Project Selection

Student List

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
14 301 4 Non-invasive monitoring of patient position position_monitor Bioinstrumentation Medicine
15 301 4 Tibial stent: Designing a novel fixation device for pediatric orthopaedic tibia fractures tibial_stent Biomechanics, Biomaterials Orthopedic Surgery
17 402 5 An implantable device for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs larynx_abductor Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
18 402 4 Cervical cancer screening in under-resourced countries using a smartphone application cervical_cancer Bioinstrumentation Medicine
19 402 4 Development of a upper extremity fracture model fracture_model Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
20 402 4 Dynamic sling to support UE post brachial plexus injury to return to active lifestyle - running dynamic_sling Biomechanics Physical Therapy
21 402 5 Electronically monitored release system for alpine skiers ski_bindings Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Orthopedic Surgery
22 402 5 Ergonomic transthoracic cardiac echo probe holder probe_holder Biomechanics Cardiology
23 402 4 Expandable bone graft bone_graft Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurosurgery
24 402 3 Forearm segmental compression device compression_device Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
25 402 5 Impact wrench for orthopedics orthopedic_wrench Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
26 402 4 Inflatable vertebral body distractor vertebral_body_distractor Biomechanics Neurosurgery
27 402 4 Instrument guard - surgical site infection reducer instrument_guard Biomechanics Surgery
28 402 4 Magnetic retention of facial prostheses to body piercings facial_prostheses Biomechanics, Biomaterials Rehabilitation
29 402 3 Novel in vitro model to grow and culture the ovaries outside the body ovary_bioreactor Tissue Engineering Obstetrics/Gynecology
30 402 4 Perfusion decellularization-recellularization bioreactor for laryngeal tissue engineering laryngeal_bioreactor Tissue Engineering Otolaryngology
31 402 4 Super splint super_splint Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
32 402 3 Wireless pulse oximetry sensor wireless_oximetry Bioinstrumentation Anesthesiology
33 301 4 Optimizing derivation, expansion and differentiation of suspension reprogrammed stem cell cultures stem_cell_bioreactor Tissue Engineering Neurology
34 301 4 Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound perpetual_wound_device Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Medicine
35 301 4 Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain IVD_drain_leveller Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Neurosurgery
36 301 4 Interstitial diffuse optical fiber probe design optical_probe Biomechanics Radiology
42 301 5 Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity blood_viscosity_chip Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
43 301 4 Cast saw skin injury eliminator skin_protector Biomaterials, Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
45 301 4 Improving the reliability of suction machines in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suction_machine Biomechanics Medicine, Rural/Global Medicine
47 301 4 Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery delivery_device Biomechanics Obstetrics/Gynecology
49 301 4 Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam breast_exam Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
50 301 4 A device to inflict traumatic brain injury in flies brain_injury_device Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Neurology
52 301 4 Device for extraction of non-metallic intraocular foreign bodies intraocular_instrument Biomechanics Ophthalmology
54 301 4 Design of weight distribution monitoring system weight_distribution_device Bioinstrumentation Rehabilitation
55 301 4 Modular Platform for Spatial Localization of Morphogen-releasing Microparticles to Direct Tissue Morphogenesis microparticle_platform Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Medical Imaging Tissue Engineering


14. Non-invasive monitoring of patient position

position_monitor

BME 301
Students assigned: Allison Berman, Katherine Swift, Curtis Weber, Anna Zebzda
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software, Possible but not certain inclusion of human subjects

Summary
Patient falls from beds to the floor are a problem at every hospital. Frequent monitoring of patients and the use of low beds mitigates but does not solve the problem of falls.

A potential path to decrease falls would be the use of a monitor that sounded an alarm if the patient changed position in certain ways. I envision using solid state position/acceleration monitors but we can discuss the use of Doppler or video monitoring.

For example, most patients in bed have their thighs flat or perhaps raised with the knees bent. If the patient starts to get out of bed his/her thighs will begin to point towards the floor (knees lower than the hips). If this change in position can be detected, an alarm condition could sound.

Most patients in bed have their trunks flat or raised up to perhaps 45 degrees. Before getting out of bed their trunks are generally near vertical. Patients who are not getting out of bed may sit up completely so a trunk position monitor alone will not have adequate specificity for a possible fall.

The difference between this proposal and the literature is we want to predict falls by several seconds. This would give a nurse a chance to come to the room before the fall occurs. Most other research has detected falls or has characterized falls.

It is the client's hope that a workable specific and sensitive monitoring system can be developed using two or perhaps more position sensors.

The goal would be to develop a light, easily applied system that is sensitive and specific for near fall positioning. Also, the system must be comfortable and safe for the patient.

Linda Stevens (alternate contact) is a nursing leader responsible for nursing safety at UW Hospital. Her input to our process will be critical.

References
Contact Professor Tompkins

Client:
Dr. Christopher Green
Pediatrics
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-0210
cggreen@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Linda M. Stevens, DNP, RN-BC, CPHQ, CSPHP
(608) 608-2635
lstevens@uwhealth.org


15. Tibial stent: Designing a novel fixation device for pediatric orthopaedic tibia fractures

tibial_stent

BME 301
Students assigned: Sarah Dicker, Karl Kabarowski, Evan Lange, Tyler Max
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics, Biomaterials

Summary
Tibia fractures commonly occur in children, most managed non-operatively in casts. Standard adult rigid intra-medullary devices cannot be used in children as growth plates exist at each end of the bone. The goal of this project is to design an expandable implant that could be inserted through a small opening in the bone and then expanded within the medullary canal of the bone gaining fixation through the friction of the device and the wall of the inner tibia. Designs would need enough rigidity to mainitain fracture reduction, yet initially flexible enough to be placed through an eccentric hole in the tibia. This novel device would be designed to have reasonable axial stability and allow the locking screws to be placed through the device to limit rotational instability. Ideally, this device would be removable in 6-12 weeks after insertion.

Materials
All materials would be purchased. Mechanical testing could be performed in the department's laboratory. Initial testing would be completed using "saw bones" models. Once a proper design has been selected, cadaveric and animal studies could be designed.

References
No one has done anything like this in the literature.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medical school
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


17. An implantable device for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs

larynx_abductor

BME 402
Students assigned: Meghan Anderson, Matthew Jensen, Kevin McConnell, Devon Moloney, Cody Williams
Advisor: Willis Tompkins

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics, Cadaveric or formalin fixed tissue specimens

Summary
Clinical problem: Laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

Goals: Develop an implantable device for abduction of the arytenoid cartilages that can open (electronically or mechanically) the larynx in-sync with inspiration for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

Background: Idiopathic laryngeal paralysis is a common problem in older, large-breed dogs that results in progressive upper airway obstruction. The condition is caused by degeneration of the laryngeal nerves which innervate the muscles of the larynx. Dysfunction of these nerves results in the loss of function of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle which is responsible for abducting the arytenoid cartilage and opening the airway during inspiration. Clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis include progressive inspiratory stridor, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and respiratory distress, and in severe cases, can result in complete respiratory collapse and death.

The diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis in dogs is made by directly observing the lack of normal arytenoid abduction during inspiration while under a light plane of anesthesia. The current standard of care for dogs with laryngeal paralysis is surgical enlargement of the laryngeal opening with a unilateral arytenoid lateralization or “tie-back” procedure. This procedure involves placing sutures between the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages on one side of the larynx and tying them under tension to permanently abduct and enlarge the laryngeal opening on that side.

Most dogs are significantly improved following surgery; however, they are at increased risk of aspiration pneumonia for the remainder of their lives. The risk of postoperative aspiration pneumonia stems from the fact that the larynx is fixed in an open position and therefore cannot be completely protected by the epiglottis during swallowing which increases the risk of food or water being aspirated during eating or drinking. The incidence of aspiration pneumonia after laryngeal surgery is relatively high (20-30%) and can have devastating consequences when it occurs. It is for this reason that a more physiologic method of treatment is needed for dogs (and humans) with laryngeal paralysis.

The goal of this project is to design an implantable device that can abduct the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx in-sync with normal respiration. Ideally this device would provide improved laryngeal function and result in fewer complications compared to current conventional surgical procedures and ultimately be used clinically to treat dogs with laryngeal paralysis.

Specific requirements of the device would be very similar to those of cardiac or neuromuscular pacemakers including:

- Biocompatibility
- Externally programmable
- Sensory capabilities to enable synchronous function with respiratory cycle
- Relatively simple to surgically implant in the larynx
- Have extended battery life (months to years)

Current research:

There is limited research in the area of electrically or mechanically restoring laryngeal function in dogs, with most of the work in this area having been conducted by Dr. David Zealear at Vanderbilt University. The focus of his research involves the use of a modified neurostimulator for pacing the larynx in dogs with experimentally created laryngeal paralysis. The research appears very promising; however, the studies did not describe any form of sensory function to the “pacemaker” for synchronizing laryngeal opening with respiration. In addition, to my knowledge, there are no studies that describe any type of mechanical devices (e.g. electromagnetic coupling, tensioned prosthesis) for controlling arytenoid abduction and therefore I feel this area of research is wide-open for investigation.

Regarding the potential for commercialization of a device for abducting the arytenoid cartilages, I feel there is tremendous need for such a device should the design prove effective. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs is a relatively common problem and here at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, approximately 10-15 dogs undergo surgery for treatment of laryngeal paralysis each year. The availability of a commercial device that could restore laryngeal function would be of tremendous value to the veterinary profession as well as potentially serve as model for treatment of humans with laryngeal paralysis.

Materials
Materials: Canine laryngeal specimens (formalin fixed and fresh cadaveric) would be available for prototype development and demonstration. Our group has the necessary skills and instrumentation for developing the surgical technique for device implantation. In addition, we have access to previously used cardiac pacemakers should it be helpful in the development and design of the arytenoid abductor device.

References
Relevant journal articles:

1. Millard R, Tobias K. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs. Compendium Continuing Education for the Veterinarians 2009, 31: 212-219.

2. Hammel S, Hottinger H, Novo R. Postoperative results of unilateral arytenoid lateralization for treatment of idiopathic laryngeal paralysis in dogs: 39 cases (1996-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006, 228:1215–1220.

3. Kenichiro Nomura, MD; Isamu Kunibe, MD; Akihiro Katada, MD; Charles T. Wright, MD; Shan Huang, MD; Yash Choksi, BS; Rajshri Mainthia, BS; Cheryl Billante, PhD;
Yasuaki Harabuchi, MD; David L. Zealear, PhD. Bilateral Motion Restored to the Paralyzed Canine Larynx with Implantable Stimulator. Laryngoscope 2010, 120: 2399-2409.

4. David L. Zealear, PhD; Isamu Kunibe, MD, PhD; Kenichiro Nomura, MD, PhD; Cheryl Billante, PhD; Vikas Singh, MD; Shan Huang, MD; James Bekeny, BS; Yash Choksi, BS; Yasuaki Harabuchi, MD, PhD; Akihiro Katada, MD, PhD. Rehabilitation of Bilaterally Paralyzed Canine Larynx With Implantable Stimulator. Laryngoscope 2009, 119: 1737-1744.

Client:
Dr. Robert Hardie
Surgical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 262-7257
hardier@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


18. Cervical cancer screening in under-resourced countries using a smartphone application

cervical_cancer

BME 402
Students assigned: Isabel Callan, Yuan He, Katherine Hildebrand, Amanda Macallister
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Software, Human Subjects, Imaging, Cell Biology, Biomaterials,

Summary
I. Background - Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often affecting young otherwise healthy women. This is particularly true in developing countries where women\'s health information may be lacking and where access to preventive health services may be poor. Cervical cancer can often be detected early at a treatable stage by using proven cytological techniques such as the Papanicalou smear.
II. Problem - Resource challenged countries often are unable to provide widespread cervical cancer screening because of a lack of resources, a lack of cytotechnologists and cytopathologists.
III. Solution - To develop a low cost, easy to use, accurate point of care smartphone application that can diagnosis cervical cancer and/or its precursor lesions in women at risk for developing cervical cancer. Women found to have cervical cancer or one of the precursor lesions would be referred to specialists for more definitive care of their condition.

Materials
IV. Specific information - the cervical sample would consist of the squamocolumnar junction of the cervix obtained by conventional methods using a wooden spatula and either a glass slide with fixative applied or a thin prep solution that would have to be centrifuged down to have the cells of concern placed on a slide. The slide would be scanned at the point of care using technology currently used in the Focalpoint algorithmic classification method or the automated microscope and imaging system (thin prep imaging system).

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_screening
http://www.cancerprev.org/Journal/Issues/17/1/31/1219
Daniel Kurytz, MD WI State Lab of Hygeine
David C. Wilbur, MD Cytopathologist, Harvard Medical School


More articles available on request.
I have discussed project with above 2 cytopathologists as well.

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
Dept of GIM- Community Preceptor
UW Medical School
philip.bain@deancare.com


19. Development of a upper extremity fracture model

fracture_model

BME 402
Students assigned: Colin Dunn, Lucas Haug, Taylor Moehling, Maximillian Schultz
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Software, Electronics, Mechanics, Imaging, Biomaterials

Summary
Casting is becoming a lost art in medicine, yet many children and adults need casts applied. While this appears to be a benign treatment, complications are known to exist in the placement and removal of these devices. Typically medical students and residents learn these techniques by trial and error. Often direct oversight is lacking in the teaching of these techniques. In the past, we have used a model developed by the Biomedical Engineering Department to describe the thermal risk factors associated with cast application. Currently we are using a different model to assess and teach safety of cast removal to physicians in training using a cast saw. Ideally, If we could incorporate these models into a single model and add the abilities to monitor pressure along the simulated limb and assess fracture reduction, we would have a powerful training tool to teach medical professionals how to apply a cast, immobilize a fracture, and remove a cast without injury. Ultimately, we would then propose to take the limb to the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) national meeting to develop a range of \"normative\" casting pressures by having experts apply casts at the meeting. From the normative data,we would develop self-teaching modules in which persons using the model would be able to compare their \"pressures,\" fracture reductions, and application and removal techniques with those of the experts.

Materials
Currently we have a laptop computer, 2 separate Madgetech thermal data-loggers, a Madgetech voltage data logger, Type T thermocouples, a cast removal model. Casting supplies

References
1) Cast and splint immobilization: complications.
Halanski M, Noonan KJ.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Jan;16(1):30-40. Review.

2)Thermal injury with contemporary cast-application techniques and methods to circumvent morbidity.
Halanski MA, Halanski AD, Oza A, Vanderby R, Munoz A, Noonan KJ.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Nov;89(11):2369-77.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


20. Dynamic sling to support UE post brachial plexus injury to return to active lifestyle - running

dynamic_sling

BME 402
Students assigned: Kate Binder, Marie Greuel, Kelly Hanneken, Matthew Walker
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects

Summary
Assist in design and fabrication of sling to support the upper extremity of patients recovering from a traumatic brachial plexus injury - goal for use during running or other active sports. Will work directly with Occupational Therapist, patient, and MDs at UWHC.

References
United Brachial Plexus
prior Biomedical Engineering 201 Design Project.

Client:
Mrs. Karen Blaschke OTR, Margaret Overstake
Rehabilitation Medicine
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
(608) 890-6170
Kblaschke@uwhealth.org

Alternate Contact:
Meg Overstake
(303) 875-3487
meg.overstake@gmail.com


21. Electronically monitored release system for alpine skiers

ski_bindings

BME 402
Students assigned: Robert Carson, Hannah Meyer, Derek Pitts, Charles Rodenkirch, Gustavo Vargas
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
In 2013, 70,000 skiers are expected to injure their ACL in ski related activities. Our design seeks to improve the release mechanism of alpine ski bindings to prevent ACL and other knee injuries. Similar sports, such as waterskiing and wakeboarding have had major overhauls of their release systems within the last ten years, whereas snow ski binding technology has stagnated.

We propose implementing modern day electronic equipment such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, Force Sensors, and microcontrollers to monitor the skier and his skis. The system will then release the skier from both of his ski in the event of dangerous levels of torque, deceleration, and force, or when the skier\'s body is contorted in a high risk position. The system\'s release levels should be adjustable to a skier\'s ability, strength, and weight.

Client:
Prof. Darryl G. Thelen
Mechanical Engineering
UW-Madison
(608) 262-1902
thelen@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Charles Rodenkirch
(920) 904-4648
crodenkirch@wisc.edu


22. Ergonomic transthoracic cardiac echo probe holder

probe_holder

BME 402
Students assigned: Chelsea Bledsoe, John Diaz de Leon, Carie Fantl, Samuel Freire Alkmin, Anthony Schmitz
Advisor: Willis Tompkins

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
There is a need for an ergonomic probe holder for Image Guided Interventional Procedures.

Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is a relatively new and promising imaging modality for guidance of interventional cardiac procedures [1]. The use of echo imaging in conjunction with traditional imaging modalities such as X-ray fluoroscopy [2] may increase the safety and efficiency of interventional procedures while reducing x-ray dose. Most of the current reports demonstrating its use have focused on the use of a trans-esophageal echo (TEE) probe, which enters the esophagus and images the heart from a posterior direction. Unfortunately, TEE is invasive and requires patient sedation. Transthoracic echo (TTE), however, is completely non-invasive and doesn’t require sedation. For this reason TTE maybe be better suited than TEE for guidance of routine cardiac interventions.

One problem with using TTE for interventional guidance is it requires an echo technician to hold the probe in place throughout the procedure. Not only is this unreliable due to muscle fatigue, it also exposes the technician ionizing radiation. Ideally, a device would accomplish the task of holding the probe in order to decrease occupational hazards in the cath-lab and provide reliable imaging throughout the procedure.

We propose the creation of an ergonomic holder for a TTE probe to facilitate interventional echo imaging. The holder would ideally strap onto the patient and/or attach to the operating table, holding the probe in place against the torso. The holder would have to be reasonably comfortable, but also snug in order to keep the heart in the echo image field-of-view under a reasonable amount of patient movement. The probe holder should be able to have at least one degree of rotational freedom so that it can properly fit between the ribs (ideal location for imaging).

For this project, BME design students will work closely with a PhD Student in Biomedical Engineering and an Interventional Cardiologist on the design, fabrication, and validation of the device. If successfully implemented, the results may be submitted to a conference such as IEEE EMBC, with students as co-authors.

Materials
Cathlab for testing
Ultrasound probe for testing
$ for materials

References
[1]. Balzer, Jan, et al. \"Real-time transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiography for guidance of percutaneous cardiac interventions: first experience.\" Clinical Research in Cardiology 97.9 (2008): 565-574.

[2]. Lang, Pencilla, et al. \"US fluoroscopy registration for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.\" Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 59.5 (2012): 1444-1453.

[3] King, A. P., et al. \"Respiratory motion correction for image-guided cardiac interventions using 3-D echocardiography.\" Medical Image Analysis 14.1 (2010): 21-29.

Client:
Dr. Amish Raval
Cardiovascular Medicine
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 347-8074
anr@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Charles Hatt
(734) 915-7992
hatt@wisc.edu


23. Expandable bone graft

bone_graft

BME 402
Students assigned: James Dorrance, Terah Hennick, Katherine Jeffris, Taylor Weis
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
In some cases in spine surgery it is necessary to perform a bone fusion in the intervertebral space (the space between the 2 vertebral bodies). This is done by removing the intervertebral disc and then placing bone graft. Traditional bone grafts are rectangular or cresent shaped. The graft is placed through a small surgical corridor. The graft needs to be large enough to support the vertebral bodies but not so large that it injures the surrounding nerves. It would be easier and safer to develop an expandable bone graft that could be inserted in a collapsed form and then expanded to fill the disk interspace. The goal of this project would be to develop an expanding interbody bone graft. This has already been done using a mechanical jack design. However, I would like to develop an expandable graft that is similar to a balloon but would be filled with bone graft material. This should be made out of a biomaterial that would allow bone fusion to occur but also would be strong enough to support the biomechanical forces of the spine as healing occurs.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


24. Forearm segmental compression device

compression_device

BME 402
Students assigned: Allison Benna, Seve Strook, Joshua Zent
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Forearm Segmental Compression Device for the Prevention of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism or venothromboembolism is a significant health care problem causing considerable morbidity, mortality, and health-care expenditures. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic methods to prevent deep venous thrombosis include low-molecular weight low dose (LMWH) unfractionated heparin (LDUH|), intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices and graded compression stockings. The effectiveness of IPC in the lower extremities has been shown is some studies to be due to enhanced systemic endogenous fibronolytic activity as measured by increased tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) , decreased FVIIa , increased euglobulin lysis time (ELT), and a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Although a number of different devices have been developed for the lower extremity for the prevention of DVT, few have been studied in the upper extremity. One earlier study provided evidence that IPC applied to the arm (wrist to the axilla) resulted in enhanced fibronolytic activity as measured in the common femoral vein.

Current IPC devices may not be effective due to improper fitting, particularly in obese patients. This is significant since obesity is a well described risk factor for DVT. To address this limitation a foot pump device has been used. Foot compression is a useful alternative to calf compression, when calf compression might restrict access to the calf such as in obese patients. Foot compression, however, needs significantly higher pressures than calf compression, typically >130 mm Hg, compared with 40 mm Hg in the calf. Additionally, there is a small amount of blood in the plantar venous plexus: about 20–30 mL, compared with 100–150 mL in the calf, and the muscles are less readily compressible. Due to the high pressure necessary in foot compression, patient discomfort presents a compliance problem.

To overcome obstacles of ineffective current devices, a forearm adjustable sleeve designed was developed to fit circumferentially around the forearm and compress intermittently for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Current compression devices, known as intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPC), use air pressure to compress lower limbs. These mechanical devices have limited application particularly in obese patient since they do not fit circumferentially around the lower limb. These are also the same patients at higher risk for having venothromboembolic events. Theoretically, an ideal compression device will compress sequentially (distal to proximal) and will have a pressure gradient (highest pressure distal and lowest pressure proximal). The proposed design is a pneumatic device with three large chambers that can be inflated sequentially, with three pneumatic motors connections. The design is lightweight, adjustable, easy to use, cost effective, and will provide both gradient and sequential pressure. The prototype will allow maximum variability in time-dependent gradient compression of the forearm in order to assess thresholds for determining systemic activation of fibrinolytic activity as well as augmentation of proximal blood flow, critical to device effectiveness.

Future goals proposed work includes:
1. Adjusting the device program to include a user friendly graphic user interface (GUI) and adjustment of variables (e.g., cycle, pressure) for testing.
2. Assess pulsatile wave activity and velocity of flow in simulation laboratory limb model.
3. Establishing the relationship between limb compression and systemic fibrinolytic factor.
4. Optimization of compression technique in the forearm for optimal DVT prevention.
5. Determining whether forearm compression can significantly decrease DVT occurrence in the legs.
6. Develop a commercially available medical device.

References
Please see previous work on this project

Client:
Dr. Steven Yale
Clinical Research and Internal Medicine
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
(715) 387-9110
yale.steven@mcrf.mfldclin.edu

Alternate Contact:
Michelle Wellsandt
(715) 389-7631
wellsandt.michelle@mcrf.mfldclin.edu


25. Impact wrench for orthopedics

orthopedic_wrench

BME 402
Students assigned: Christopher Besaw, Alexander Eaton, Maria Estevez Silva, David Hintz, Paul Strand
Advisor: Willis Tompkins

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Hardware removal is a required part of orthopedics and can be challenging. Screws have often been implanted for over a year when we remove them and can be in quite tight. When a screw gets stripped during removal it becomes much harder to remove.
Impact wrenches for automotive applications exist, but they are too large for the hardware we use in orthopedics. I would be interested in an impact wrench that could be used with the orthopedic screws we use to prevent stripping. It would also have to be sterilizable so it could be used in the operating room.

Materials
I can supply samples of the screws. We would also need \"sawbones\" which are fake bones that we use to practice placing hardware and would be useful for testing the wrench. This can be ordered on line. Ultimately, testing could be done on cadaveric bones, which can be obtained through the department.

Client:
Dr. John Wollaeger
Orthopedics
Meriter and UW School of Medicine
(608) 287-2219
john.wollaeger@uwmf.wisc.edu


26. Inflatable vertebral body distractor

vertebral_body_distractor

BME 402
Students assigned: Douglas Ciha, Taylor Lamberty, Catharine Moran, Myranda Schmitt
Advisor: Willis Tompkins

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
In some cases of spine surgery the intervertebral disc is removed and the vertebral bodies are distraction to help with alignment of the spine. This is often done with metal spatula shaped tools or with mechanical jacks. Both of these tools have two problems. One, they have a narrow surface area so they can easily fracture the bone with the distractive forces. Two, they work along a linear trajectory so they cannot be manipulated easily to different regions of the intervertebral space to allow working space for graft placement. The goal of this project would be to develop an inflatable vertebral body distractor.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


27. Instrument guard - surgical site infection reducer

instrument_guard

BME 402
Students assigned: Sarvesh Periyasamy, Roland Pomfret, Denise Wong, Jiaquan Yu
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Chemistry

Summary
Surgical Site Infections (SSI) are a major source of morbidity and cost in the US healthcare system. There are mutiple risk factors contributing to increased infection rates. While many of these are being addressed - operative time, patient colonization, patient selection, preoperative antibiotics, skin preparation; one additional area is the length of time that the instruments and implants are \"open\" or exposed to the air in the operating room. While it would be nice to keep each of the instruments sterile and covered until they needed, this would add excessive time to each procedure to individually open each instrument -leading to increase operative time, another risk factor for SSI. Also, instruments that have been used once are often used later, and in long cases this could mean the these instruments have been sitting open for an excessive amount of time.

It is reasonable to consider developing a clear plastic sheild that could be fixed to the instrument table and mayo stand, with perhaps different velcro compartments that the instruments could be placed in while not in use, but readily available and in plain site. Furthermore, for instruments used intermittently throughout the case, several of these compartments could have a tissue friendly resin/coating/or gel that could house these instruments and \"re-sterilize\" them on the fly in between uses.

While rather simple this device could have tremendous impact.
It would have to be able to be sterilized - as are other commercially available drapes, etc.

Materials
Access to OR tables, Mayo stands, Instruments- for measurements.
Access to the OR to see what is currently done.
Current drape material.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A. Halanski
Orthopedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 265-4086
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


28. Magnetic retention of facial prostheses to body piercings

facial_prostheses

BME 402
Students assigned: Megan Courtney, Lindy Couwenhoven, Amy Martin, Alexandra Schmidt
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
This project focuses on the optimal choice of material, design and manufacturing process of a body piercing or set of specialized piercings for the express purpose of supporting lightweight facial prostheses. The piercing functional component will be designed in conjunction with the prosthesis functional component. The components will likely be small, low profile and attractive as a magnetic pairing. The piercing will be biocompatible and it will be conducive to removal and hygiene.

Silicone facial prostheses such as orbital, nasal or auricular (ear)prostheses can be created to look very natural. However, they have been historically difficult for the patient to retain and care for because of adhesive problems, skin irritation, improper placement, etc. Magnets have been used on bone-anchored implants to attach the prosthesis with greater security and predictability. However, surgical placement of implants involves a long osseointegration period, and it results in further sacrifice of healthy tissue, disfigurement especially in children with microtia and risk of complications such as infection and loss of the implant. The implant surgery is often not covered by insurance and costs are often at least 4-5 times the cost of the prosthesis itself.

The development of a simple piercing may bridge the gap between implant surgery and adhesive retained prostheses.

Materials
Will purchase or allow purchase of sample piercing apparatus, hardware and artist piercing fees if a subject is used. Simulator models will be prepared for demonstration and/or stress testing if desired.

Client:
Mr. Greg Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


29. Novel in vitro model to grow and culture the ovaries outside the body

ovary_bioreactor

BME 402
Students assigned: Joseph Henningsen, Patrick Hopkins, Matthew Zanotelli
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Software, Animal Experiments, Cell Biology, Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering

Summary
Oftentimes female patients lose their reproductive capabilities as a consequence of having cancer or from undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Our research has shown that doxorubicin chemotherapy causes ovarian insult [1], ultimately leading to ovarian failure. However, currently, we do not have any system to grow adult ovaries in vitro to test chemotherapy toxicity and protection. This situation greatly limits ovarian research. This project will establish a novel technique to grow ovaries outside the body.
Project 2) Establish an ex-vivo culture system for the ovary to facilitate assessment of chemotherapy toxicity and protection. Here, we plan to design an in vivo system to culture mouse ovaries in order to facilitate the study of chemotherapy toxicity and protection in the ovary. In this project, the students are expected to design a novel ovarian culture system. The students will mount the ovaries on a sturdy capillary that has holes to provide the ovaries with nutrition. The students are expected to make a metal/plastic or PVC tube (capillary), with equidistantly located groups of small holes (similar to a garden irrigation hose). The ovaries will be mounted in the tube (similar to metal rods used for chicken Kebabs barbecue). The tube will be attached to an infusion line to deliver fluids. The fluid flow rate and pressure will be monitored digitally and adjusted to ensure optimal ovarian health.

Materials
Students will have access to mouse ovaries and ovarian tissue that can be used to test the system. Currently no specific synthetic material is designated for this project. The students will help identify and obtain the necessary material for the project. This will include a plastic/metal micro-capillary tube, digital monitor for fluid flow and pressure, biomaterial to make the ovarian pouch, a conduit to make the ovarian port, etc.

References
1) Characterize doxorubicin chemotherapy toxicity:
Roti Roti EC, S. K. Leisman, D. H. Abbott, Salih S. M. Acute Doxorubicin Insult in the Mouse Ovary is Cell- and Follicle-Type Dependent. PLoS One, 2012. 7(8): p. e42293.

Website: http://www.obgyn.wisc.edu/research/salih-lab.aspx

Client:
Dr. Sana M. Salih, MD, MMS.
Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(409) 771-1966
salih@wisc.edu


30. Perfusion decellularization-recellularization bioreactor for laryngeal tissue engineering

laryngeal_bioreactor

BME 402
Students assigned: Kyle Anderson, Peter Guerin, Rebecca Stoebe, Daniel Thompson
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Electronics, Cell Biology, Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering

Summary
The purpose of this project is to design a bioreactor for whole organ tissue engineering of the human larynx, as well as comparable large animal models such as the pig or dog larynx. This tissue engineering approach involves two main processes: perfusion-decellularization of the larynx to create an acellular scaffold, and perfusion-recelluarization of the acellular scaffold using vocal fold fibroblasts and other cell sources.

The basic design elements for the bioreactor will include:

1. Provision of the flow/circulation of perfusion medium, such as decellularization solution, nutrient medium, cell suspension, etc. through the vasculature (i.e., the two common carotid arteries) of the dissected larynx; and possibly through the airway lumen as well. 2. Possible provision of humidifed air through trachea for appropriate hydrodynamic stimuli. 3. A sterile (autoclavable) chamber as the main chamber of the bioreactor to culture the dissected larynx and allowing medium exchange. 4. Regulation of perfusion rate and air flow rate by pumps.

An example of bioreactor designed for lung tissue engineering with detailed diagram, and the design and components for this bioreactor are provided in references 1 and 2. Other examples relevant to the larynx and trachea are shown in references 3-5.

Materials
Cell culture set-up, laryngeal tissue

References
1. Petersen, T.H., et al., Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. 329(5991): p. 538-41.
2. Petersen, T.H., et al., Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. supporting online material
3. Hou, N., et al., Tissue-engineered larynx using perfusion-decellularized technique and mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model. Acta Otolaryngol. 131(6): p. 645-52.
4. Asnaghi, M.A., et al., A double-chamber rotating bioreactor for the development of tissue-engineered hollow organs: from concept to clinical trial. Biomaterials, 2009. 30(29): p. 5260-9.
5. Baiguera, S., et al., Development of bioengineered human larynx. Biomaterials. 32(19): p. 4433-42.

Client:
Prof. Nathan Welham
Department of surgery, division of otolaryngology
School of medicine and public health
(608) 263-0121
welham@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Zhen Chang
(608) 265-2268
davis@surgery.wisc.edu


31. Super splint

super_splint

BME 402
Students assigned: Ryan Keuler, Alex Lavanway, Michael Schmidt, Jacob Tokar
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Software, Electronics, Mechanics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Biomaterials

Summary
Casting is a common treatment for pediatric fractures often casts are applied for 4-12 weeks depending on the fracture. Studies have recently shown that minimally displaced distal radius (wrist) fractures in children can be treated in removable splints. Similarly, stable lateral malleolus (ankle) fractures can also be treated in removable air cast splints. These treatments have the obvious benefits of being removable for skin inspection and hygiene. However, concern exists for those fractures that were initially displaced and required reduction (re-alignment). Often these fractures are felt best managed in a rigid cast, relying on the pressure applied through the cast to maintain the alignment. this can be a fine line between maintaining alignment, allowing for swelling, and causing pressure sores due to increased areas of focal pressure. Furthermore, if casts become too tight, too loose, soiled, or wet, they need to be replaced. While great advances have been made in the \"internal\" treatment of fractures, little has changed in the external immobilization of fractures. The development of a rigid splint (perhaps prefabricated) that could be applied in the emergency room, with a liner that could be adjusted in a multidimensional manner that could \"maintain\" the pressures to hold a reduction despite increases or decreases in soft tissue swelling would be valuable. Having the ability of the liner to increase pressure in one direction or another to allow for small adjustments in reductions would be useful. Other considerations outside the scope of this description would also increase its clinical applicability. I had envisioned this with several air bladders that could be inflated/deflated, but would welcome any other materials, thoughts, or suggestions.

Materials
Any current splints, casting materials available in the orthopaedic clinic.

Client:
Mr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


32. Wireless pulse oximetry sensor

wireless_oximetry

BME 402
Students assigned: Christopher Fernandez, Nicholas Glattard, Olivia Rice
Advisor: Kris Saha

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Anesthesiology
Skills: Software, Electronics, Mechanics, Human Subjects

Summary
Pulse oximetry sensors use differential infrared light absorption to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation. These sensors are typically hardwired into a patient monitor. Oxygen saturation is an increasingly valuable measurement parameter in ambulatory settings and there would be great clinical utility in a sensor that had wireless transmission capability to a base station or portable monitoring device (like an iPhone).

Materials
Pulse oximetry sensors are commercial available from a variety of vendors, including Masimo, GE, and Philips

References
http://www.masimo.com

Client:
Dr. Fred Robertson
Anesthesiology
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 250-9897
farobertson@wisc.edu


33. Optimizing derivation, expansion and differentiation of suspension reprogrammed stem cell cultures

stem_cell_bioreactor

BME 301
Students assigned: Angela Beltrame, Mustafa Khan, Susanna Kwok, Shaun Pomerenke
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Software, Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Imaging, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Reactor design

Summary
Reprogramming utilizes mature blood or skin samples from adult organisms and creates embryonic-like stem cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Patient-specific iPSCs are thought to hold unlimited potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling applications. Conventional reprogramming and differentiation approaches frequently rely on adherent culture, which involves time-consuming feeding and passaging of cells, often shows variability and yields relatively few cells. There is an opportunity to engineer suspension bioreactor conditions so that this process can be made more efficient and scalable.

Aims of this design project would be to develop bioreactors to maximize the production of mature neural cells from skin fibroblasts. Successful projects will likely involve processes that optimize culture conditions to 1) reprogram fibroblasts to iPSCs and 2) differentiate iPSCs to neural subtypes. Experiments can employ either or both human and mouse cells.

Materials
\"Secondary\" human and mouse fibroblasts that harbor the inducible reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc
Reprogramming and differentiation cell culture media
Antibodies to stain for cell fate

References
Fluri, D. A. et al. Derivation, expansion and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells in continuous suspension cultures. Nat Meth – (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1939

Shafa, M. et al. Derivation of iPSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors. Nat Meth (2012).doi:10.1038/nmeth.1973

Client:
Prof. Krishanu Saha
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(510) 541-6900
ksaha@wisc.edu


34. Collective cell migration and the perpetual wound

perpetual_wound_device

BME 301
Students assigned: Ryan Lane, Michael Martinez, Matthew Reagan, Ryan Rinehart
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
The collective migration of epithelial cells is a fundamental phenomenon that occurs in a diversity of physiological processes, from early embryonic development to homeostasis in the adult intestine. One of the main ways in which collective migration is studied in vitro, is through a wound healing assay. In a wound healing assay, a monolayer of epithelial cells is grown on a coverslip, and then physically scratched, or wounded. The wound removes a strip of cells from coverslip, creates free space, and the cells that remain migrate collectively to close the space. An alternative to this experiment, is a microfluidic wound healing assay. In this assay, a monolayer of cells is grown inside of a microfluidic channel. Instead of scratching the monolayer, laminar fluid flows within the microfluidic channel are used to deliver a stream of trypsin, an enzyme which cleaves cell adhesions. The trypsin stream is thinner than the width of the channel (or the width of the cell population), and thus selectively cleaves a strip of cells from the chip, and washes them away, leaving behind free space. The trypsin is then removed, and replaced by cell culture media. Like the wound healing assay, the cells will migrate to close the gap. The microfluidic method has significant advantages over the physical scratch. First, there is never physical abrasion or cell death associated with removing the strip of cells. Thus, the effect of physical abrasion can be isolated from the effect of free space on the induction of cell migration. Second, the microfluidic method may be automated. My goal is to develop an automated system for trypsinzing and culturing the cells within the microfluidic chip for very long time in order to observe how the migration of cells changes with age. Thus, roughly every 24 hrs (or 1 generation), the monolayer will be trypsinized, the cells will migrate, reproduce and repopulate the channel, and then this process will repeat for many generations, thus creating a perpetual wound.

References
http://go.wisc.edu/5zzlj0

Client:
Prof. Michael Murrell
Biomedical Engineering
COE
mmurrell2@wisc.edu


35. Auto-levelling ventriculostomy drain

IVD_drain_leveller

BME 301
Students assigned: Jack Goss, Kelsie Harris, Danielle Horn, Maria Maza
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Current intraventricular drain (IVD) systems consist of a closed drainage system that is hung by a string from a pole. In order to function properly, the IVD collection container must be kept at a constant, consistent level relative to the ventricles of the patient. Since patients rarely stay completely immobile for any length of time, keeping the IVD properly leveled is a time-consuming, imprecise, almost sisyphysean nursing intervention. I have a general design for a device that would keep the IVD continually and consistently leveled at the correct height. In simple terms, a small sensor/transmitter/something of that nature would be attached to the patients temple. The collection systems buretrol would be mounted on a small motorized carriage. The system would raise or lower the carriage to keep the buretrol at the proper level. Furthermore, the envisioned device would also include an important safety feature-when sudden changes in height are detected, the system would automatically clamp the drainage system. Additional features are possible.

Materials
I have nothing but my ideas and a few sketches. The device is fairly simple-it would require a few motors, switches, sensors and so on using existing technology. I can arrange for whatever sheetmetal housings/boxes, etc. to be fabricated if need be.

Client:
Mr. David M Longseth
Nursing Operations
UWHC
(608) 843-6588
dlongseth@uwhealth.org


36. Interstitial diffuse optical fiber probe design

optical_probe

BME 301
Students assigned: Matthew Boyer, Samual Lines, Michael Simonson, Thomas Zipp
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics, Diffuse Optics

Summary
We are developing a technique for adaptive radiation therapy based on diffuse optics between two inserted optical fibers. By fitting the spectra resulting from optical absorption and diffusion over many mean free paths, we get blood volume versus hemoglobin saturation as a function of time. Our interest in the prompt responses to large doses of radiation that are typical of emerging radiation therapy treatments.

For future use in humans, the issue is the fact that there are two fibers needed a fixed distance apart. One idea is to separate them by insertion length and have them touching. It would also be nice to have any insertion needles be retractable. At this point, with the mice we use, the fibers stay in the needles and they are parallel, inserted to the same distance, and the two needles are just taped to a pad. The design needs to improve.

The project entails the design and prototype construction of a proper insertion and fiber spacing technique and device. The BME students need to understand the fairly simple physics of the diffusion of light through tissue, the absorption of light in a few biological absorbers and absorption/reflection in the materials used for the probe. It is expected that a few possible designs would be conceived and one or two prototypes made for both mouse and human uses.

Materials
We have all the fiber optics and needles already. We also have all the tools needed to work with the fibers. Only any materials related to the insertion and holding/retracting jig need to be purchased along with any time by machine shop or 3D printing shop staff are needed: perhaps $100 for each. We have access to acrylic and other materials in a WIMR bld. machine shop used in making medical devices. We also have access to 3D printing and prototyping machines in the Medical Devices labs at the Morgridge Institute for Research.

References
For a description of the basic physics (diffuse optics) involved, see:

S. Jacques J. Innov. Optical Health Sciiences Vol. 2 (2009) 123-9. and
S. Jacques & B. Pogue, J. Biomed. Optics Vol. 13 (2008) 041302-1 to -19.

The BME team will work with Medical Physics graduate students who would do any animal experiments handling to optimize the fiber probe design for mouse experiments all the while keeping an eye on the goal of moving towards a device for human use. The need for monitoring oxygen dynamics from radiotherapy was outlined in the following:

Kissick et al., Phys. Med. Biol. Vol. 58 (2013) N279-85.

Client:
Prof. Michael Kissick
Medical Physics
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-9529
mwkissick@wisc.edu


42. Hemorheological-based microfluidic chip platform for measuring blood viscosity

blood_viscosity_chip

BME 301
Students assigned: Kaitlyn Laning, Tyler Lieberthal, Christopher Patterson, Anthony Prostrollo, Jared Warczytowa
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Blood viscosity has been shown to have significant implications in a clinical setting. Changes in blood viscosity can be related to inflammation, tissue injuries, cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. Current methods to characterize blood viscosity involve centrifuging the blood plasma out of whole blood and measuring the viscosity of the plasma alone using capillary or falling-sphere viscometers. Blood plasma by itself is considered a Newtonian fluid, with its viscosity remaining independent of shear-rate and temperature. Measuring changes in blood plasma viscosity can give physicians further insight into the presence or progression of diseases that lead to changes in clotting cascade activation, immunoglobulin concentration, inflammatory biomarkers. However, while highly sensitive to multiple diseases, plasma viscosity is lacking in disease specificity, leading to its underutilization in the clinical workflow in a hospital.

The measurement of whole blood viscosity, on the other hand, incorporates the highly-compressible and aggregating element of red blood cells (RBCs). As a result, whole blood is considered a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, with viscosities that change with temperature and velocity. Measuring the response of whole blood viscosity across different temperatures and velocities can potentially offer more discriminating information about certain disease process, leading to increased specificity in disease diagnosis or progression.

Arranging and measuring multiple combinations of velocity and temperature of blood can be labor-intensive and prohibitively time consuming due to the rapid onset of coagulation once blood is removed from the patient. Our proposal is to overcome this challenge by leveraging advances in microfluidic technology to make temperature adjustments and viscosity measurements within seconds of leaving the blood vessel. Microfluidic devices are small and inexpensive, necessitating only minimal sample volumes and can be multiplexed in a manner that can run multiple studies simultaneously. The high surface-area to volume ratio associated with using microfluidics allows for near instantaneous heating of blood samples and associated viscosity measurements. The rapid execution of the viscosity measurements will ensure that the viscosity changes are derived exclusively from flow and temperature, and not platelet activation from oxygen exposure.

The successful completion of this project will lead to a novel diagnostic platform that can uniquely characterize the progression of a wide variety of diseases using whole blood viscosity. The microfluidic platform lends itself well to being scaled up and modified for immediate clinical applications.

Materials
Animal surgery lab and access to fresh in-vivo porcine blood

Microfabrication/instrumentation lab supplies

Microwave/radiofrequency heating technology

References
[1] E. Y. Yang Jun Kang, A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 7, 2013.
[2] K. F. Lei, K.-H. Chen, P.-H. Tsui, and N.-M. Tsang, Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, p. e76243, Oct. 2013.
[3] G. Késmárky, P. Kenyeres, M. Rábai, and K. Tóth, Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable, Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., vol. 39, no. 1-4, pp. 243-246, 2008.
[4] E. W. MERRILL, E. R. GILLILAND, G. COKELET, H. SHIN, A. BRITTEN, and R. E. WELLS Jr, Rheology of human blood, near and at zero flow. Effects of temperature and hematocrit level, Biophys. J., vol. 3, pp. 199-213, May 1963.

*Merrill has around 20 articles on blood viscosity theory and practice. They\'re easy to find on PubMed.

Client:
Prof. Christopher Brace
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 265-9051
clbrace@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Jason Chiang
(310) 923-1577
cjchiang@wisc.edu


43. Cast saw skin injury eliminator

skin_protector

BME 301
Students assigned: Timothy Abbott, Hannah Frank, William Greisch, Jeffrey Wu
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Cast saw burns and abrasions are injuries that occur when cast saws touch a patient\'s skin inadvertently. Methods to prevent these injuries include, maintaining a lower temperature cast saw blade, minimizing cast thickness, using proper technique. Depsite this, injuries still occur. Recently we have demonstrated that using commercially available cast saw safety strips can minimize the contact of the cast saw blade to the skin and insulate the skin from thermal injury. In this project we hope to design a skin protector that can eliminate this injury. The client has several ideas regarding potential ways to accomplish this goal.

Materials
Real life arm models, monitoring models , voltage and temperature data loggers
casting supplies, commericially available saftey strips

References
I have several and some unpublished data that could be used

Client:
Dr. Matthew Halanski
Orthopedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


45. Improving the reliability of suction machines in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

suction_machine

BME 301
Students assigned: Hinnah Abid, Mohammed Hayat, Alice Huang, Samuel Jensen
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medicine, Rural/Global Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, designing for low resource settings

Summary
At the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Abba, Ethiopia, their inventory of ~ 40 vacuum pumps (used for various aspiration needs including pharyngeal aspiration, tracheal suctioning, gastrointestinal suction, pleural suctioning, uterine evacuation, etc.) are regularly returned to the hospital engineer for repair. The problems typically originate from the pump continuing to operate even after the reusable glass reservoir is full or overflowing. This causes fluid (complex fluids from patients) to back up into the pump causing fouling and pump failure. The engineer must then spend time taking the pump apart, cleaning parts and reassembling before the pumps can be used again.

On this project you will work with a client (Dawit Getahun, who is the engineer at Black Lion Hospital). Your UW "client/advisor" will be Prof. Beebe who has visited Black Lion Hospital and met with Mr. Getahun about the project. An additional advisor will be Tiffini Diage, who has extensive experience in Ethiopia and has started the first medical device manufacturer there. While the topic may seem "ordinary" this project is a chance to have a real and immediate impact on patients at Black Lion Hospital in Ethiopia. And the challenges may be greater than you first anticipate because of the infrastructure and supply constraints of working on a project that will be used exclusively in low resource centers. If you are interested in Global Health, this would be a great project to introduce you to some of the real challenges associated with designing for low resource settings.

Two approaches
Primary - design a retrofit kit to provide overfill prevention control on the existing pumps
Secondary - design a new low-cost pump to eliminate the problem

Constraints/needs
-To the greatest extent possible the solutions should use locally available materials and parts
-Both should be able to assembled (or manufactured) locally in Ethiopia. The goal is a sustainable solution.
-Low cost is a paramount driver in all design decisions
-Robustness is critical (the pump should operate without need of repair or adjustment for one year or more)

Materials
Prof. Beebe's lab will be available to you.

Client:
Prof. Dave Beebe
BME
COE
(608) 262-2260
djbeebe@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Dawit Getahun
dawit466@gmail.com

Tiffini Diage
tdiage@raechelon.com


47. Infant delivery device for vaginal delivery

delivery_device

BME 301
Students assigned: Alenna Beroza, Kimberly Buchanan, Emily Junger, Ana Lara Santiago
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Mechanics, Software

Summary
A cylindicrical, helically wound, braided device would be designed which could be placed into the birth canal around the fetal head.

Pulling on the braid would lenghthen and narrow it. This would reduce the radial distance between opposite sides (ie. the fetal head and the operator providing traction) and the overall circumference around the fetal head.

By placing traction in the plane of the birth canal, the fetal head should be delivered without trauma. (this cannot always be accomplised by traditional devices in use now such as vacuums and forceps).

This device would allow for a much safer delivery than traditional forceps or vacuum.

Design would be similar to devices used in orthopedics to fix Bennet\'s fractures or designs of Chinese finger traps.

The overall goal would be to reduce birth injury, reduce cesearean section rate, and design a device that would require minimal training in use.

I am very confindent that this idea would work well and would be a cost effective tool to manufacture.

Materials
open

References
See design for Kellem\'s grip
See design for Chinese Finger Trap

Client:
Dr. Jay Lick
Ob/Gyn
The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine
(608) 576-6977
jclick@wisc.edu


49. Sensor-enabled simulations for the clinical breast exam

breast_exam

BME 301
Students assigned: Clair Kurzynski, Megan Platner, Kristen Rasske, Lauren Stopfer
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics

Summary
The clinical breast examination (CBE) is intended to detect palpable lesions and guide further diagnostic workup and treatment. Despite the widespread practice of this examination, there is little standardization in the way that it is performed [1,2]. In addition, evidence regarding the actual technique performed in the clinical setting and how it relates to the ability of a practitioner to detect a breast lesion is lacking.

In our lab, we have developed a large range of sensored silicone breast models. We embedded force sensitive resistors (FSR) at the base of the models. Using these FSRs we can recode and track the performance of the CBE. Since these FSRs are made of plastic and are soldered and wired we are limited to placing them on the bottom of the model relatively far from the surface, otherwise they would be felt by the practitioner preforming the exam.
During the last few years, a broad range of new materials has been developed. These include conductive cloth, piezoresistive fabrics, conductive paint and more. These new materials provide an opportunity to develop a new sensor that is smaller, soft and more flexible. The goal of this project is to develop these sensors and embed them in our breast models in a way that won’t be felt by the examiner. The project includes the development and fabrication of the sensors, measurement and categorization of their performance and embedding them in our models. This project will be part of our ongoing CBE research and successful models will be used in our future data collection sessions (by now we have collected more than 250 exams and we expect to collect hundreds more).

Materials
We have a variety of silicone breast models that can be used. We have a sample of different materials and more can be purchased if needed. We have the electronic equipment for measuring the resistivity both NI based and Arduino based. We have just started our research regarding these new materials and we are open to student’s suggestions.

References
[1] Pugh, C.M., Domont, Z.B., Salud, L.H., & Blossfield, K.M. (2008), A simulation-based assessment of clinical breast examination technique: Do patient and clinician factors affect clinical approach? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 874-880.
[2] Salud, L.H., & Pugh, C.M. (2011). Use of sensor technology to explore the science of touch. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163, 542-548.

Usage of these materials by other groups:
http://www.kobakant.at/DIY/?cat=24
http://hlt.media.mit.edu/

Client:
Dr. Shlomi Laufer
Surgery
SMPH
(608) 556-1026
slaufer2@wisc.edu


50. A device to inflict traumatic brain injury in flies

brain_injury_device

BME 301
Students assigned: Zachary Balsiger, Jonathan Luedtke, Scott Mawer, Malachi Willey
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
We have recently developed a device to inflict traumatic brain injury (TBI) in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Our published paper provides a detailed description of the device (Figures 1 and S1) and how we are using it to understand the cellular and molecular events that occur as a result of TBI. The reference for the paper is provided below.

We would like to redesign the device to make it more reproducible and expandable, i.e., higher throughput. Another goal would be to calibrate the device so that it produces an impact of a given force.

If these goals are achieved, then we will be able to use the device to carry out high throughput screens to identify drugs to treat TBI and to study the effects of different impact forces on TBI outcomes.

Reference:
Katzenberger, R. J., Loewen, C. A., Wassarman, D. R., Petersen, A. J., Ganetzky, B., and Wassarman, D. A. (2013) A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, E4152-E4159.

Materials
We can supply the current device and money to purchase materials for the redesign.

References
Our paper:
Katzenberger, R. J., Loewen, C. A., Wassarman, D. R., Petersen, A. J., Ganetzky, B., and Wassarman, D. A. (2013) A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, E4152-E4159.

An article about devices used to inflict TBI in mice and rats:
Xiong, Y. Mahmood, A., and Chopp, M. (2013) Animal models of traumatic brain injury. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 14, 128-142.

An article written by UW Communications about our work on TBI:
UW article about our work

An article written by the LA Times about our work on TBI:
LA Times article about our work

Client:
Dr. David Wassarman
Cell and Regenerative Biology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-6648
dawassarman@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Barry Ganetzky
(608) 263-2404
ganetzky@wisc.edu


52. Device for extraction of non-metallic intraocular foreign bodies

intraocular_instrument

BME 301
Students assigned: Carly Hildebrandt, Amy Kim, Ngoc Phung, Adam Strebel
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Traumatic intraocular foreign bodies are becoming increasingly common and can be visually devastating. Smooth, round, non-metallic foreign bodies such as airsoft pellets are uniquely difficult to remove surgically. These pellets are approximately 6 mm in diameter, enter the eye with at high velocity, and cause significant damage such as globe rupture, retinal detachments, and cataracts. Such injuries are more prevalent in children and young adults. A need exists for an intraocular instrument that will easily grasp and remove such an object within the eye. The instrument ideally would be 1) low profile enough to enter the eye and manipulate the object without damaging surrounding structures, 2) able to easily grasp round, smooth objects that conventional forceps are unable to grasp, and 3) enter and exit the sclera (eye wall) without enlarging the wound.

Materials
The group would be able to examine the intraocular instruments currently in widespread use. Use of the ophthalmic surgical wet lab with operating microscope potentially can be arranged if the project progresses to the point where a microsurgical prototype is made.

References
For background on the phenomenon of traumatic intraocular projectiles:
Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul;130(7):944-5
Acta Ophthalmol 2008 May; 86(3); 345-7

Client:
Dr. Leslie A. Wei
Ophthalmology
UW-Madison
(401) 339-6811
leslieweimd@gmail.com


54. Design of weight distribution monitoring system

weight_distribution_device

BME 301
Students assigned: Jacob Hindt, Shawn Patel, Andrew Vamos, Xiyu Wang
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Software, Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
Due to a stroke a number of years ago, a hemiplegic individual cannot feel the left side of her body. She is ambulatory but due to lack of left-side sensory feedback, she cannot sense if she is standing straight or leaning to one side or the other. She wants a way to practice distributing her weight equally on both feet. She is unable to look down at her feet without losing her balance. So she needs a device that is portable enough that she can move it to different rooms or even to take when she travels. The device would monitor how she is standing and provide biofeedback to her about her weight distribution.

Client:
Prof. Willis Tompkins
Biomedical Engineering
(608) 263-1581
tompkins@engr.wisc.edu


55. Modular Platform for Spatial Localization of Morphogen-releasing Microparticles to Direct Tissue Morphogenesis

microparticle_platform

BME 301
Students assigned: Michelle Chiang, Jolene Enge, Russell Little, Kelsey Veserat
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Tissue Engineering
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Imaging, Tissue Engineering, Machining

Summary
Cellular differentiation and tissue development is regulated by spatiotemporally defined gradients of soluble and insoluble factors that direct cell fate during early development. The goal of this project is to develop a cell culture-compatible platform that can afford spatial resolution (tens to hundreds of microns) over the localization of paramagnetic iron oxide microparticles. The eventual application is to deliver soluble factors or morphogens from the microparticles in a spatially regulated fashion, with the end goal of directing stem cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. As the microparticle system is already developed, this project is focused on the design of a platform to spatially localize these soluble factor-releasing "depots." Depending on the progress of this work, future initiatives may include computationally modeling the release of factors to microtissues in culture.

Materials
-superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-linked microparticles
-AutoCad software
-cell culture reagents and equipment (if needed)
-certain raw materials may be available for use, depending on the group's choice of material for the platform

References
Franklin-Ford, T. et al. "Tracking Injectable Microspheres in Dynamic Tissues With Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles." Macromol. Biosci. (2012)

Client:
Ms. Angela Xie
(920) 203-5689
awxie@wisc.edu

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