FE; Dorant, E; Van Den Brandt, PA (2000). "The impact of characteristics of cigarette smoking on urinary tract cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies". Cancer 89 (3): 630–9.

3.Foresman WH, Messing EM. Bladder cancer: natural history, tumor markers, and early detection strategies. Semin Surg Oncol. 13:299-306, 1997.

4.Tolley DA et al. The effect of intravesical mitomycin C on recurrence of newly diagnosed superficial bladder cancer: a further report with 7 years of followup. J Urol 1996;155:1233-1238

5.Botteman MF, et a.l, The health economics of bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the literature. Pharmacoeconomics, 12;1315-1330, 2003.

Websites to view:
http://acmicorp.com/acmi/user/display.cfm?display=product&pid=9233&catid=109&maincat=Urology&catname=Rotating ResectoscopesACMI Urology

http://www.olympus.co.uk/medical/en/medical_systems/applications/urology/urology_2.html

http://www.bcan.org

http://www.urology.wisc.edu and bladder cancer

http://www.bupa.co.uk/individuals/health-information/directory/t/turbt

Client:
Dr. Tracy Downs
Department of Urology
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-9534
downs@urology.wisc.edu


11. Pulsatile pump for in vitro patient specific cardiovascular flow experiments

cardiovascular_model

BME 402
Students assigned: Jaime Mortier, Shaun Pomerenke, Adam Strebel
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Software

Summary
The multidirectional nature of flow within the cardiovascular system makes the comprehensive non-invasive characterization and quantification of normal and pathological blood flow difficult and challenging. Standard imaging techniques such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are still limited in their ability to fully characterize this complex flow. 4D Flow MRI, with its ability to assess multidirectional volumetric flow, offers the opportunity to non-invasively assess the performance and efficiency of the cardiovascular system, both in vivo in patients and in vitro using patient-specific models. Currently we use data acquired from in vivo MRI evaluations to create patient-specific in vitro models using additive manufacturing techniques. Physical models are subjected to different inflow and resistance conditions during MRI in vitro experiments using a bypass non-pulsatile perfusion pump. The goal of this project would be to design a system that in series with the perfusion pump can convert the continuous flow in pulsatile flow that reproduces patient-specific flow waves as inputs for the in vitro model.

Materials
Perfusion pump, tubbing, Software

Client:
Mr. Alejandro
Radiology
School of Medicine
(608) 262-1780
roldan@wisc.edu


12. Emergency medicine – simulation of a difficult pediatric airway

pediatric_airway

BME 402
Students assigned: Zachary Balsiger, Jonathan Luedtke, Scott Mawer, Malachi Willey
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Intubation is a critical to the recovery of a compromised airway. Recovery of an adult airway requires visualization the glottis and placement of a tube to provide unobstructed ventilation. However, the skills and tools used in adult airways do not transfer to smaller pediatric patients. Due to the infrequency and complexity of pediatric intubation, there is a critical need for training and development of performance standards. [1,2,3].

In our lab, clinical simulators are developed to capture clinical skills and define expert performance. Our fabricate process utilizes a range of silicon casting and molding material, but are not limited to them. We are open to suggestions for different materials.

We outfit simulators with sensors and data acquisition systems to capture expert motion and performance characteristics.
We developed and purchased adult airway simulations, however there is a lack of quality models for patients age 0 – 2 years.

The goal of this project is to develop an airway representative of a 10 month old pediatric patient. In particular, the simulated airway will need to mimic the stiffness and dimensions of a 10 month old and be durable. Relevant intubation skills in this simulated model include airway navigation, tube insertion, direct and indirect laryngoscope tool expertise.

The project includes the development and fabrication of the pediatric airway and their clinical scenarios, performance measurement using force-sensitive resistors, and the development of expert/novice performance metrics. This project will

Materials
We have a variety of silicone materials for model fabrication and molding. We have a sample of different materials and more can be purchased. We have just started our research regarding these new materials and we are open to student’s suggestions. Service for the 3D printing at the engineering student shop can be utilized if needed. We have electronic equipment for measuring sensor resistivity using NI based or Arduino based systems.

References
[1] Stewart, Charles, MD, FAAEM, FACEP. "Managing The Pediatric Airway In The ED." Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice 3.1 (2006). EBmedicine. Web. 18 Aug. 2014. .

[2] Graham, C A. "Advanced Airway Management in the Emergency Department: What Are the Training and Skills Maintenance Needs for UK Emergency Physicians?" Emergency Medicine Journal (2004): 14-19. Print.

[3] Walls, Ron M. "Approach to the Pediatric Airway." Manual of Emergency Airway Management. Revised/Expanded ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. 263-302. Print.

Commonly used silicones for fabrication:
http://www.smooth-on.com/Silicone-Rubber-an/c2_1115/index.html

Client:
Dr. Carla Pugh
Department of Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-7502
pugh@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Calvin Kwan
(608) 262-5241
kwan@surgery.wisc.edu


13. Lipoma extraction device

lipoma_extraction

BME 402
Students assigned: Matthew Boyer, Stephen Monette, Alexander Nguyen, Thomas Zipp
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Lipomas are benign growths of fatty tissue beneath the skin. They are visible masses on the skin surface and may be asymptomatic or painful. Surgical excision may be complicated by bleeding and difficulty breaking fibrous bands that run through the lesion leading to prominent scarring. Patients and physicians would benefit from a lighted device that could be introduced from a small incision in the skin, break any fibrous tissue and micronize the fat lobules to facilitate extraction.

Client:
Dr. William Aughenbaugh
Dermatology
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 287-2620
waughenbaugh@dermatology.wisc.edu


14. Smartphone anemia detection application and device

smartphone_anemia

BME 402
Students assigned: Michelle Chiang, Nyna Choi, Jolene Enge, Russell Little
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Global Health Engineering, Cellular Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging, Pathology, Rural/Global Medicine
Skills: Cell Biology, Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
Anemia is a very common condition worldwide causing significant morbidity and mortality. Many causes of anemia in developing countries are amenable to treatment. Point of care testing in clinics is usually lacking. Cell phones are very common worldwide even in developing countries. I would propose that we develop a machine based neural network software program that could diagnose various forms of treatable anemias. We would need a microscope (google foldscope for 1 low cost option) an image capture device (google Skylight image capture device) or a smartphone equipped with a microscope attachment and the software program.

Materials
As above.
Also slides and lancets.

References
Folscope
Skylight
Life lens project ( similar project for malaria diagnosis)

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
Community Medicine
Dean Clinic
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


15. Automated system for rat gavage

rat_gavage

BME 402
Students assigned: Keum Chun, Alexander Eaton, Ruby Phung, Kevin Wreksoatmodjo
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
n the process of pharmaceutical development, animals are dosed with test material (TM). This is done by placing a tube (needle) down the esophagus of the animal. There are many training techniques and guidelines around this specific process and how the animal can be held/restrained during this process. Each animal is removed from their cage, scanned by a stationary scanner (animal has chip implanted in back), the computer tells the technician the amount to dose with for each particular animal. The technician has bottle of TM on a stir plate, draws up the syringe with thumb and depresses the syringe into the animal. The process is highly repetitious and can be done up to 6 hours a day. Aside from the amount of repetitions, other variables that lead to increased muscle strain/fatigue include: viscosity of TM, amount of material to draw up (weight of animal), etc. Note, best practice is to use the smallest syringe size in order to measure most accurately. Dosing 9.5 mL would be conducted in a 10 mL syringe, even though switching to a 20mL would decrease the length of draw on thumb.

Process Improvement Ideas:

- automated draw up machine (especially for large dose volume or highly viscous TM)

- syringe plunger force on tip of thumb (thumb thimbles; wider surface area to generate more force)

The client is a lab located in Madison, Wisconsin that does testing for pharmaceutical companies. The identity of the lab is to remain confidential due to sensitive subject and high competition in the area.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@discovery.wisc.edu


16. Peripheral nerve stimulator tester

nerve_stimulator_tester

BME 402
Students assigned: Allison Berman, Kelsie Harris, Colin Korlesky, Katherine Swift, Curtis Weber
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Anesthesiology
Skills: Electronics, Packing design

Summary
Anesthesiologists and ICU personnel use peripheral nerve stimulators (PNS) to measure the amount of temporary muscle paralysis produced by certain drugs during general anesthesia or during mechanical ventilation in the ICU. It is critical that the nerve stimulator devices are functioning correctly, in order that the paralyzing drugs are administered in the correct dose over time. Since these (relatively simple) hand-held PNSs are subject to daily physical abuse, they often malfunction. However, it is not readily apparent that they are malfunctioning.

I propose that students develop a simple "tester" small enough to be kept in the drawer of each anesthesia machine or at an ICU patient's bedside. It would have two snap buttons to attach the PNS wire leads. The tester would detect/validate several stimulation outputs by the PNS. The tester could have 5 LEDs. One could confirm proper operation of the tester. Once the two snap electrodes are connected to the PNS & the PNS is activated, one LED would confirm a stimulator output of approximately 20 milliamps, two LEDs with 40, three with 60 ma, and four LEDs with 80 ma. No lights indicate that the nerve stimulator is broken or that its leadwires are open.

We would like to have an initial design that would allow off-the-shelf components to be assembled in-house, for actual testing if PNS.

Materials
Sample PNS, 1st Semester designed a simple peripheral nerve stimulator tester.

Client:
Dr. Scott Springman
Anesthesiology
Medicine
(608) 263-8100
srspring@wisc.edu


17. GE Healthcare: Uniform definition and management of contact surface biological hazards

GE_bological_hazards

BME 402
Students assigned: Angela Beltrame, Abid Hinnah, Susanna Kwok, Todd Zimmerman
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Biomaterials, Chemistry, Imaging, Mechanics, Materials Science

Summary
The Magnetic Resonance Imaging industry continues to have an increased focus on controlling the potential for the spread of biological hazards due to contamination of system surfaces during patient scanning. The selection of materials, surface finishes and cleaning agents that facilitates appropriate surface cleaning without a negative impact on imaging quality or equipment durability continues to be a challenge. The main objectives of this project will be to:

1. Analyze the current approach to managing contact / surface hazards in MR scanners and associated environments.
2. Recommend uniform guidelines, approaches, new techniques and materials.
3. Provide performance specifications and test results for recommended materials, and cleaning agents. Document material durability under use conditions, and any negative impacts to material performance when exposed to cleaning agents. Confirm effectiveness of ability to sufficiently clean surfaces consisting of various combinations of material types and surface finishes.

Materials
Samples of typical patient/clinician contact materials and cleaning agents used on these materials can be provided. We can also provide tours of MR systems and demonstrate typical scanning workflows. Typical mechanical loading and durability requirements will be provided. Scanning of study materials to determine any negative impact on image quality.

Client:
Mr. Thomas E. Moran
GE Healthcare
(262) 521-6297
thomas.moran@ge.com


18. RaDistance safety meter

radiation_meter

BME 301
Students assigned: Justin Faanes, Elliott Janssen Saldivar, David Mott, Jesse Wang
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
The therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine (I-131) can be potentially harmful to family members, individuals close to the patient as well as health workers and the environment. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends that radioactive iodine patients receive thorough instructions to avoid direct and indirect contact with infants and young children following the treatment. Design a device/multiple devices that would help radioactive iodine patients interact normally with family members in their home settings post hospital discharge. A possibility is a cap with both distance and heat sensors. If a patient gets within 1 m of a human, the patient could be alerted by acoustic, optical or vibratory feedback.

Fall 2013 a BME design team made a device that looks only ahead described at http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f13/radiation_meter/ Now we need this expanded to look in all directions.

Materials
Develop multiple home pyroelectric intruder sensors and a time-of-flight ultrasonic camera focus sensors.

References
Barrington S , O'Doherty M, Kettle A, Thomson W, Mountford P, Burrell D, et al. 1999. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism, Eur. J. Nucl. Med., vol. 26,pp. 686-692.
Barrington S, Anderson P, Kettle A, Gadd R, Thomson W, et al. 2008. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Nov;35(11):2097-104.
Directorate-General: Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection 1998, Radiation Protection following Iodine-131 Therapy (Exposures due to out-patients or discharged in-patients), European Commission.
Fraden, J., Handbook of modern sensors: physics, designs, and applications, 2nd ed., American Institute of Physics, Woodbury NY, 1997. Pages 267, 280.
Greaves, C. and Tindale, W. 1999, Dose rate measurements from radiopharmaceuticals: Implications for nuclear medicine staff and for children with radioactive parents, Nucl. Med. Commun., vol 20, pp. 179-187.
International Commission on Radiological Protection 1996, Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine, ICRP Publication 73, Annals of the ICRP vol. 26 No. 2.
Matheoud R, Reschini E, Canzi C, Voltini F, Gerundini P. 2004. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Med Phys.;31(12):3194-200.
Mathieu I, Caussin J, Smeesters P, Wambersie A, Beckers C. 1999, Recommended restrictions after 131I therapy: measured doses in family members, Health Phys., vol. 76, pp. 129-136.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 1995, Dose limits for individuals who receive exposure from radionuclide therapy patients, NCRP Commentary No. 11.
Rémy H, Coulot J, Borget I, 2012. Thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I: radiation dose to relatives after discharge from the hospital. Thyroid. Jan;22(1):59-63.

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Prof. Sarah Hagi
Director of Medical Equipment Planning & Development
Medical Physics Unit, Radiology Dept., King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
sarahhagi@gmail.com

Prof. Brian Bednarz
Medical Physics
(608) 262-5225
bbednarz2@wisc.edu


19. Optimizing filtration and preservation of epithelial cells from urine

stem_cell_collector

BME 301
Students assigned: Jehad Al-Ramahi, Jason Brunkow, Jack Kegel, Alexander Letourneau
Advisor: Megan McClean

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurology, Urology
Skills: Software, Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Imaging, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Reactor design

Summary
Collection of patient specific cells is a task that often involves painful blood draw, skin puncture, or other clinical techniques. In order to streamline the process of cell collection from patient to laboratories, it is necessary to create a method for easily collection of epithelial cells. The goal for this project is to fabricate an easy-to-use, at home urine collection device that serves to separate renal epithelial cells from urine. In addition to filtrating epithelial cells from urine, the must be kept viable for at least 24 hours. The cells will then be used for reprogramming to create embryonic-like stem cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Patient-specific iPSCs are thought to hold unlimited potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling applications.

Materials
\"Secondary\" human and mouse cells that harbor the inducible reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc
Reprogramming and differentiation cell culture media
Antibodies to stain for cell fate

References
Fluri, D. A. et al. Derivation, expansion and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells in continuous suspension cultures. Nat Meth – (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1939

Shafa, M. et al. Derivation of iPSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors. Nat Meth (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1973

Client:
Prof. Krishanu Saha
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(510) 541-6900
ksaha@wisc.edu


26. Impact wrench for orthopedics

orthopedic_wrench

BME 301
Students assigned: Ellis Cohen, Joaquin Herrera, Gabrielle Laures, Michael Quirk
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Hardware removal is a required part of orthopedics and can be challenging. Screws have often been implanted for over a year when we remove them and can be in quite tight. When a screw gets stripped during removal it becomes much harder to remove.
Impact wrenches for automotive applications exist, but they are too large for the hardware we use in orthopedics. I would be interested in an impact wrench that could be used with the orthopedic screws we use to prevent stripping. It would also have to be sterilizable so it could be used in the operating room.

Materials
I can supply samples of the screws. We would also need \"sawbones\" which are fake bones that we use to practice placing hardware and would be useful for testing the wrench. This can be ordered on line. Ultimately, testing could be done on cadaveric bones, which can be obtained through the department.

Client:
Dr. John Wollaeger
Orthopedics
Meriter and UW School of Medicine
(608) 287-2219
john.wollaeger@uwmf.wisc.edu


27. Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain

IVD_drain_leveller

BME 301
Students assigned: Brian Frino, Isabella Griffay, Brenda McIntire, Zachary Petersen
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Current intraventricular drain (IVD) systems consist of a closed drainage system that is hung by a string from a pole. In order to function properly, the IVD collection container must be kept at a constant, consistent level relative to the ventricles of the patient. Since patients rarely stay completely immobile for any length of time, keeping the IVD properly leveled is a time-consuming, imprecise, almost sisyphysean nursing intervention. I have a general design for a device that would keep the IVD continually and consistently leveled at the correct height. In simple terms, a small sensor/transmitter/something of that nature would be attached to the patients temple. The collection systems buretrol would be mounted on a small motorized carriage. The system would raise or lower the carriage to keep the buretrol at the proper level. Furthermore, the envisioned device would also include an important safety feature-when sudden changes in height are detected, the system would automatically clamp the drainage system. Additional features are possible.

Materials
I have nothing but my ideas and a few sketches. The device is fairly simple-it would require a few motors, switches, sensors and so on using existing technology. I can arrange for whatever sheetmetal housings/boxes, etc. to be fabricated if need be.

Client:
Mr. David M Longseth
Nursing Operations
UWHC
(608) 843-6588
dlongseth@uwhealth.org


28. Spider cage to support cerebral palsy patient

spider_cage

BME 301
Students assigned: Jonathan Elicson, Jacob Kanack, Jonathon Leja, Samantha Mesanovic
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
A spider cage is a device used by therapists to work with people (usually kids) who have cerebral palsy. It supports their weight with bungy cords connected to a custom suit so the person can work on building leg and arm strength. This is something that is available commercially, but is very expensive. We are looking for a design that is relatively inexpensive, is collapsible and able to fit in a car, and has custom features that meet the need of one particular person.

Materials
Amanda Miller, OT from Wisconsin Therapists has agreed to help with project specifics and can meet during the semester to evaluate your design.

References
Here is a basic design:
http://www.suittherapy.com/ueu.htm

Client:
Mr. Matt Jahnke
United Cerebral Palsy
(608) 279-5897
mattjahnke@ucpdane.org


29. Wireless ECG tank top

ecg_tank_top

BME 301
Students assigned: Mensah Amuzu, Samuel Brenny, Lucas Lato, Timothy Tyrrell
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
To monitor the ECG continuously, most patients are not willing to apply new gel electrodes daily. We have tested reusable dry electrodes in an elastic tank top and for the next step require (1) a low power ECG amplifier and battery, (2) wireless connection to smart phone, (3) transmission to hospital computer, (4) algorithm to alarm and display when arrhythmia occurs.

Materials
Elastic tank top with dry electrodes

References
Meziane, N., J. G. Webster, M. Attari and A. J. Nimunkar, Dry electrodes for electrocardiography, Physiol. Meas. 34, R47–R69, 2013.

Client:
Prof. John G. Webster
Biomedical Engineering
COE
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu


30. Individualized functional finger prosthesis

finger_prosthesis

BME 301
Students assigned: Lazura Krasteva, Alexandra Picard, Kari Stauss, Lauren Taylor
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Plastic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics, 3D printing

Summary
Finger prostheses have been provided to individuals who have sustained amputation of their fingers. Due to the inherent difficulty of retaining finger prostheses securely to restore grip strength and function many efforts to restore the finger have shifted focus toward cosmesis. These aesthetic silicone prostheses can be detailed and tinted to look very natural, and the restored length does restore passive function.

This project will focus on the development of a mechanical unit that is actuated by flexion/extension in the residual finger and that is adaptable to patient-specific finger sockets created by the prosthetist.

Materials
Polymers - silicones, polyurethanes, epoxies, PMMA, etc. Additional resources and budget available to purchase hardware. Access to scanning/3D printing process on UW campus. Access to laboratory for experimentation with materials,fabrication and assembly of prototypes.

References
www.didrickmedical.com, www.NakedProsthetics.com
www.MedicalArtProsthetics.com, www.HandProsthesis.com
www.FingerProsthesis.com

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


32. Standardization of hapten delivery in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis

hapten_delivery

BME 301
Students assigned: Ross Barker, Michael Lohr, Shakher Sijapati, Michael Wolff
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Pharmacy
Skills: Chemistry, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell mediated allergic reaction that typically manifests as dermatitis when patients come in direct contact with a hapten (or allergen) to which they have previously been sensitized. Patch testing is a clinical test used to diagnosed delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to a variety of allergens such as preservatives, fragrance, rubber, surfactants, oils, metals, and other ingredients. Haptens for allergy testing are and supplied to the clinic in a dilute concentration by a commercial supplier. The vehicle for haptens is usually petrolatum, but some are available in aqueous solutions, either in ethanol or purified water. Haptens are stored in either a syringe (petrolatum vehicle), or a dropper bottle (aqueous vehicle).

Haptens are loaded onto aluminum (finn) chambers by hand and applied to patients in a standardized fashion. Instructions for amount of allergen for patch testing recommend a 5 mm ribbon for petrolatum based haptens and 1 liquid drop (about 25 micro-liters) for haptens in aqueous solutions. Given that the haptens are loaded onto the chambers by hand, there is variation in the volume of allergen to which that each patient is exposed. The detection of allergic contact dermatitis is a dose depended process and lack of a method to reproducible exposure patients to the same amount of allergen brings into question the validity and reproducibility of the test.

The project aim would be to develop a device to reliably and reproducible deliver the same volume of hapten to the finn chamber in preparation for patch testing. This volume would be the same based on the vehicle, meaning that all haptens with a petrolatum vehicle would deliver the same volume to the finn chamber. Such a device would need to be used with multiple different haptens without cross contamination. It would also need to be able to load haptens with petrolatum or aqueous vehicles.

The development of a tool to standardize the volume of hapten delivery for patch testing would a significant step forward for quality assurance and reproducibility in the diagnosis of contact allergy. It would also increase the reliability of the test between institutions and limit human variations in the loading of haptens for testing. Both the American Contact Dermatitis Society and the European Society for Contact Dermatitis would have interest in the development and untilization of a hapten loading device.

Materials
Supplied materials include haptens, finn chambers, and other supplies for patch testing. Training in clinic to demonstrate the technique of patch testing including hapten storage, preparation, and loading of trays for application.

References
http://www.contactderm.org (American Society for Contact Dermatitis)

1.Dosage considerations in patch testing with liquid allergens.
Shaw DW, Zhai H, Maibach HI, Niklasson B.
Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Aug;47(2):86-90.
PMID: 12423405

2.A contemporary Fischer-Maibach investigation: variations in patch test delivery systems and implications for standardization.
Hamann D, Hamann CR, Hamann C.
Dermatitis. 2013 Nov-Dec;24(6):302-12.
PMID: 24201463

3.Towards a perfect vehicle(s) for diagnostic patch testing: an overview.
Chiang A, Maibach HI.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2013 Mar;32(1):60-6. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2012.684418. Epub 2012 Jun 6. Review.
PMID: 22667342

4.The role of vehicles in diagnostic patch testing. A reappraisal.
Tanglertsampan C, Maibach HI.
Contact Dermatitis. 1993 Oct;29(4):169-74. Review.
PMID: 8281777

5.Variations in the quantities of petrolatum applied in patch testing.
Antoine JL, Lachapelle JM.
Derm Beruf Umwelt. 1988 Nov-Dec;36(6):191-4.
PMID: 3234271

6.Recommendation of appropriate amounts of petrolatum preparation to be applied at patch testing.
Bruze M, Isaksson M, Gruvberger B, Frick-Engfeldt M.
Contact Dermatitis. 2007 May;56(5):281-5.
PMID: 17441852

7.Variation in the amount of petrolatum preparation applied at patch testing.
Bruze M, Frick-Engfeldt M, Gruvberger B, Isaksson M.
Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Jan;56(1):38-42.
PMID: 17177708

8.Audit of Finn Chamber patch test preparation.
Moffitt DL, Sharp LA, Sansom JE.
Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Dec;47(6):334-6.
PMID: 12581278

9. Prevalence of patch testing and methodology of dermatologists in the US: results of a cross-sectional survey.
Warshaw EM, Nelson D.
Am J Contact Dermat. 2002 Jun;13(2):53-8.
PMID: 12022120

Client:
Dr. Margo Reeder
Dermatology
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 287-2620
mreeder@dermatology.wisc.edu


35. SLIP project (Solution for Leakage through an Innovative Pessary)

innovative_pessary

BME 301
Students assigned: Thomas Feustel, Mufaddal Lakdawala, Anneka Littler, Joshua Plantz
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Urinary leakage affects more than half of independent US women aged 65 and older (Gorina), and its direct health care costs exceed $25 billion annually (Miner). Stress urinary incontinence, the leakage of urine associated with activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as coughing, sneezing, and lifting, can be treated with surgery, pelvic floor muscle strengthening, or the use of an intra-vaginal silicone support device called a pessary.

Pessaries are traditionally used to treat relaxation of the vaginal walls (pelvic organ prolapse) and thus sit between the apex of the vagina and the back of the pubic bone, supporting the vaginal apex and anterior wall. Historically, it was believed that loss of support of the bladder neck (the junction between the bladder and the urethra, tube through which urine leaves the bladder) contributed to stress incontinence. Therefore, two pessaries were designed specifically to treat stress incontinence: an incontinence ring and an incontinence dish. These pessaries sit between the apex of the vagina and the pubic bone and each has a knob to support the bladder neck, but neither incorporates a mechanism to prevent rotation of the knob from midline, and they improve symptoms for about 50% of women who try them. In contrast, mid-urethral sling surgery to treat stress incontinence results in improvement or cure in over 90% of women who undergo the procedure.

Over the last twenty years, our understanding about the underlying pathophysiology of stress incontinence has evolved, so that we now recognize the importance of support not just of the bladder neck but also of the urethra itself (Delancey). The two incontinence pessaries that currently exist do not provide urethral support at all, and are limited in their ability to support the bladder neck by the ease with which their knob can rotate.

The purpose of this project is to build an innovative pessary that provides urethral support, which means it will be situated more distally than existing ones, and will have to be supported laterally. This innovative pessary will provide a minimally invasive and more effective alternative to surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

Materials
None

Will have to purchase medical grade silicone

References
Delancey JO1, Ashton-Miller JA. Pathophysiology of adult urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jan;126(1 Suppl 1):S23-32.
Abstract
The anatomic structures that prevent stress incontinence, urinary incontinence during elevations in abdominal pressure, can be divided into 2 systems: a sphincteric system and a supportive system. The action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms at rest constrict the urethral lumen and keep urethral closure pressure higher than bladder pressure. The striated urogenital sphincter, the smooth muscle sphincter in the vesical neck, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the urethra all contribute to closure pressure. The mucosal and vascular tissues that surround the lumen provide a hermetic seal, and the connective tissues in the urethral wall also aid coaptation. Decreases in striated muscle sphincter fibers occur with age and parity, but the other tissues are not well understood. The supportive hammock under the urethra and vesical neck provides a firm backstop against which the urethra is compressed during increases in abdominal pressure to maintain urethral closure pressures above rapidly increasing bladder pressure. The stiffness of this supportive layer is presumed to be important to the degree to which compression occurs. This supporting layer consists of the anterior vaginal wall and the connective tissue that attaches it to the pelvic bones through the pubovaginal portion of the levator ani muscle and also the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia. Activation of the levator muscle during abdominal pressurization is important to this stabilization process. The integrity of the connection between the vaginal wall and tendinous arch also plays an important role.

Miner, P.B., Jr., Economic and personal impact of fecal and urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology, 2004. 126(1 Suppl 1): p. S8-13.

Prevalence of Incontinence Among Older Americans Yelena Gorina, et al NHANES 2007-2010 series 3, No.36 pp1-15

The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: evidence-based review Cameron and Haraway Open Access Journal of Urology 2011:3 109-120

The history and usage of the vaginal pessary: a review Reeba Oliver et al European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2011 156:125-130

www.coopersurgical.com/Milex

Client:
Dr. Gloria E. Sarto
Obstetrics and Gynecology
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-7573
gsarto@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Heidi W. Brown
(608) 265-5654
lwbrown2@wisc.edu


36. Posture monitor for vibration exercise training

posture_monitor

BME 301
Students assigned: Michal Adamski, Cameron Hays, James Hermus, Austin Scholp
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy, Geriatrics
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Whole body vibration is a promising exercise modality that effectively improves muscle function and balance in older adults. Vibration exercise activates skeletal muscle through vertical accelerations transmitted by the vibration device into the musculoskeletal system. These stimuli not only increase muscle function but might also be beneficial for bone health and balance. Vibration exercise requires less time than other exercise regimens, and can be performed by older adults with comorbidities that often limit the ability to perform conventional exercise. Despite this, vibration training is currently rarely performed in older adults often due to safety concerns of devices that operate at vibration amplitudes and frequencies that could be harmful if the training is not performed correctly. The main concern of improperly done vibration exercise is that harmful vibration can be transmitted through the body and damage vital structures such as the spine and the head. Studies have shown that vibration gets transmitted cranially easier if participants train with completely extended (straight) knees and also and extended (straight) back.

To reduce the risk of injury vibration device manufacturers provide instructions to trainers and those who exercise how to best use these devices. They emphasize that during training knees and back/hips should be flexed to a certain degree. There are currently several limitations to this approach
- It is unclear which joint positions (hip, knee, ankle) are optimal to reduce transmission of vibration to the head during training
- Individuals will likely differ in the way the transmit vibration and the range of safe joint angles needs to be individualized
- Individuals do not get feedback whether they are training in a safe range until it’s too late (they get pain etc.)

As such we are hoping to develop a system that can 1) monitor transmitted vibration at the level of the head/shoulders/spine using accelerometers or similar devices and 2) monitor joint angles during training and then provide feedback to the individuals to change their posture/movement so they train in a safe position / movement based on an acceptable level of transmitted vibration.

The first part will be designed and built by the group. The sensor needs to be able to be worn during training and measure transmitted vibration at head/shoulders/spine. For the second part, we want to use the Microsoft Kinect system to monitor body position and joint angles. We then need a program to integrate the information from the vibration sensors (e.g. accelerometers) and the Microsoft Kinect in order to provide the training individuals feedback on whether they train in a safe range and instruct them to change their posture / movements in case they are in a not-safe range.

Materials
Vibration exercise plate
Kinect camera(s)
Accelerometer(s)

References
Last semester we were able to develop an initial body attachment design for the accelerometers and a hardware setup using 2 accelerometers through I2C communication that could measure accelerations at different body parts. We also developed a basic interface that could display the knee angle measured through the Microsoft Kinect.

There are several aspects of this design that can be improved, re-designed and newly developed as outlined in this semester's final report, see below. My hope is to work with a group of students in the spring semester on achieving some or all of these goals:

1. Improving the attachment design for the accelerometers:
"As expected, the acceleration measured by the attachment design was slightly lower than the ground truth data due to the dampening effect of the straps. In the future, if testing was done on multiple subjects of different shapes and sizes, a function could be determined for the dampening effect of the straps."

2. Improving the accelerometer hardware communication:
"As only two accelerometers can be run using I2C communication, SPI communication will have to be implemented to run four accelerometers synchronously in real time.”

3. Designing an interface to display the accelerometer and Kinect joint angle data:
"Once all four accelerometers are working in real time, a LabVIEW interface will have to be created to display all of the data. This interface would ensure the Kinect and accelerometer data is displayed simultaneously. Using the interface, it would be simple to output a text file displaying the acceleration, time, and knee angle. This text file could be analyzed in other programs, such as MATLAB, for post-processing in research applications.

4. Creating a software interface that provides feedback for the person exercising on whether he/she is training in a safe acceleration range:
"Finally, using a LabVIEW interface, it would be easy for a user to use the product without a trainer. Three lights could be programmed red, yellow and green to indicate if the user is exercising in a safe knee angle range. Green would mean safe (above 35), yellow would mean warning-zone (between 20 and 35) and red would mean danger-zone (below 20). Once the user becomes familiar with this interface, LabVIEW could essentially take the place of a trainer.”

Rittweger, Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 108:877–904: Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/kinectforwindows/

Client:
Dr. Bjoern Buehring
Department of Medicine
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-6410
bbuehring@medicine.wisc.edu


38. Measurement of muscle function and balance to assess risk of falling

balance_measurement

BME 301
Students assigned: Madison Boston, Haley Knapp, Laura Wierschke, Laura Xu
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics, Physical Therapy
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
Muscle and physical function are predictors for adverse health outcomes such as falls, fractures and mortality. Parameters such as gait speed, the timed-up and go test, repeated chair rises or a test battery such as the “short physical performance battery” (SPPB) are well validated as indicators of potential risk for falls both clinically and in research. Parameters such as blood pressure, pulse and weight are being assessed during the annual visit to a primary health provider (or even more often) but muscle function is not. The UW hospital and clinics health system is currently looking into implementing protocols that would require muscle function testing with every patient at increased risk for falls. Unfortunately these tests have limitations that have prevented them from being integrated in routine medical care so far. These limitations include that the health care providers and other clinical staff are not familiar with the tests and feel uncomfortable doing them, that they are unfamiliar with the interpretations of the results and that there no easy way of integrating this information in current medical records.

This project aims to design a tool that will perform and record several different muscle function tests and then analyze and integrate the results into an electronic medical record using the Microsoft Kinect system. Standard motion analysis systems are too expensive, too large and too complicated to be used as a tool in routine clinical care. However with the development of motion analysis systems for the gaming industry, such as the Microsoft Kinect, now is affordable, small and fairly easy to use. Some data already exists that the Microsoft Kinect version 1 can be used to record gait and body posture. No system exists that would be able to use the Microsoft Kinect in a clinical system.

The tool / software we need should be able to:
- Instruct patients how to do a gait speed test, timed up and go test, repeated chair rise test and the short physical performance battery correctly
- Record these different tests with a click of a button
- Analyze the recorded data and calculate gait speed, time to perform the timed up and go, time for of the repeated chair rise test and the SPPB score
- Estimate risk of adverse outcomes (such as falls) based on available evidence (using cut-off values for the different tests)
- Integrate the results and the estimated risk for adverse outcome into a medical record system such as EPIC or the VA’s CPRS

If this project is successful we are hoping to propose a larger trial within the UW hospital and clinics system and the Madison VA to see whether it can be clinically implemented.

Materials
Microsoft Kinect System (version 1 and version 2)

References
Clark J Biomech. 2013 Oct 18;46(15):2722-5.
Clark Gait Posture. 2012 Jul;36(3):372-7
J Foot Ankle Res. 2013 Apr 8;6(1):14.

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/kinectforwindows/

Client:
Dr. Bjoern Buehring
Department of Medicine
School of Medicine and Publich Health
(608) 265-6410
bbuehring@medicine.wisc.edu


39. Atrial fibrillation screener

afib_screener

BME 301
Students assigned: Justin Alt, Samuel Esch, Daniel Grieshop, Todd Le, Rocio Riillo
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
Afib is a common, vastly under diagnosed condition. It is diagnosed by a telemetry strip, an ECG or clinically. There is a smartphone app that can diagnose it as well.

What woudl be even more useful is to develop a small device that could attach to a stethoscope that could be placed over the patient's chest and immedicately identify the rhythm.

It would have to be cheap, durable, accurate and easy to use.

Materials
telemetry device.
Display

References
BARCELONA, SPAIN — Incidentally detected atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic and ambulatory patients is associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality, but treating the detected arrhythmia with oral anticoagulants can significantly improve the prognosis of these patients, according to the results of a new study.

The new data suggest that it would be worthwhile to initiate a communitywide screening program to detect and treat AF in these asymptomatic patients. Such a screening program would even be cost-effective, say researchers.

Dr Ben Freedman (Concord Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia) told heartwire that the prevalence of AF worldwide is only going to increase with the aging baby boomers. "This epidemic is looming," he said. "In the next 10 or 20 years, we're going to see this enormous increase in atrial fibrillation. It's going to be asymptomatic and silent."

And unfortunately, the first manifestation of AF can be devastating. "Often, in patients, the first time you learn they have atrial fibrillation is when they present with a stroke," said Freedman. In fact, he said that AF is responsible for 20% to 33% of all strokes and that 20% to 45% of individuals who have an AF-related stroke did not have a prior diagnosis of AF.

Freedman, along with colleagues Dr Carlos Martinez (Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics, and Informatics, Frankfurt, Germany) and Dr Nicole Lowres (University of Sydney), published the new data on the prognosis of incidentally detected ambulatory AF in the August 2014 issue of Thrombosis and Haemostasis[1] and also presented more research on the topic here at this week's European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2014 Congress.

Client:
Dr. Phil Bain
Dean Clinic
Dean
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


41. GE Healthcare: MR phantom development

GE_MR_phantom

BME 301
Students assigned: Lida Acuna Huete, Kiersten Haffey, Aude Lefranc, Andrew McMenomy
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Chemistry, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Today's MR system and applications development relies heavily on invivo scans to evaluate and assess the system quality and capability, this method is no longer effective for a systems that are targeted for patient/subject population that is not readily accessible, such as the neonate population.

This project is to define and build the MR Phantom sets that will reflect the physiological and anatomical characters of the neonate population, for MR system evaluation and testing.

The project involves: 1). the project leader to work with GE MR system engineers to define the phantom set that is needed, including the key physiological and anatomical characteristics, 2). then translate into chemical and mechanical design of the phantom 3). procure the materials and build the phantom 4). evaluate and use the phantom in MR system environment.

Digital phantom (or idea dataset creation)is also desired for simulating the MR effects if they can be properly constructed.

Materials
GE can provide a modest budget to procure reference materials and tools to facilitate this project work. The project leader should submit the proposal and amount requested.

References
GE can provide technical guidance/reference on MR phantom construction knowledge.

Other example of references:

1.http://wiki.ismrm.org/twiki/bin/view/QuantitativeMR/QuantitativeMRWhitePaper2007

2. Steps toward a Simulator for Magnetic Resonance Images of the Neonatal Brain. K Kazemi 1, R Grebe 1, H Abrishami Moghaddam 1, 2, C Gondry-Jouet 3, F Wallois 1, 3

Client:
Dr. Zhu Li
GE HealthCare
(262) 442-3142
zhu.li@med.ge.com

Alternate Contact:
Wolfgang Gaggl PhD
(262) 521-6111
wolfgang.gaggl@ge.com


42. Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace

dynamic_leg_brace

BME 301
Students assigned: Aaron Bishop, Alex Ehlers, Kyle Koehler, Brady Lundin, Emily Olszewski
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Biomechanics

Summary
People with cerebral palsy frequently have a crouched stance and gait due to muscle weakness and spasticity. Ankle foot orthotics are often used to improve the biomechanics of gait, however a limitation of this type of brace is that they are not dynamic. They are either fixed, allowing for no significant dorsi/plantar flexion, or they are articulated which allows for too much crouch during times of high fatigue or weakness. We are interested in having an anti crouch, dynamic brace developed. This would be a leg brace that would allow dorsi flexion when needed functionally, but would spring load back to keeping the tibia in line with the ankle during stance. this could be a brace that is a dynamic postural training device that could, ideally, work in combination with a foot orthotic.

Materials
We have articulated and fixed braces that were previously used and some access to an orthotics specialist.

References
To be discussed with team

Client:
Dr. Donita Croft
Medicine
Medical School
(608) 445-1536
dc2@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Wendy Stewart, PT
(608) 263-8412
wstewart@uwhealth.org


44. Water resistant cast boot

cast_boot

BME 402
Students assigned: Christopher Beglinger, Matthew Bradfish, Hannah Frank, William Greisch
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation, Surgery, Prosthetics
Skills: Mechanics,

Summary
Water resistant cast boot design modification and formulation of process for production of a variety of sizes of water resistant cast boots.

Patients with cerebral palsy frequently have limited ankle dorsiflexion due to heel cord tightness, which can result in gait abnormalities and bone and joint deformities. One method of stretching the heel cords is applying serial casts with progressive dorsiflexion, usually over a period of about 6 weeks. These serial casts allow for weight bearing and ambulation. If these casts get wet or significantly dirty it can lead to serious skin breakdown inside the casts. While there are some products available that claim to keep casts dry during activities such as scuba diving, a limitation to ambulation in walking casts is the lack of commercially available footwear to keep the casts clean and dry and the feet warm. This is especially a factor in cold winter climates. In Spring 2012, a UW BME team designed and produced a prototype of water resistant cast boots.
We would like to apply for a grant due in September 2015 to have a group of water resistant cast boots of varying sizes made for use by patients at UW. Before applying for the grant we would need to have the following:
1. modifications to the prototype from Spring 2012
2. delineation of the process for making several pairs of boots
3. formulation of patterns for varying sizes of boots
4. determination of process for serially using the boots for different patients (how to clean the boots between users vs designing a boot liner that can be changed between users
5. formulation of user-friendly instructions for parents/patients to have boots made if they prefer not to use boots worn by others.

Materials
Prototype of water resistant cast boots from Spring 2012 and miscellaneous materials from production of those boots

References
none known

Client:
Dr. Donita Croft
Medicine
SMPH
(608) 445-1536
dc2@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Wendy Stewart, PT
wstewart@uwhealth.org


47. Personalized medication disposal system

med_drop

BME 301
Students assigned: Nicholas Difranco, Evan Jellings, Joseph Ulbrich, Alison Walter
Advisor: Megan McClean

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Pharmacy
Skills: Chemistry, Pharmacology

Summary
The number of prescriptions prescribed to patients continues to increase exponentially with each passing year.

Leftover and expired prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines can be found in every household in Dane county. Last year unintentional poisonings killed more Dane County residents than automobile crashes. Misuse or abuse of prescription, over-the-counter or illicit drugs are the major cause. Pain medication when misused, can be especially fatal.

One option currently available is to dispose of the medications using Med Drop boxes in Dane County. This is inconvenient as they currently are only located in Police Departments. Many patients end up flushing the medications down their toilets which negatively impacts the water table. Others may just put the medications in the trash which can contaminate waste management plants. Still others stockpile their unused medication in their medication cabinets, leaving open the possibility of taking the wrong med, overdosing or having the medication stolen.

I would propose that a personalized medication neutralizing container be created that physically or chemically inactivates the medication rendering it inert and non harmful to the environment.

Materials
Recepticle
Chemical or physical means to render the medication inert

References
available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
Community Faculty Member ofUW Medical School
Dean Clinic
philip.bain@deancare.com


48. Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention

dialysis_infection

BME 301
Students assigned: Alyssa Acker, Nicholas Gilling, Nathan Leppert, David Schmidt
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis are trained to detect infection. The standard method requires the patients to inspect a small amount of fluid that has been drained out in a small transparent container. The patients are looking for a change in transparency of the fluid as this would suggest infection. This method has limitations for those with visual problems as well as the relative change can be misleading.

The project that I would like to propose would be the development of a device to aid in the detection of a change in the transparency for these patients. The poor detection of change for many patients has resulted in infection, hospitalization, loss of ability to do dialysis and even death.

I have some thoughts but would love to see what you guys come up with.

Materials
none- willing to purchase

References
none

Client:
Dr. R. Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW Hospital
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


50. Thyroid palpation movement model

thyroid_model

BME 301
Students assigned: Katherine Barlow, Yitong He, Cassandra Thomas, Joseph Vecchi
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Synthetic tissue engineering

Summary
Thyroid pathology is prominent in the United States and the thyroid gland examination is an important clinical skill to learn while in medical school, and it is refined during residency training. It is widely practiced in the clinical environment by both primary care and specialty trained physicians to evaluate for pathology of the gland. However, no teaching model exists that accurately models human anatomy, allows for increased hands-on practice and/or allows for quality assessment of proper examination technique. In Dr. Carla Pugh’s lab, we focus on medical education and surgical training research; specifically engineering simulation models and implementing assessment techniques, i.e. sensor technology that allow for improved quantification and qualification of commonly learned skills. We have previously engineered a sensorized thyroid exam model that was validated by two expert endocrinologists. Deficiencies still exist in this model, as it does not allow trainees to practice the full clinical exam, e.g. palpation of thyroid gland while swallowing. This is known to be an important part of the palpation portion of the clinical exam, and helps differentiate neck mass pathology. In an effort to further refine the design and engineering of our current thyroid palpation model we seek motivated students to help in the development of a Movement Model. For this model we envision simulating the normal ascending/descending of the thyroid gland that occurs when an individual swallows. We have not yet begun engineering this component of the model, and only know that one does not currently exist. The students would be able to freely design this focused component of our model, but also have the option of making any additional improvements that they feel could enhance the realism and improve the experience of using this model. This will satisfy a currently unmet need to provide trainees with an anatomically correct and functionally accurate thyroid palpation model.

Materials
Currently available within our lab is a multitude of fabrication materials, i.e. silicone, fabrics, etc. and supplies. We are also open to support the use of externally available materials and supplies should there be a need in order to complete the project.

References
1. Kwan, C. Cohen, E. Pugh, C. Application of a New Adaptable Thyroid Model for Ultrasound and Hands-On Skill Assessment.

2. Siminoski K. The Rational Clinical Examination: Does This Patient Have a Goiter? JAMA. 1995;273(10),813-817.

3. Simonoski K. Differential Movement During Swallowing as an Aid in The Detection of Thyroid Pseudonodules. Head Neck 16:21-24, 1994.

Client:
Dr. Eran C. Gwillim
Surgery
University of Wisconsin
(815) 762-1758
gwillim@surgery.wisc.edu


51. Teflon-coated surgical suction catheter tip

suction_tip

BME 301
Students assigned: Eric Howell, Kevin Knapp, Alexander Yueh, Eric Zeman
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics, Biomaterials

Summary
Surgical suction catheters are used nearly universally, across all surgical subspecialties, and in a variety of operative scenarios. Typically, they are used to evacuate fluid from the operative field to improve visualization or dry the operative field to ensure efficient electrocoagulation. Often times, however, the amount of negative pressure required to adequately evacuate fluid from the field can damage nearby anatomic structures, especially in operations in or around particularly delicate structures. Examples include intracranial operations suctioning on the brain's surface, otolaryngological procedures involving the middle ear, and microsurgical operations involving anastomoses of small nerves or vessels. Suction is of mixed value in these circumstances because of the risk of damage to structures, but the continued need for evacuation of fluid.
Surgical catheters are usually designed with a suction canister connected on one side to a variable negative pressure wall suction input, and connected on the other side to a long piece of sterile tubing which ends in a suction catheter tip. These tips are sterile, variably stainless steel or plastic, and variably reusable or disposable. They come in varying diameters and with multiple variations of openings at the distal tip.
This project proposes that a Frazier-style suction tip could potentially be coated internally with a low friction substance such as Teflon, in order to create a lower coefficient of friction in a laminar flow environment, that would allow for egress of fluid with use at a lower suction level that would disrupt sensitives tissues less.

Materials
Examples of various Frazier tip and other suction catheter tips could easily be temporarily or permanently obtained for prototyping.

References
Examples of Frazier tips from various companies:

http://www.medline.com/jump/product/x/Z05-PF10292

http://www.conmed.com/products/suction-frazier.php

http://www.acesurgical.com/frazier-suction-tip-8-french-30-degree-angle-delicate-tip.html

http://www.pahsco.com.tw/product_detail-144

Client:
Dr. Samuel Poore / Brian Christie
Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery
University of Wisconsin
(615) 500-6897
bchristie@uwhealth.org


54. Device to monitor and quantify early hypovolemia due to hemorrhage

hypovolemia_monitor

BME 301
Students assigned: Nicolaas Angenent-Mari, Bailey Flanigan, Micaella Poehler, Olivia Velazquez
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: SolidWorks, Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software, Hardware Design - Microprocessors

Summary
Simplex Scientific LLC (Simplex) is developing a medical device that can accurately measure hypovolemia due to hemorrhage from trauma which can lead to shock and ultimately death and which will be suitable for deployment at civilian and military trauma sites and during transport where motion-induced artifacts interfere with conventional technologies. Early warning of the extent of hypovolemia can improve treatment response times to prevent hemorrhagic shock, thus saving lives and preventing morbidity and mortality, while reducing treatment costs. There is an urgent need for a reliable, rapid, easy-to-use hypovolemia detector at the trauma site and during medical transport.

This project was just funded by NIH and required IRB approval. The project should end by May of 2015.

Materials
This project is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and so we can purchase what ever we need.

References
This article cites 119 articles, 51 of which you can access for free at:
http://jap.physiology.org/content/96/4/1249.full#ref-list-1
This article has been cited by 34 other HighWire-hosted articles:
http://jap.physiology.org/content/96/4/1249#cited-by

Updated information and services including high resolution figures, can be found at:
http://jap.physiology.org/content/96/4/1249.full

Additional material and information about Journal of Applied Physiology can be found at:
http://www.the-aps.org/publications/jappl

Client:
Dr. Dennis E. Bahr
Simplex Scientific, LLC
(608) 712-3315
bahr@inxpress.net

Alternate Contact:
John Peterman, CEO
(608) 831-4476
peterman@simplexsci.com


55. Transplant organ coolant management system

organ_cooler

BME 301
Students assigned: Reed Bjork, Montserrat Calixto, Alexandria Craig, Annie Yang, Linda Yang
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Tissue Engineering

Summary
Background:
Transplant surgeons cool organs to near-freezing levels after procurement, but before transplantation in order to decrease rates of cellular metabolism. Even as much as several minutes of “warm time” can harm the organ. Thus, cooling organs is a major concern.

A routine part of transplant surgery is referred to as the “backbench” procedure. During this time (usually 30 min to 1.5 hours) the organs are prepared for transplantation. On the backbench, surgeons may reconstruct blood vessels, remove unnecessary soft tissues (such as fat), and identify important anatomy.

Currently, surgeons wait approximately 30 minutes for sterile ice to be prepared in order to prepare the organ on the backbench. The ice is then placed in a bowl. The transplantable organ is then placed in the bowl, where it is kept cold, while the surgeon preforms the necessary tasks.
During this time, the organs are unwieldy and difficult to manipulate, particularly when a surgeon is alone. As the surgeon manipulates the organ, many times the organ gets warmer than intended, in order to perform the necessary procedures. In addition, ice can be difficult to use as it melts quickly and as it may obstruct the surgeon’s view of the organ as the ice can be quite bulky.

Unmet need:
There is an unmet need for a device capable of 1) keeping an organ cold on the backbench, 2) stabilization of the transplantable organ, and 3) avoidance of bowls of ice on the backbench, 4) rapid cooling to avoid waiting 30 minutes for ice to form.

Suggested device parameters:
1) Must fit on a 2ft x 2ft operating room table
2) Must be sterilizable
3) Must allow for rapid cooling
4) Must be reusable
5) Must not interact with the UW solution or the organ result in harm
6) Must allow for easy manipulation or the organ by the operative surgeon

Materials
As needed. Many supplies are readily available through the UW Medical center. Any additional items are easily accessed.

References
Ortiz et al. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine; Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 187–190, August 2011 - This study is not ideal. It merely discussed the importance of keeping the organ cold. The device presented is helpful immediately after the "backbench procedure" is completed. http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/lib/img/organ_cooler.png

Client:
Dr. Joseph R. Scalea, MD and Dixon Kaufman MD, PhD
Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery
UW
(410) 905-4053
scalea@surgery.wisc.edu

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