Project Selection

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 Protecting implanted medical devices from external magnetic fields magnetic_field_protection Bioinstrumentation Medicine
2 RaDistance safety meter radiation_meter Bioinstrumentation Radiology
3 CO2 prevents sleep apnea sleep_apnea Bioinstrumentation Medicine
4 Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) preventer GERD_preventer Biomechanics Gastroenterology
5 Smartphone speech analytics speech_analytics Bioinstrumentation Medicine
6 Shoulder intraosseous humeral task trainer task_trainer Biomechanics, Biomaterials Orthopedic Surgery
7 Developing a 3D model of the mouth and throat 3D_model Biomechanics Medicine, Geriatrics
8 CSS-Compartment Syndrome Simulator compartment_syndrome_simulator Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Orthopedic Surgery
9 The wireless performance measurement cube measurement_cube Bioinstrumentation, Health Care Systems Medicine
10 Frameless stereotactic navigation using Wii or Kinect technology stereotactic_navigation Bioinstrumentation Neurosurgery
11 An endo-pouch for selective targeted ovarian drug delivery in cancer patients ovarian_pouch Biomechanics, Biomaterials Obstetrics/Gynecology
12 An implantable device for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs larynx_abductor Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
13 Development of a upper extremity fracture model fracture_model Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
14 Dynamic sling to support UE post brachial plexus injury to return to active lifestyle - running dynamic_sling Biomechanics Physical Therapy
15 Expandable bone graft bone_graft Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurosurgery
16 Impact wrench for orthopedics orthopedic_wrench Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
17 Inflatable vertebral body distractor vertebral_body_distractor Biomechanics Neurosurgery
18 Optimizing derivation, expansion and differentiation of suspension reprogrammed stem cell cultures stem_cell_bioreactor Tissue Engineering Neurology
19 Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound perpetual_wound_device Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Medicine
20 Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain IVD_drain_leveller Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Neurosurgery
21 Interstitial diffuse optical fiber probe design optical_probe Biomechanics Radiology
22 Fraction collector fraction_collector Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Medicine
23 Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity blood_viscosity_chip Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
24 Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery delivery_device Biomechanics Obstetrics/Gynecology
25 Electronic voice output for children with verbal apraxia voice_output Bioinstrumentation Rehabilitation
26 Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam breast_exam Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
27 A device to inflict traumatic brain injury in flies brain_injury_device Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Neurology
28 Device for extraction of non-metallic intraocular foreign bodies intraocular_instrument Biomechanics Ophthalmology
29 Ex vivo bone loading and bioreactor system bone_loading_bioreactor Tissue Engineering, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
30 Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games biofeedback_games Bioinstrumentation Urology


1. Protecting implanted medical devices from external magnetic fields

magnetic_field_protection

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics

Summary
Measure all dimensions of the location in the body of a magnetically actuated hydrocephalus shunt valve and also measure all dimensions of the location in the body of a magnetically actuated cardiac pacemaker. Create a plastic, cardboard or wood model for bench testing that uses these dimensions. Obtain a magnetically actuated hydrocephalus valve and also a magnetically actuated cardiac pacemaker and for each an external reader that will determine if actuation has occurred. Explore all magnets that might be used in the home environment. Apply different thicknesses of magnetically protective material to determine the thickness required. Partition the magnetically protective material so it is flexible. Develop straps to hold the protective material in place. If time permits, test the system in 5 animals.

Materials
A gaussmeter to measure magnetic fields.
Contact manufacturers to obtain a magnetically actuated hydrocephalus valve and also a magnetically actuated cardiac pacemaker and for each an external reader that will determine if actuation has occurred.

References
Jennifer Strahle, Béla J. Selzer, Karin M. Muraszko, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher, J Neurosurg Pediatrics 10:118–120, 2012
Magnetically programmable shunt valve settings may be affected by magnetic fields. Normally, external magnetic programming tools can change valve settings by interacting with a magnetic rotor inside the valve. There have been multiple reports of environmental magnetic field exposures changing adjustable valve settings. In addition to the well-known effect of MRI magnets on programmable valve settings, lower intensity magnetic fields induced by magnetic toys, televisions, and speakers have been reported. Studies evaluating the in vivo settings of programmable valves have also reported spontaneous valve setting changes. The Apple iPad 2 (Apple, Inc.) has several magnets built into the tablet device itself, as does the iPad 2 Smart Cover (Apple, Inc.), which, although sold separately, is the most frequently used cover for the iPad device. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of this best-selling tablet computer on magnetically programmable shunt valves. The authors implanted a programmable shunt valve in a 4-month-old girl with hydrocephalus. Three weeks following initial implantation, the patient presented with symptoms of shunt malfunction. At the time of that presentation, the valve was investigated and found to be at a higher performance level than the initial setting. The patient’s mother reported that she had held a tablet computer
(the Apple iPad 2) while holding the infant. No other significant environmental exposures to magnetic sources could be identified. The valve was reprogrammed back to the original performance level and the patient’s symptoms improved.

Client:
Mrs. Lisa Chamberlain
Guardian Angel Armour
(608) 921-0648
hydrosunshine1124@gmail.com

Alternate Contact:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu


2. RaDistance safety meter

radiation_meter

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
The therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine (I-131) can be potentially harmful to family members, individuals close to the patient as well as health workers and the environment. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends that radioactive iodine patients receive thorough instructions to avoid direct and indirect contact with infants and young children following the treatment. Design a device/multiple devices that would help radioactive iodine patients interact normally with family members in their home settings post hospital discharge. A possibility is a cap with both distance and heat sensors. If a patient gets within 1 m of a human, the patient could be alerted by acoustic, optical or vibratory feedback.

Materials
Suggest a home pyroelectric intruder sensor and a time-of-flight ultrasonic camera focus sensor.

References
Barrington S , O'Doherty M, Kettle A, Thomson W, Mountford P, Burrell D, et al. 1999. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism, Eur. J. Nucl. Med., vol. 26,pp. 686-692.
Barrington S, Anderson P, Kettle A, Gadd R, Thomson W, et al. 2008. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Nov;35(11):2097-104.
Directorate-General: Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection 1998, Radiation Protection following Iodine-131 Therapy (Exposures due to out-patients or discharged in-patients), European Commission.
Fraden, J., Handbook of modern sensors: physics, designs, and applications, 2nd ed., American Institute of Physics, Woodbury NY, 1997. Pages 267, 280.
Greaves, C. and Tindale, W. 1999, Dose rate measurements from radiopharmaceuticals: Implications for nuclear medicine staff and for children with radioactive parents, Nucl. Med. Commun., vol 20, pp. 179-187.
International Commission on Radiological Protection 1996, Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine, ICRP Publication 73, Annals of the ICRP vol. 26 No. 2.
Matheoud R, Reschini E, Canzi C, Voltini F, Gerundini P. 2004. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Med Phys.;31(12):3194-200.
Mathieu I, Caussin J, Smeesters P, Wambersie A, Beckers C. 1999, Recommended restrictions after 131I therapy: measured doses in family members, Health Phys., vol. 76, pp. 129-136.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 1995, Dose limits for individuals who receive exposure from radionuclide therapy patients, NCRP Commentary No. 11.
Rémy H, Coulot J, Borget I, 2012. Thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I: radiation dose to relatives after discharge from the hospital. Thyroid. Jan;22(1):59-63.

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Prof. Sarah Hagi
Director of Medical Equipment Planning & Development
Medical Physics Unit, Radiology Dept., King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
sarahhagi@gmail.com


3. CO2 prevents sleep apnea

sleep_apnea

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
About 3% of the population has sleep apnea. During sleep the throat relaxes and closes. The CO2 increases, the subject wakes up, breathes again and this repeats. A therapy is to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a blower raises the throat pressure to keep it open. However some apnea is central. The subject breathes too rapidly, the CO2 decreases, and breathing stops. Research has shown that increasing the inspired CO2 prevents apnea. Design a system for determining how much to increase CO2. The simplest system would use a nasal mask with extended tubes to increase the airway dead space. Measure the increase in CO2 for different dead spaces. Design a simple system for home use.

Materials
Spirometer in BME310 lab, CO2 sensor, plastic tubing

References
J Appl Physiol 115:22-33, 2013.
Sleep. 2005 Jan;28(1):69-77.
Chest. 2003 May;123(5):1551-60.
J Appl Physiol. 1997 Mar;82(3):918-26.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 May;159(5 Pt 1):1490-8.

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Prof. Jerome Dempsey
(608) 263-1732
jdempsey@wisc.edu


4. Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) preventer

GERD_preventer

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Gastroenterology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus.

GERD is usually caused by changes in the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus, including abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which normally holds the top of the stomach closed, impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia. These changes may be permanent or temporary. In the Western world, between 10 and 20% of the population is affected.

Design a permanently implantable one-way valve that will permit food to easily pass to the stomach, yet prevent low stomach pressures from causing GERD. Add a parallel one-way valve that for high stomach pressures will permit burping or vomiting.

Materials must withstand the high acididity of the stomach fluids.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastroesophageal_reflux_disease
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastric_acid
Cobb, W. S., Burns, J. M., Kercher, K. W., Matthews, B. D., James Norton, H., & Todd Heniford, B. (2005). Normal intraabdominal pressure in healthy adults. Journal of Surgical Research, 129(2), 231-235.
Esophageal Dilation (2004). EndoNurse. Accessed October 29, 2013. From http://www.endonurse.com/articles/2004/12/esophageal-dilation.aspx, A., Haider, M., Stadlhuber, R. J., Karu, A., Corkill, S., & Filipi, C. J. (2008). A study of intragastric and intravesicular pressure changes during rest, coughing, weight lifting, retching, and vomiting. Surgical endoscopy, 22(12), 2571-2575.
Material Properties (2008). ThermoPore Materials Corporation. http://www.thermoporecorp.com/PorousPlasticProperties.html
7/7 Metapor Porous Mold Material (n.d.). Tooling Technology. http://www.segen-online.com/pdfs/metapor.pdf
Waśko-Czopnik, D., Jóźków, P., Dunajska, K., Mędraś, M., & Paradowski, L. (2012). Associations between the lower esophageal sphincter function and the level of physical activity. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine: official organ Wroclaw Medical University, 22(2), 185-185

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu


5. Smartphone speech analytics

speech_analytics

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software, Mobile Health

Summary
In both children and adults with neurological diseases, cognitive dysfunction frequently is accompanied by motor dysfunction. One accessible method to assay motor dysfunction is through analyzing speech. Voice-based tests for some diseases like Parkinson's can be as accurate as clinical tests. Performing these tests through smartphones opens up an opportunity to administer such tests remotely, without requiring a visit to the clinic. A successful smartphone app to track cognitive function/dysfunction could be high speed, ultra low cost and massively scalable.

Materials
Patient speech data

References
Parkinson's Voice Initiative

Sterling, A., Mailick, M.R., Greenberg, J.S., Warren, S.F., & Brady, N. (2013) Language dysfluencies in females with the FMR1 premutation. Brain and Cognition. 82(1):84-9.

Client:
Prof. Krishanu Saha
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 316-4313
ksaha@wisc.edu


6. Shoulder intraosseous humeral task trainer

task_trainer

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics, Tissue Engineering, Educational models

Summary
The goal of this project is to develop a task trainer to be used for the training of medical personnel in the placement of intraosseous needle into the human humeral bone.

The trainer must simulate a human torso and shoulder and arm. In order to provide a realistic feel for insertion of the needle, the trainer must include skin, muscle and bone layers. Joint mobility and the ability to provide blood flow through the bone is required.

The skin and bone should have easy replaceable skin and bone tissues.

Features requested:
1) Realistic palpation of shoulder and humerus
2) Moveable shoulder joint
3) Realistic release of pressure through bone and arriving in marrow
4) Realistic blood return from marrow (bone could be hollow to contain blood solution).
5) Bone and skin should be self healing so 1 needle stick is not visible to next student.
6) Task Trainer will have at least 100 learners per year.
7) Bone and skin should be replaceable after X number of needle sticks.

Materials
The team will be provided with smooth-on materials for skin and muscle tissue and with simulated bone from other task trainers for the tibia. The team will be able to see the Intraosseous drill (this drill cannot be removed from our department).

A mold may be made from other task trainers designed for other procedures.

References
http://californiaacep.org/wp-content/uploads/LifelineMagazine_JUNE2013_v4.pdf (See pp. 12-13.)
https://www.armstrongmedical.com/index.cfm/go/product.detail/sec/2/ssec/11/cat/46/fam/2446
https://www.armstrongmedical.com/index.cfm/go/product.detail/sec/2/ssec/11/cat/46/fam/95
http://www.simulaids.eu.com/acatalog/lifeform-adult-sternal-intraosseous-infusion-simulator.html
http://www.jems.com/article/intraosseus/using-humerus-bone-io-access
http://www.smooth-on.com
http://www.enasco.com/healthcare/
http://www.vidacare.com/

Client:
Ms. Susan K. Olson
UW Health Clinical Simulation Program
UW Hospital & Clinics
(608) 265-1047
solson3@uwhealth.org


7. Developing a 3D model of the mouth and throat

3D_model

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medicine, Geriatrics
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
A 3D model of the mouth and throat is needed to assess pressure generation and predict bolus flow when swallowing.

Swallowing disorders, termed dysphagia, affect over 18 million adults and millions of children in the U.S., often secondary to stroke, curative treatment of head and neck cancer or degenerative neurologic disease. The tongue and its attachments to other oropharyngeal structures play a critical role in propelling a bolus safely and efficiently through the oral cavity and into the esophagus.

This project will focus on developing a dynamic 3D model of the mouth and pharynx. The model will be used to evaluate pressure generation at various points in the oral cavity during swallowing and to compare newly developed types of pressure sensors. Impact on bolus flow in varying conditions including different states of health and various bolus rheologic parameters also will be assessed.

This is the fourth semester for this project. Previous semesters have focused on designing the tongue and mouth model and the servos and java program used to move it. The pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter, esophagus, and larynx need to be designed for completion of the swallow motion. JoAnne Robbins, Ph.D., Director of the UW/VA Swallowing Speech and Dining Enhancement Program (SWAL-ADE) will supervise this project. Dr. Robbins has a long and successful history with the Department of Biomedical Engineering and their students.

Materials
The following materials will be made available to students working on this project:

-The Madison Oral Strengthening Therapeutic (MOST) device - a 4-sensor array of air-filled bulbs used to measure pressures generated in the oral cavity. This device was invented by UW faculty and students and WARF administers the current U.S.-issued patent.
-The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) - a single air-filled sensor used to measure pressures generated in the oral cavity.
-650 square foot lab space with computer access and collection of journals and texts on dysphagia, anatomy, and related topics.
-Access to clinicians who work directly with dysphagic patients.
-Opportunity to observe radiographic evaluation of swallowing and dysphagia.

References
Nicosia MA, Hind JA, Roecker EB, Carnes M, Doyle J, Dengel GA, Robbins J. Age effects on temporal evolution of isometric and swallowing pressure. Journal of Gerontology, Medical Sciences, 55A:M634-M640, 2000.

Nicosia MA, Robbins J. The fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity. Journal of Biomechanics 34(12):1537-44, 2001

Robbins J, Gangnon R, Theis S, Kays S, Hewitt A, Hind J. The Effects of Lingual Exercise on Swallowing in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 53(9):1483-1489, 2005.

Robbins J, Kays S, Gangnon R, Hewitt A, Hind J. The Effects of Lingual Exercise in Stroke Patients with Dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 88: 150-158, 2007.

Client:
Prof. JoAnne Robbins
Medicine
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 280-7000
jrobbin2@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Jacqueline Hind
(608) 256-1901
jahind@wisc.edu


8. CSS-Compartment Syndrome Simulator

compartment_syndrome_simulator

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Compartment syndrome is a condition where the pressures within a fascial compartment become elevated above the perfusion pressure of the tissue within that compartment. This leads to progressive ischemia and cell death. Over a period of six hours irreversible cell damage and death occurs leading to tissue necrosis. This tissue necrosis leads to additional swelling within the compartment further decreasing its perfusion - thus a downward cycle is initiated. This condition can happen after fractures, burns, and prolonged ischemia. This is one of the few orthopedic emergencies. Treatment consists of prompt diagnosis and compartment releases. This condition most commonly occurs following a tibiafracture resulting in a compartment syndrome of the leg (lower extremity from knee down).

Compartment syndrome is currently diagnosed by measuring the pressure within the compartments of the leg. "Home-made" and commercially available devices have been shown to accurately measure the pressure within the compartments, but two un-published studies (one of which I conducted) demonstrated the technical errors committed by resident physicians in training when attempting to measure the compartments using one of the most widely used commercial devices. We demonstrated that these technical errors led to errors in accuracy of the measurement themselves. Furthermore, we were able to show that both the technical errors and the measurment errors decreased following teaching exercises. For this study we used porcine and human cadaveric limbs to reproduce compartment syndromes that the residents measured.

Recently in graduate medical education in orthopedics, there are new guidelines requiring trainees to demonstrate proficiency at performing certain skills. One of these is measuring compartment syndrome. While I have shown that this could be done in cadavers quite effectively, I believe developing a high fidelity, reusable, compartment syndrome simulator to be an improtant contribution we could make to the medical community to allow clinicians and those in training to learn how to accurately measure these compartments.

Essentially this projecy would entail, developing a high fidelity, 4- compartment lower limb - the pressures of which could be varied and real-time recorded, in which standad commercialy available handheld compartment devices could be used to practice monitoring and measure trainee proficiency on.

References
I have the submitted article referred to - if chosen.
Also MANY compartment syndrome papers in the literature.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopedics and rehabilitation
medical school
(608) 265-4086
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


9. The wireless performance measurement cube

measurement_cube

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Health Care Systems
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
Extensive research by two world-renowned researchers in the science of touch (Klatzky and Lederman) has shown that there is a set of reproducible and subconscious maneuvers that humans use to manually explore objects
[1, 2]. The authors have established links between desired knowledge about objects and hand movements during haptic object exploration. Named "exploratory procedures (EPs)", the hand movements are stereotyped movement patterns having certain characteristics that are invariant and highly typical when exploring various properties of an object, such as temperature and hardness. While providing fundamental understating of general human haptic behavior these studies can also provide insight to haptic-based clinical procedures such as the breast exam, prostate exam and pelvic exam [3-6], which are ongoing studies in our lab. While the theories developed by Klatzky and Lederman were well established over their 30 years of research, the data used was typically based on video recordings and human analysis of these recordings.

Modern technology provides us with a cheap and easy way to add non-intervening sensors to objects. These can include force sensors, accelerometers, gyros and more. The goal of the project is to design a wireless data acquisition device that can measure the data from these sensors while being small enough to be embedded in different objects. Using these devices, objective haptic data can be recorded, and future understanding of human touch will be gained.

The device should be relatively small (around 5x5x5 cm^3), and designing a designated PCB is highly recommended. Devices such as Arduino Mini and XBee can be used for measurement and wireless communication. The device should be embedded in different objects and connected to several sensors. Some knowledge in programing and electronics is needed for this project.

Materials
Our lab is equipped with the required electronics (Arduinos, XBees, soldering stations, sensors), and more can be purchased if needed.

References
[1] Lederman, S.J. and R.L. Klatzky, Hand movements: a window into haptic object recognition. Cogn
Psychol, 1987. 19(3): p. 342-68.
[2] Klatzky, R.L. and S.J. Lederman, Stages of manual exploration in haptic object identification. Percept
Psychophys, 1992. 52(6): p. 661-70.
[3] Pugh, C.M., Domont, Z.B., Salud, L.H., & Blossfield, K.M. (2008), A simulation-based assessment of clinical breast examination technique: Do patient and clinician factors affect clinical approach? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 874-880.
[4] Salud, L.H., & Pugh, C.M. (2011). Use of sensor technology to explore the science of touch. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163, 542-548.
[5] Pugh, C., & Rosen, J. (2002). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pressure sensor data acquired by the E-pelvis simulator during simulated pelvic examinations. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, 85, 376-379.
[6] Pugh, C.M., & Youngblood, P. (2002). Development and validation of assessment measures for a newly developed physical examination simulator. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, 9(5), 448-460.

Client:
Dr. Shlomi Laufer
Surgery
UW Hospital
(608) 262-5507


10. Frameless stereotactic navigation using Wii or Kinect technology

stereotactic_navigation

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Computerized frameless stereotaxy is used routinely for neurosurgical and spine surgeries. This technology allows the triangulation of surgical tools in relation to the patient for removal of tumors or placement of instrumentation. However, this technology is quite expensive so its application has been limited to expensive inpatient surgical procedures. Frameless stereotactic navigation could be used to perform smaller interventional radiology procedures and pain procedures if a less expensive alternative could be developed.

The goal of this project is to create a frameless stereotactic navigation system using an inexpensive Wii or Kinect system.

Materials
I will be able to supply Wii or Kinect system as desired. Additionally, any other necessary components to complete the prototype will be provided.

References
Youtube: Awesome Nintendo Wii remote hacks - 2013

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


11. An endo-pouch for selective targeted ovarian drug delivery in cancer patients

ovarian_pouch

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Software, Mechanics, Animal Experiments, Biomaterials

Summary
Project description:
Oftentimes female patients lose their reproductive capabilities as a consequence of having cancer or from undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Our research has discovered that dexrazoxane shields the ovaries from DNA damage caused by doxorubicin chemotherapy [1]. However, to translate our protection strategy to young girls and women, we need to be able to selectively deliver Dexra to the ovary to prevent non-targeted toxicity. Selective ovarian drug delivery can be done via establishing a novel endo-bag for drug delivery.

Establishing an ovarian pouch to administer chemo-protective agents to the ovary. Utilizing a suitable biomaterial, the students will make an endo-bag (pouch) that is connected to a port with a suitable valve. The initial phase of the project will include making the endo-bag and test it in ovaries obtained from research mice, or from slaughterhouse pigs or cows. The pouch will eventually be introduced in a suitable animal model and tested to infuse drugs through the port around the ovary. This ovarian drug delivery route will be similar to picc lines that are currently used to administer chemotherapy in blood vessels. They will ensure targeted drug delivery to the ovary and limit drug toxicity. Important parameters will include the longevity of the pouch and durability to withstand repeated use.

Materials
Students will have access to mouse ovaries and ovarian tissue that can be used to test the system. Alternatively, students can obtain pig or cow ovaries from slaughterhouses. Currently there is no specific synthetic material designated for this project. Students will need to select material for the pouch and the port.

References
Recent publication:
Protection from doxorubicin toxicity: Roti Rot, E.C. and Salih, S.M. Dexrazoxane Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Injury in Mouse Ovarian Cells. Biology of Reproduction, 2012. 86(3): p. 1-11.

Website: http://www.obgyn.wisc.edu/research/salih-lab.aspx

Client:
Dr. Sana M. Salih, MD, MMS.
Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(409) 771-1966
salih@wisc.edu


12. An implantable device for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs

larynx_abductor

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics, Cadaveric or formalin fixed tissue specimens

Summary
Clinical problem: Laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

Goals: Develop an implantable device for abduction of the arytenoid cartilages that can open (electronically or mechanically) the larynx in-sync with inspiration for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

Background: Idiopathic laryngeal paralysis is a common problem in older, large-breed dogs that results in progressive upper airway obstruction. The condition is caused by degeneration of the laryngeal nerves which innervate the muscles of the larynx. Dysfunction of these nerves results in the loss of function of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle which is responsible for abducting the arytenoid cartilage and opening the airway during inspiration. Clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis include progressive inspiratory stridor, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and respiratory distress, and in severe cases, can result in complete respiratory collapse and death.

The diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis in dogs is made by directly observing the lack of normal arytenoid abduction during inspiration while under a light plane of anesthesia. The current standard of care for dogs with laryngeal paralysis is surgical enlargement of the laryngeal opening with a unilateral arytenoid lateralization or “tie-back” procedure. This procedure involves placing sutures between the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages on one side of the larynx and tying them under tension to permanently abduct and enlarge the laryngeal opening on that side.

Most dogs are significantly improved following surgery; however, they are at increased risk of aspiration pneumonia for the remainder of their lives. The risk of postoperative aspiration pneumonia stems from the fact that the larynx is fixed in an open position and therefore cannot be completely protected by the epiglottis during swallowing which increases the risk of food or water being aspirated during eating or drinking. The incidence of aspiration pneumonia after laryngeal surgery is relatively high (20-30%) and can have devastating consequences when it occurs. It is for this reason that a more physiologic method of treatment is needed for dogs (and humans) with laryngeal paralysis.

The goal of this project is to design an implantable device that can abduct the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx in-sync with normal respiration. Ideally this device would provide improved laryngeal function and result in fewer complications compared to current conventional surgical procedures and ultimately be used clinically to treat dogs with laryngeal paralysis.

Specific requirements of the device would be very similar to those of cardiac or neuromuscular pacemakers including:

- Biocompatibility
- Externally programmable
- Sensory capabilities to enable synchronous function with respiratory cycle
- Relatively simple to surgically implant in the larynx
- Have extended battery life (months to years)

Current research:

There is limited research in the area of electrically or mechanically restoring laryngeal function in dogs, with most of the work in this area having been conducted by Dr. David Zealear at Vanderbilt University. The focus of his research involves the use of a modified neurostimulator for pacing the larynx in dogs with experimentally created laryngeal paralysis. The research appears very promising; however, the studies did not describe any form of sensory function to the “pacemaker” for synchronizing laryngeal opening with respiration. In addition, to my knowledge, there are no studies that describe any type of mechanical devices (e.g. electromagnetic coupling, tensioned prosthesis) for controlling arytenoid abduction and therefore I feel this area of research is wide-open for investigation.

Regarding the potential for commercialization of a device for abducting the arytenoid cartilages, I feel there is tremendous need for such a device should the design prove effective. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs is a relatively common problem and here at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, approximately 10-15 dogs undergo surgery for treatment of laryngeal paralysis each year. The availability of a commercial device that could restore laryngeal function would be of tremendous value to the veterinary profession as well as potentially serve as model for treatment of humans with laryngeal paralysis.

Materials
Materials: Canine laryngeal specimens (formalin fixed and fresh cadaveric) would be available for prototype development and demonstration. Our group has the necessary skills and instrumentation for developing the surgical technique for device implantation. In addition, we have access to previously used cardiac pacemakers should it be helpful in the development and design of the arytenoid abductor device.

References
Relevant journal articles:

1. Millard R, Tobias K. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs. Compendium Continuing Education for the Veterinarians 2009, 31: 212-219.

2. Hammel S, Hottinger H, Novo R. Postoperative results of unilateral arytenoid lateralization for treatment of idiopathic laryngeal paralysis in dogs: 39 cases (1996-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006, 228:1215–1220.

3. Kenichiro Nomura, MD; Isamu Kunibe, MD; Akihiro Katada, MD; Charles T. Wright, MD; Shan Huang, MD; Yash Choksi, BS; Rajshri Mainthia, BS; Cheryl Billante, PhD;
Yasuaki Harabuchi, MD; David L. Zealear, PhD. Bilateral Motion Restored to the Paralyzed Canine Larynx with Implantable Stimulator. Laryngoscope 2010, 120: 2399-2409.

4. David L. Zealear, PhD; Isamu Kunibe, MD, PhD; Kenichiro Nomura, MD, PhD; Cheryl Billante, PhD; Vikas Singh, MD; Shan Huang, MD; James Bekeny, BS; Yash Choksi, BS; Yasuaki Harabuchi, MD, PhD; Akihiro Katada, MD, PhD. Rehabilitation of Bilaterally Paralyzed Canine Larynx With Implantable Stimulator. Laryngoscope 2009, 119: 1737-1744.

Client:
Dr. Robert Hardie
Surgical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 262-7257
hardier@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


13. Development of a upper extremity fracture model

fracture_model

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Software, Electronics, Mechanics, Imaging, Biomaterials

Summary
Casting is becoming a lost art in medicine, yet many children and adults need casts applied. While this appears to be a benign treatment, complications are known to exist in the placement and removal of these devices. Typically medical students and residents learn these techniques by trial and error. Often direct oversight is lacking in the teaching of these techniques. In the past, we have used a model developed by the Biomedical Engineering Department to describe the thermal risk factors associated with cast application. Currently we are using a different model to assess and teach safety of cast removal to physicians in training using a cast saw. Ideally, If we could incorporate these models into a single model and add the abilities to monitor pressure along the simulated limb and assess fracture reduction, we would have a powerful training tool to teach medical professionals how to apply a cast, immobilize a fracture, and remove a cast without injury. Ultimately, we would then propose to take the limb to the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) national meeting to develop a range of \"normative\" casting pressures by having experts apply casts at the meeting. From the normative data,we would develop self-teaching modules in which persons using the model would be able to compare their \"pressures,\" fracture reductions, and application and removal techniques with those of the experts.

Materials
Currently we have a laptop computer, 2 separate Madgetech thermal data-loggers, a Madgetech voltage data logger, Type T thermocouples, a cast removal model. Casting supplies

References
1) Cast and splint immobilization: complications.
Halanski M, Noonan KJ.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Jan;16(1):30-40. Review.

2)Thermal injury with contemporary cast-application techniques and methods to circumvent morbidity.
Halanski MA, Halanski AD, Oza A, Vanderby R, Munoz A, Noonan KJ.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Nov;89(11):2369-77.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


14. Dynamic sling to support UE post brachial plexus injury to return to active lifestyle - running

dynamic_sling

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects

Summary
Assist in design and fabrication of sling to support the upper extremity of patients recovering from a traumatic brachial plexus injury - goal for use during running or other active sports. Will work directly with Occupational Therapist, patient, and MDs at UWHC.

References
United Brachial Plexus
prior Biomedical Engineering 201 Design Project.

Client:
Mrs. Karen Blaschke OTR, Margaret Overstake
Rehabilitation Medicine
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
(608) 890-6170
Kblaschke@uwhealth.org

Alternate Contact:
Meg Overstake
(303) 875-3487
meg.overstake@gmail.com


15. Expandable bone graft

bone_graft

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
In some cases in spine surgery it is necessary to perform a bone fusion in the intervertebral space (the space between the 2 vertebral bodies). This is done by removing the intervertebral disc and then placing bone graft. Traditional bone grafts are rectangular or cresent shaped. The graft is placed through a small surgical corridor. The graft needs to be large enough to support the vertebral bodies but not so large that it injures the surrounding nerves. It would be easier and safer to develop an expandable bone graft that could be inserted in a collapsed form and then expanded to fill the disk interspace. The goal of this project would be to develop an expanding interbody bone graft. This has already been done using a mechanical jack design. However, I would like to develop an expandable graft that is similar to a balloon but would be filled with bone graft material. This should be made out of a biomaterial that would allow bone fusion to occur but also would be strong enough to support the biomechanical forces of the spine as healing occurs.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


16. Impact wrench for orthopedics

orthopedic_wrench

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Hardware removal is a required part of orthopedics and can be challenging. Screws have often been implanted for over a year when we remove them and can be in quite tight. When a screw gets stripped during removal it becomes much harder to remove.
Impact wrenches for automotive applications exist, but they are too large for the hardware we use in orthopedics. I would be interested in an impact wrench that could be used with the orthopedic screws we use to prevent stripping. It would also have to be sterilizable so it could be used in the operating room.

Materials
I can supply samples of the screws. We would also need \"sawbones\" which are fake bones that we use to practice placing hardware and would be useful for testing the wrench. This can be ordered on line. Ultimately, testing could be done on cadaveric bones, which can be obtained through the department.

Client:
Dr. John Wollaeger
Orthopedics
Meriter and UW School of Medicine
(608) 287-2219
john.wollaeger@uwmf.wisc.edu


17. Inflatable vertebral body distractor

vertebral_body_distractor

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
In some cases of spine surgery the intervertebral disc is removed and the vertebral bodies are distraction to help with alignment of the spine. This is often done with metal spatula shaped tools or with mechanical jacks. Both of these tools have two problems. One, they have a narrow surface area so they can easily fracture the bone with the distractive forces. Two, they work along a linear trajectory so they cannot be manipulated easily to different regions of the intervertebral space to allow working space for graft placement. The goal of this project would be to develop an inflatable vertebral body distractor.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


18. Optimizing derivation, expansion and differentiation of suspension reprogrammed stem cell cultures

stem_cell_bioreactor

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Software, Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Imaging, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Reactor design

Summary
Reprogramming utilizes mature blood or skin samples from adult organisms and creates embryonic-like stem cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Patient-specific iPSCs are thought to hold unlimited potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling applications. Conventional reprogramming and differentiation approaches frequently rely on adherent culture, which involves time-consuming feeding and passaging of cells, often shows variability and yields relatively few cells. There is an opportunity to engineer suspension bioreactor conditions so that this process can be made more efficient and scalable.

Aims of this design project would be to develop bioreactors to maximize the production of mature neural cells from skin fibroblasts. Successful projects will likely involve processes that optimize culture conditions to 1) reprogram fibroblasts to iPSCs and 2) differentiate iPSCs to neural subtypes. Experiments can employ either or both human and mouse cells.

Materials
\"Secondary\" human and mouse fibroblasts that harbor the inducible reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc
Reprogramming and differentiation cell culture media
Antibodies to stain for cell fate

References
Fluri, D. A. et al. Derivation, expansion and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells in continuous suspension cultures. Nat Meth – (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1939

Shafa, M. et al. Derivation of iPSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors. Nat Meth (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1973

Client:
Prof. Krishanu Saha
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(510) 541-6900
ksaha@wisc.edu


19. Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound

perpetual_wound_device

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
The collective migration of epithelial cells is a fundamental phenomenon that occurs in a diversity of physiological processes, from early embryonic development to homeostasis in the adult intestine. One of the main ways in which collective migration is studied in vitro, is through a wound healing assay. In a wound healing assay, a monolayer of epithelial cells is grown on a coverslip, and then physically scratched, or wounded. The wound removes a strip of cells from coverslip, creates free space, and the cells that remain migrate collectively to close the space. An alternative to this experiment, is a microfluidic wound healing assay. In this assay, a monolayer of cells is grown inside of a microfluidic channel. Instead of scratching the monolayer, laminar fluid flows within the microfluidic channel are used to deliver a stream of trypsin, an enzyme which cleaves cell adhesions. The trypsin stream is thinner than the width of the channel (or the width of the cell population), and thus selectively cleaves a strip of cells from the chip, and washes them away, leaving behind free space. The trypsin is then removed, and replaced by cell culture media. Like the wound healing assay, the cells will migrate to close the gap. The microfluidic method has significant advantages over the physical scratch. First, there is never physical abrasion or cell death associated with removing the strip of cells. Thus, the effect of physical abrasion can be isolated from the effect of free space on the induction of cell migration. Second, the microfluidic method may be automated. My goal is to develop an automated system for trypsinzing and culturing the cells within the microfluidic chip for very long time in order to observe how the migration of cells changes with age. Thus, roughly every 24 hrs (or 1 generation), the monolayer will be trypsinized, the cells will migrate, reproduce and repopulate the channel, and then this process will repeat for many generations, thus creating a perpetual wound.

References
http://go.wisc.edu/5zzlj0

Client:
Prof. Michael Murrell
Biomedical Engineering
COE
mmurrell2@wisc.edu


20. Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain

IVD_drain_leveller

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Current intraventricular drain (IVD) systems consist of a closed drainage system that is hung by a string from a pole. In order to function properly, the IVD collection container must be kept at a constant, consistent level relative to the ventricles of the patient. Since patients rarely stay completely immobile for any length of time, keeping the IVD properly leveled is a time-consuming, imprecise, almost sisyphysean nursing intervention. I have a general design for a device that would keep the IVD continually and consistently leveled at the correct height. In simple terms, a small sensor/transmitter/something of that nature would be attached to the patients temple. The collection systems buretrol would be mounted on a small motorized carriage. The system would raise or lower the carriage to keep the buretrol at the proper level. Furthermore, the envisioned device would also include an important safety feature-when sudden changes in height are detected, the system would automatically clamp the drainage system. Additional features are possible.

Materials
I have nothing but my ideas and a few sketches. The device is fairly simple-it would require a few motors, switches, sensors and so on using existing technology. I can arrange for whatever sheetmetal housings/boxes, etc. to be fabricated if need be.

Client:
Mr. David M Longseth
Nursing Operations
UWHC
(608) 843-6588
dlongseth@uwhealth.org


21. Interstitial diffuse optical fiber probe design

optical_probe

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics, Diffuse Optics

Summary
We are developing a technique for adaptive radiation therapy based on diffuse optics between two inserted optical fibers. By fitting the spectra resulting from optical absorption and diffusion over many mean free paths, we get blood volume versus hemoglobin saturation as a function of time. Our interest in the prompt responses to large doses of radiation that are typical of emerging radiation therapy treatments.

For future use in humans, the issue is the fact that there are two fibers needed a fixed distance apart. One idea is to separate them by insertion length and have them touching. It would also be nice to have any insertion needles be retractable. At this point, with the mice we use, the fibers stay in the needles and they are parallel, inserted to the same distance, and the two needles are just taped to a pad. The design needs to improve.

The project entails the design and prototype construction of a proper insertion and fiber spacing technique and device. The BME students need to understand the fairly simple physics of the diffusion of light through tissue, the absorption of light in a few biological absorbers and absorption/reflection in the materials used for the probe. It is expected that a few possible designs would be conceived and one or two prototypes made for both mouse and human uses.

Materials
We have all the fiber optics and needles already. We also have all the tools needed to work with the fibers. Only any materials related to the insertion and holding/retracting jig need to be purchased along with any time by machine shop or 3D printing shop staff are needed: perhaps $100 for each. We have access to acrylic and other materials in a WIMR bld. machine shop used in making medical devices. We also have access to 3D printing and prototyping machines in the Medical Devices labs at the Morgridge Institute for Research.

References
For a description of the basic physics (diffuse optics) involved, see:

S. Jacques J. Innov. Optical Health Sciiences Vol. 2 (2009) 123-9. and
S. Jacques & B. Pogue, J. Biomed. Optics Vol. 13 (2008) 041302-1 to -19.

The BME team will work with Medical Physics graduate students who would do any animal experiments handling to optimize the fiber probe design for mouse experiments all the while keeping an eye on the goal of moving towards a device for human use. The need for monitoring oxygen dynamics from radiotherapy was outlined in the following:

Kissick et al., Phys. Med. Biol. Vol. 58 (2013) N279-85.

Client:
Prof. Michael Kissick
Medical Physics
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-9529
mwkissick@wisc.edu


22. Fraction collector

fraction_collector

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
There is a distinct commercial need for accurate, low-cost, XYZ fraction collection. Fraction collectors typically consist of two stepper motors which drive screws to generate 3-dimensional positioning. They are primarily used for sample deposition into a variety of vials or test tubes, which often require sample cooling for analytical preservation. Commercially available fraction collectors are typically very expensive and bulky, requiring too much bench space and initial expense for many universities and smaller research facilities. Also, the less expensive fraction collectors available do not have a Z-axis drive system, limiting the types of vials sample can be deposited into. The purpose of this project is to create a lower cost, smaller footprint XYZ Fraction Collector that is capable of communicating with other devices, such as auto samplers, to be used for laboratory automation.

Materials
Flownamics will supply the necessary stepper motors, circuits, as well as other commercially available Fraction Collectors to base the design/improvements off of. Also, there will be an on-site engineer, who is a former UW BME student to assist with the project.

Necessary components for the external housing, device-to-device communications, and sample test tubes/vials will be supplied and additional resources can be purchased.

References
Please refer to some of the current Fraction Collection companies listed below for background information on this technology.

Teledyne Cetac Technologies http://www.cetac.com
Gilson http://www.Gilson.com

Client:
Mr. Mike Biksacky
Flownamics Inc.
(608) 310-7590
mbiksacky@flownamics.com

Alternate Contact:
Lucas Schimmelpfenning
(608) 310-7595
lucas@flownamics.com


23. Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity

blood_viscosity_chip

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Blood viscosity has been shown to have significant implications in a clinical setting. Changes in blood viscosity can be related to inflammation, tissue injuries, cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. Current methods to characterize blood viscosity involve centrifuging the blood plasma out of whole blood and measuring the viscosity of the plasma alone using capillary or falling-sphere viscometers. Blood plasma by itself is considered a Newtonian fluid, with its viscosity remaining independent of shear-rate and temperature. Measuring changes in blood plasma viscosity can give physicians further insight into the presence or progression of diseases that lead to changes in clotting cascade activation, immunoglobulin concentration, inflammatory biomarkers. However, while highly sensitive to multiple diseases, plasma viscosity is lacking in disease specificity, leading to its underutilization in the clinical workflow in a hospital.

The measurement of whole blood viscosity, on the other hand, incorporates the highly-compressible and aggregating element of red blood cells (RBCs). As a result, whole blood is considered a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, with viscosities that change with temperature and velocity. Measuring the response of whole blood viscosity across different temperatures and velocities can potentially offer more discriminating information about certain disease process, leading to increased specificity in disease diagnosis or progression.

Arranging and measuring multiple combinations of velocity and temperature of blood can be labor-intensive and prohibitively time consuming due to the rapid onset of coagulation once blood is removed from the patient. Our proposal is to overcome this challenge by leveraging advances in microfluidic technology to make temperature adjustments and viscosity measurements within seconds of leaving the blood vessel. Microfluidic devices are small and inexpensive, necessitating only minimal sample volumes and can be multiplexed in a manner that can run multiple studies simultaneously. The high surface-area to volume ratio associated with using microfluidics allows for near instantaneous heating of blood samples and associated viscosity measurements. The rapid execution of the viscosity measurements will ensure that the viscosity changes are derived exclusively from flow and temperature, and not platelet activation from oxygen exposure.

The successful completion of this project will lead to a novel diagnostic platform that can uniquely characterize the progression of a wide variety of diseases using whole blood viscosity. The microfluidic platform lends itself well to being scaled up and modified for immediate clinical applications.

Materials
Animal surgery lab and access to fresh in-vivo porcine blood

Microfabrication/instrumentation lab supplies

Microwave/radiofrequency heating technology

References
[1] E. Y. Yang Jun Kang, A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 7, 2013.
[2] K. F. Lei, K.-H. Chen, P.-H. Tsui, and N.-M. Tsang, Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, p. e76243, Oct. 2013.
[3] G. Késmárky, P. Kenyeres, M. Rábai, and K. Tóth, Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable, Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., vol. 39, no. 1-4, pp. 243-246, 2008.
[4] E. W. MERRILL, E. R. GILLILAND, G. COKELET, H. SHIN, A. BRITTEN, and R. E. WELLS Jr, Rheology of human blood, near and at zero flow. Effects of temperature and hematocrit level, Biophys. J., vol. 3, pp. 199-213, May 1963.

*Merrill has around 20 articles on blood viscosity theory and practice. They\'re easy to find on PubMed.

Client:
Prof. Christopher Brace
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 265-9051
clbrace@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Jason Chiang
(310) 923-1577
cjchiang@wisc.edu


24. Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery

delivery_device

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Mechanics, Software

Summary
A cylindicrical, helically wound, braided device would be designed which could be placed into the birth canal around the fetal head.

Pulling on the braid would lenghthen and narrow it. This would reduce the radial distance between opposite sides (ie. the fetal head and the operator providing traction) and the overall circumference around the fetal head.

By placing traction in the plane of the birth canal, the fetal head should be delivered without trauma. (this cannot always be accomplised by traditional devices in use now such as vacuums and forceps).

This device would allow for a much safer delivery than traditional forceps or vacuum.

Design would be similar to devices used in orthopedics to fix Bennet\'s fractures or designs of Chinese finger traps.

The overall goal would be to reduce birth injury, reduce cesearean section rate, and design a device that would require minimal training in use.

I am very confindent that this idea would work well and would be a cost effective tool to manufacture.

Materials
open

References
See design for Kellem\'s grip
See design for Chinese Finger Trap

Client:
Dr. Jay Lick
Ob/Gyn
The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine
(608) 576-6977
jclick@wisc.edu


25. Electronic voice output for children with verbal apraxia

voice_output

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
Children with congenital verbal apraxia may often understand spoken and written language and may be socially motivated to communicate, but are physically unable to speak. Because there are few, if any, treatments for this condition, children with this disorder are occasionally taught to communicate by using touch-activated voice output devices, which produce spoken words elicited by pressing buttons or touchscreens. However, for toddlers with severe verbal apraxia, commercially available touch-activated voice output systems present several logistical drawbacks. This project is to equip a wearable arm band with electronics to emit spoken words on demand. The client for this project is a toddler who presently communicates by selectively tapping on a list of 30 words printed on an armband that currently has no voice-output functions. The toddler would benefit from having his communication armband design equipped with voice-output capability. This will act as a wearable, fixed display voice-output communication device. The weight and bulk of the design solution must be low enough for the toddler to tolerate as a wearable item.

Materials
Armbands with printed keypads are available. All materials needed for creating modified wearable armbands and modified printed keypads are also available. Pre-recorded voice messages in childrens\\\' voices are available. The design team must determine, procure, or assemble the necessary electronics.

References
More details about this project, including video of prototypes in action, are available upon request. An introduction to this area is:
Speech generating device

Client:
Mrs. Tiffany Glass
(651) 343-6048
glass@surgery.wisc.edu


26. Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam

breast_exam

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics

Summary
The clinical breast examination (CBE) is intended to detect palpable lesions and guide further diagnostic workup and treatment. Despite the widespread practice of this examination, there is little standardization in the way that it is performed [1,2]. In addition, evidence regarding the actual technique performed in the clinical setting and how it relates to the ability of a practitioner to detect a breast lesion is lacking.

In our lab, we have developed a large range of sensored silicone breast models. We embedded force sensitive resistors (FSR) at the base of the models. Using these FSRs we can recode and track the performance of the CBE. Since these FSRs are made of plastic and are soldered and wired we are limited to placing them on the bottom of the model relatively far from the surface, otherwise they would be felt by the practitioner preforming the exam.
During the last few years, a broad range of new materials has been developed. These include conductive cloth, piezoresistive fabrics, conductive paint and more. These new materials provide an opportunity to develop a new sensor that is smaller, soft and more flexible. The goal of this project is to develop these sensors and embed them in our breast models in a way that won’t be felt by the examiner. The project includes the development and fabrication of the sensors, measurement and categorization of their performance and embedding them in our models. This project will be part of our ongoing CBE research and successful models will be used in our future data collection sessions (by now we have collected more than 250 exams and we expect to collect hundreds more).

Materials
We have a variety of silicone breast models that can be used. We have a sample of different materials and more can be purchased if needed. We have the electronic equipment for measuring the resistivity both NI based and Arduino based. We have just started our research regarding these new materials and we are open to student’s suggestions.

References
[1] Pugh, C.M., Domont, Z.B., Salud, L.H., & Blossfield, K.M. (2008), A simulation-based assessment of clinical breast examination technique: Do patient and clinician factors affect clinical approach? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 874-880.
[2] Salud, L.H., & Pugh, C.M. (2011). Use of sensor technology to explore the science of touch. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163, 542-548.

Usage of these materials by other groups:
http://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?cat=24
http://hlt.media.mit.edu/

Client:
Dr. Shlomi Laufer
Surgery
SMPH
(608) 556-1026
slaufer2@wisc.edu


27. A device to inflict traumatic brain injury in flies

brain_injury_device

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
We have recently developed a device to inflict traumatic brain injury (TBI) in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Our published paper provides a detailed description of the device (Figures 1 and S1) and how we are using it to understand the cellular and molecular events that occur as a result of TBI. The reference for the paper is provided below.

We would like to redesign the device to make it more reproducible and expandable, i.e., higher throughput. Another goal would be to calibrate the device so that it produces an impact of a given force.

If these goals are achieved, then we will be able to use the device to carry out high throughput screens to identify drugs to treat TBI and to study the effects of different impact forces on TBI outcomes.

Reference:
Katzenberger, R. J., Loewen, C. A., Wassarman, D. R., Petersen, A. J., Ganetzky, B., and Wassarman, D. A. (2013) A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, E4152-E4159.

Materials
We can supply the current device and money to purchase materials for the redesign.

References
Our paper:
Katzenberger, R. J., Loewen, C. A., Wassarman, D. R., Petersen, A. J., Ganetzky, B., and Wassarman, D. A. (2013) A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, E4152-E4159.

An article about devices used to inflict TBI in mice and rats:
Xiong, Y. Mahmood, A., and Chopp, M. (2013) Animal models of traumatic brain injury. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 14, 128-142.

An article written by UW Communications about our work on TBI:
UW article about our work

An article written by the LA Times about our work on TBI:
LA Times article about our work

Client:
Dr. David Wassarman
Cell and Regenerative Biology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-6648
dawassarman@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Barry Ganetzky
(608) 263-2404
ganetzky@wisc.edu


28. Device for extraction of non-metallic intraocular foreign bodies

intraocular_instrument

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Traumatic intraocular foreign bodies are becoming increasingly common and can be visually devastating. Smooth, round, non-metallic foreign bodies such as airsoft pellets are uniquely difficult to remove surgically. These pellets are approximately 6 mm in diameter, enter the eye with at high velocity, and cause significant damage such as globe rupture, retinal detachments, and cataracts. Such injuries are more prevalent in children and young adults. A need exists for an intraocular instrument that will easily grasp and remove such an object within the eye. The instrument ideally would be 1) low profile enough to enter the eye and manipulate the object without damaging surrounding structures, 2) able to easily grasp round, smooth objects that conventional forceps are unable to grasp, and 3) enter and exit the sclera (eye wall) without enlarging the wound.

Materials
The group would be able to examine the intraocular instruments currently in widespread use. Use of the ophthalmic surgical wet lab with operating microscope potentially can be arranged if the project progresses to the point where a microsurgical prototype is made.

References
For background on the phenomenon of traumatic intraocular projectiles:
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul;130(7):944-5
Acta Ophthalmol 2008 May; 86(3); 345-7

Client:
Dr. Leslie A. Wei
Ophthalmology
UW-Madison
(401) 339-6811
leslieweimd@gmail.com


29. Ex vivo bone loading and bioreactor system

bone_loading_bioreactor

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Cell Biology, Chemistry, Electronics, Mechanics, Software, Tissue Engineering

Summary
ZETOS bone loading and bioreactor system developed by Smith and Jones was used to maintain viable bone cores and to apply controlled uniaxial compressive loading. The bioreactor bone chamber permits the loading of live trabecular bone cores 5mm in height and 10mm in diameter with a deformation accuracy of 93% in the micrometer range of strains. The chambers were continually perfused with culture medium, permitting nutrients to diffuse into the bone cores. Bone cores in the bioreactors have been maintained viable for up to 49 days. The active tissue may be evaluated for structural and cellular responses to either mechanical or biochemical stimuli. The details of experimental methods and equipment have been described elsewhere. Briefly, uniaxial compressive displacement is applied via a piezoelectric actuator (PZA; model P-239.30, Physik Instrumente, Karlsruhe, Germany) that expands according to applied voltage. Strain gages on the PZA, mounted in a Wheatstone bridge configuration for temperature compensation, measure its expansion, and a load cell (type 9011A, Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) measures the reaction force. The deformation and force data are recorded during the bone core loading periods and used to calculate stiffness or apparent elastic modulus. The maximum force the ZETOS bone loading system applied was limited by the control system software to 1500 N, and the maximum displacement was limited by the maximum expansion of the unloaded PZA to 70 micrometers. More recently, our research group has developed a validated calibration procedure for the ZETOS system with reference bodies of known properties in a working range of 0.915-29.2 N/mm, which is equivalent to an apparent elastic modulus of 58.3MPa to 1.86 GPa for the range of trabecular bone. Thus, the system is appropriate to measure stiffness in the range of trabecular bone while applying loads in the physiological strain range to bone cores 5mm in height and 10mm in diameter.

The current ZETOS system is limited to bone tissue. The project is to expand the ability of a testing system that could also test hard tissue, cartilage and soft tissue. At the current time the design electronics and calibration reference bodies are all assembled however the validation and operation of the system is yet to be determined.

Suggested process of developing an operational system:

1) Assemble current system in laboratory and confirm that the hardware is operational.

2) Develop the methods that are to be used to test both hard and soft tissue.

3) Write the LabView software to perform the required tasks.

4) Test the system using the supplied reference bodies.

5) Run actual experiments using supplied bone tissue samples.

6) Add any additional capabilities to the system as requested by the client.

Client:
Dr. Everett Smith
Population Health Sciences
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-2878
elsmith1@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Prof. Heidi Ploeg
(608) 262-2690
hploeg@wisc.edu

Dennis Bahr
bahr@inxpress.net


30. Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games

biofeedback_games

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Dr. Patrick McKenna joined the UW Department of Urology in September 2012 as the Chief of Pediatric Urology. He brought a new clinical program to our center, whereby children learn to control their pelvic floor muscles using biofeedback. The aspect of his program that is unique nationally is that he utilizes video games in the pelvic floor training. Biofeedback "leads" attached to the patient's pelvic floor muscles connect to an electronic interface that is about 2"x5"x7" in size and connects to a computer that runs the video games. Currently we have two of the electronic interfaces, one in use and one backup. The backup unit will be soon be deployed in a satellite clinic location. The devices have a history of "burning up" after a few years.
Our initial goal is the creation of extra interfaces that can be used if the existing ones fail because the devices are no longer commercially available. A more ambitious goal is the creation of a new interface and video games that run on a modern operating system with high resolution graphics.

Materials
Access to current biofeedback set-up outside normal clinic hours.
Access to a broken interface.
Funds for equipment and supplies with pre-approval.

Client:
Mr. Patrick H. McKenna, MD, FACS, FAAP
Urology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-0475
mckenna@urology.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Stephen Hall, Department Administrator
(608) 263-9032
hall@urology.wisc.edu

Sarah Novinsie, Medical Staff Assistant to Pediatric Urology Division
(608) 262-0475
novinskie@urology.wisc.edu

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