Project Selection

Student List

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 402 4 Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games biofeedback_games Bioinstrumentation Urology
2 402 5 Atrial fibrillation screener afib_screener Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
3 402 5 Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention dialysis_infection Bioinstrumentation Urology
4 402 4 Transplant organ coolant management system organ_cooler Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
5 402 3 Flexible microsurgical background microsurgical_background Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
6 402 5 Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace dynamic_leg_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
7 402 4 Inflatable vertebral body distractor vertebral_body_distractor Biomechanics Neurology
8 402 5 Manual extraction of placenta training simulator placenta_extraction Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation, Obstetrics/Gynecology
10 402 4 Small caliber lead shafts of electrophysiologic catheters multi_catheter Biomechanics Surgery
11 402 5 Fall triggered hip protectors hip_protectors Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation Geriatrics, Prosthetics
12 402 3 Upper limb support and immobilization during moderate aerobic exercise arm_support Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
13 402 4 Non-invasive quantitative airflow measurement airflow_measurement Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pediatrics
14 402 5 Tri-axial ergonomic knee brace hinge knee_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
15 402 5 Neural coding software suite neural_coding Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Neurology
16 402 5 Ergonomic rodent bleed syringe ergonomic_syringe Human Factors, Biomechanics Orthopedics
17 402 6 Ergonomic tool to reduce lab technician strain ergonomic_tool Human Factors, Biomechanics Orthopedics
18 402 5 Measuring exercise systolic BP using finger laser doppler in kids exercise_BP Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pediatrics, Cardiology
19 402 4 Intraluminal tracheal ring stent for treatment of collapsing trachea in dogs ring_stent Biomechanics, Biomaterials Veterinary Medicine
20 402 4 Johnson Health Tech: Adaptive fitness equipment adaptive_fitness_equipment Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors Physical Therapy
21 402 4 Development of a microfluidic sampling and imaging device for microbial bioreactors microfluidic_sampling Cellular Engineering Medicine
22 402 4 Design of a novel HIV viral load assay for use in resource settings HIV_viral_load Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Global Health Engineering Rural/Global Medicine
25 301 4 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration macular_degeneration_model Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials Ophthalmology
26 301 4 Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing abdominal_breathing Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pulmonology
27 301 4 Skin cancer detector skin_cancer_detector Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Oncology
30 301 5 inseRT MRI: MR guidance system for microwave ablation MR_probe_holder Medical Imaging, Biomechanics Radiology, Oncology
31 301 4 Expandable bone graft bone_graft Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurology
32 301 4 Wearable digital loupe magnification device digital_loupe Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors Surgery
34 301 3 Hip aspirate model to teach physicians hip_model Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation, Orthopedic Surgery
36 301 4 Back support for surgeons back_support Biomechanics Surgery
41 402 3 Continuous monitoring of asthma control asthma_control Bioinstrumentation Pulmonology
43 301 5 Model of ex vivo lung development exvivo_lung Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics Pulmonology
44 301 4 Orthopedic screw torque measurement torque_measurement Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Orthopedic Surgery
45 301 5 Pacemaker - epicardial wire - telemetry adaptor telemetry_adaptor Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
46 301 5 Design of minimally invasive spinal rods benders and cutters spinal_rod_cutter Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
48 301 5 To develop a surgical centrifuge that saves blood surgical_centrifuge Biomechanics, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Surgery
49 301 5 Wireless, small and adhesive ultrasound probe for research wireless_ultrasound Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Radiology
50 301 5 Fastest shoes on the planet enhanced_orthotics Biomechanics Prosthetics
51 301 4 Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor protein_sensor Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation Medical Imaging


1. Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games

biofeedback_games

BME 402
Students assigned: Lucas Hurtley, Evan Jellings, Lucas Lato, David Mott
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Dr. Patrick McKenna joined the UW Department of Urology in September 2012 as the Chief of Pediatric Urology. He brought a new clinical program to our center, whereby children learn to control their pelvic floor muscles using biofeedback. The aspect of his program that is unique nationally is that he utilizes video games in the pelvic floor training. Biofeedback "leads" attached to the patient's pelvic floor muscles connect to an electronic interface that is about 2"x5"x7" in size and connects to a computer that runs the video games. Currently we have two of the electronic interfaces, one in use and one backup. The backup unit will be soon be deployed in a satellite clinic location. The devices have a history of "burning up" after a few years.
Our initial goal is the creation of extra interfaces that can be used if the existing ones fail because the devices are no longer commercially available. A more ambitious goal is the creation of a new interface and video games that run on a modern operating system with high resolution graphics.

Materials
Access to current biofeedback set-up outside normal clinic hours.
Access to a broken interface.
Funds for equipment and supplies with pre-approval.

Client:
Dr. Patrick H. McKenna, MD, FACS, FAAP
Urology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-0475
mckenna@urology.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Christina Sauder
(608) 262-0713
sauder@urology.wisc.edu


2. Atrial fibrillation screener

afib_screener

BME 402
Students assigned: Justin Alt, Samuel Esch, Daniel Grieshop, Todd Le, Rocio Riillo
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
Afib is a common, vastly under diagnosed condition. It is diagnosed by a telemetry strip, an ECG or clinically. There is a smartphone app that can diagnose it as well.

What woudl be even more useful is to develop a small device that could attach to a stethoscope that could be placed over the patient's chest and immedicately identify the rhythm.

It would have to be cheap, durable, accurate and easy to use.

Materials
telemetry device.
Display

References
BARCELONA, SPAIN — Incidentally detected atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic and ambulatory patients is associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality, but treating the detected arrhythmia with oral anticoagulants can significantly improve the prognosis of these patients, according to the results of a new study.

The new data suggest that it would be worthwhile to initiate a communitywide screening program to detect and treat AF in these asymptomatic patients. Such a screening program would even be cost-effective, say researchers.

Dr Ben Freedman (Concord Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia) told heartwire that the prevalence of AF worldwide is only going to increase with the aging baby boomers. "This epidemic is looming," he said. "In the next 10 or 20 years, we're going to see this enormous increase in atrial fibrillation. It's going to be asymptomatic and silent."

And unfortunately, the first manifestation of AF can be devastating. "Often, in patients, the first time you learn they have atrial fibrillation is when they present with a stroke," said Freedman. In fact, he said that AF is responsible for 20% to 33% of all strokes and that 20% to 45% of individuals who have an AF-related stroke did not have a prior diagnosis of AF.

Freedman, along with colleagues Dr Carlos Martinez (Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics, and Informatics, Frankfurt, Germany) and Dr Nicole Lowres (University of Sydney), published the new data on the prognosis of incidentally detected ambulatory AF in the August 2014 issue of Thrombosis and Haemostasis[1] and also presented more research on the topic here at this week's European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2014 Congress.

Client:
Dr. Phil Bain
Dean Clinic
Dean
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


3. Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention

dialysis_infection

BME 402
Students assigned: Alyssa Acker, Nicholas Gilling, Eric Howell, Nathan Leppert, David Schmidt
Advisor: John Webster

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis are trained to detect infection. The standard method requires the patients to inspect a small amount of fluid that has been drained out in a small transparent container. The patients are looking for a change in transparency of the fluid as this would suggest infection. This method has limitations for those with visual problems as well as the relative change can be misleading.

The project that I would like to propose would be the development of a device to aid in the detection of a change in the transparency for these patients. The poor detection of change for many patients has resulted in infection, hospitalization, loss of ability to do dialysis and even death.

I have some thoughts but would love to see what you guys come up with.

Client:
Dr. R. Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW Hospital
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


4. Transplant organ coolant management system

organ_cooler

BME 402
Students assigned: Reed Bjork, Monse Calixto, Alexandria Craig, Annie Yang
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Tissue Engineering

Summary
Background:
Transplant surgeons cool organs to near-freezing levels after procurement, but before transplantation in order to decrease rates of cellular metabolism. Even as much as several minutes of “warm time” can harm the organ. Thus, cooling organs is a major concern.

A routine part of transplant surgery is referred to as the “backbench” procedure. During this time (usually 30 min to 1.5 hours) the organs are prepared for transplantation. On the backbench, surgeons may reconstruct blood vessels, remove unnecessary soft tissues (such as fat), and identify important anatomy.

Currently, surgeons wait approximately 30 minutes for sterile ice to be prepared in order to prepare the organ on the backbench. The ice is then placed in a bowl. The transplantable organ is then placed in the bowl, where it is kept cold, while the surgeon preforms the necessary tasks.
During this time, the organs are unwieldy and difficult to manipulate, particularly when a surgeon is alone. As the surgeon manipulates the organ, many times the organ gets warmer than intended, in order to perform the necessary procedures. In addition, ice can be difficult to use as it melts quickly and as it may obstruct the surgeon’s view of the organ as the ice can be quite bulky.

Unmet need:
There is an unmet need for a device capable of 1) keeping an organ cold on the backbench, 2) stabilization of the transplantable organ, and 3) avoidance of bowls of ice on the backbench, 4) rapid cooling to avoid waiting 30 minutes for ice to form.

Suggested device parameters:
1) Must fit on a 2ft x 2ft operating room table
2) Must be sterilizable
3) Must allow for rapid cooling
4) Must be reusable
5) Must not interact with the UW solution or the organ result in harm
6) Must allow for easy manipulation or the organ by the operative surgeon

Materials
As needed. Many supplies are readily available through the UW Medical center. Any additional items are easily accessed.

References
Ortiz et al. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine; Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 187–190, August 2011 - This study is not ideal. It merely discussed the importance of keeping the organ cold. The device presented is helpful immediately after the "backbench procedure" is completed. http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/lib/img/organ_cooler.png

Client:
Dr. Joseph R. Scalea, MD and Dixon Kaufman MD, PhD
Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery
UW
(410) 905-4053
scalea@surgery.wisc.edu


5. Flexible microsurgical background

microsurgical_background

BME 402
Students assigned: Ross Barker, Michael Lohr, Shakher Sijapati
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Creating an optimized operative field for microsurgery is largely dependent on adequate visualization of vessels or nerves to be anastamosed. Two crucial aspects of optimized visualization are a high contrast environment and egress of fluid buildup in the operative field. Currently, a microsurgical "background" device exists, which is a rigid piece of suction tubing fitted to a bright yellow or blue piece of meshed silicone, allowing for constant suctioning of fluid beneath a highly contrasted background mat. Unfortunately, this background tubing is overly rigid such that it will consistently shift, move, and flip over, becoming unusable and requiring constant repositioning.
As such, the surgeons here at UW have created an improvised flexible microsurgical background consisting of a piece of Xeroform mesh (yellow, semipermeable petroleum infused gauze) wrapped around a pediatric feeding tube, which is affixed to low suction. This device serves the same function without the drawbacks of an overly rigid device. Its improvised nature, however, makes it time consuming to repeatedly create.
Our project would propose creating a flexible microsurgical background that could be packaged and reproduced to allow the advantages of a high contrast background and constant suction without the disadvantages of being overly rigid.

Materials
The commercially available MicroMat and previously created improvised devices could be procured and reproduced.

References
Current suction background available: http://www.pmtcorp.com/plastic_suction.html

Client:
Dr. Samuel Poore / Brian Christie
Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery
University of Wisconsin
(615) 500-6897
bchristie@uwhealth.org


6. Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace

dynamic_leg_brace

BME 402
Students assigned: Aaron Bishop, Alex Ehlers, Kyle Koehler, Brady Lundin, Emily Olszewski
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Biomechanics

Summary
People with cerebral palsy frequently have a crouched stance and gait due to muscle weakness and spasticity. Ankle foot orthotics are often used to improve the biomechanics of gait, however a limitation of this type of brace is that they are not dynamic. They are either fixed, allowing for no significant dorsi/plantar flexion, or they are articulated which allows for too much crouch during times of high fatigue or weakness. We are interested in having an anti crouch, dynamic brace developed. This would be a leg brace that would allow dorsi flexion when needed functionally, but would spring load back to keeping the tibia in line with the ankle during stance. this could be a brace that is a dynamic postural training device that could, ideally, work in combination with a foot orthotic.

Materials
We have articulated and fixed braces that were previously used and some access to an orthotics specialist.

References
To be discussed with team

Client:
Dr. Donita Croft
Medicine
Medical School
(608) 445-1536
dc2@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Wendy Stewart, PT
(608) 263-8412
wstewart@uwhealth.org


7. Inflatable vertebral body distractor

vertebral_body_distractor

BME 402
Students assigned: Ellis Cohen, Herman Feller, Joaquin Herrera, Joshua Plantz
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
In some cases of spine surgery the intervertebral disc is removed and the vertebral bodies are distraction to help with alignment of the spine. This is often done with metal spatula shaped tools or with mechanical jacks. Both of these tools have two problems. One, they have a narrow surface area so they can easily fracture the bone with the distractive forces. Two, they work along a linear trajectory so they cannot be manipulated easily to different regions of the intervertebral space to allow working space for graft placement. The goal of this project would be to develop an inflatable vertebral body distractor.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


8. Manual extraction of placenta training simulator

placenta_extraction

BME 402
Students assigned: Mensah Amuzu, Zachary Katsulis, Alexander McCunn, Bridget Smith, Aaron Sonderman
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Retained placenta occurs in approximately 3 percent of deliveries and is occasionally associated with life-threatening hemorrhage. Currently, this skill is taught through reading, video and rarely with supervised experience when need for the procedure arises in clinical care. There is no existing training simulator that allows for the sensory-motor skill development important for competence and confidence performing this procedure. A simulator for manual extraction of the placenta could have broad impact through incorporation into the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) course, which has been taken by over 160,000 maternity care providers in over 66 countries since it was developed in the UW Department of Family and Community Medicine in 1991.

Innovative UW Biomedical Engineering students are needed to develop the above simulator. A trip to labor and delivery at St. Mary’s Hospital will allow BME students to have a realistic understanding of placental anatomy. BME students will be given an existent mold for a uterus and placenta. Their job will be to create appropriate adhesion forces by incorporating small magnets into the placenta and uterus. Sensors will also be embedded and connected to software so those observing the placental extraction can see on a monitor what is occurring within the uterus. BME students will also need to develop an option of simulating a placenta acreta where the placenta has grown into the uterus and cannot be removed without dangerous hemorrhage. This project will have a $1000 budget.

Materials
Existing mold
Software and sensor mechanism
Up to $1000 from UW Dept Family Medicine Small Grant

References
1.Magann E, Evans S, Chauhan S, Lanneau G, Fisk A, Morrison J. The length of the third stage of labor and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:290-293.

2.Axemo P, Fu X, Lindberg B, Ulmsten U, Wessén A. Intravenous nitroglycerin for rapid uterine relaxation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:50-53.

3.Chandraharan E, Arulkumaran S. Acute tocolysis. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2005;17:151-156.

4.Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard J. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1458-1461.

5.Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) syllabus. Leawood, KS: American Academy of Family Physicians; 2014.

Client:
Dr. Lee T. Dresang
UW Department of Family Medicine
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 234-2086
lee.dresang@fammed.wisc.edu


10. Small caliber lead shafts of electrophysiologic catheters

multi_catheter

BME 402
Students assigned: Alexandra Picard, Kari Stauss, Katrina Strobush, Lauren Taylor
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Electrophysiologic studies require multiple catheters to be placed within the body. Currently this requires multiple sites of vascular access. This can result in 2-4 different puncture sites in the femoral or jugular vessels.

A relatively common complication of electrophysiologic studies is bleeding or bruising from his vascular access points.

Theoretically, multiple catheters could be placed through a single vascular access point as long as there was not significant obstruction by the other catheters. Therefore, the goal of this design project is to develop catheters with a narrow shaft to allow multiple catheters to be placed through a single entry point.

For example, a 7 Fr sheath could be inserted (2.3mm diameter) in the left femoral vein. Through this a 6.5 Fr catheter, a 5 Fr catheter and a 4 Fr catheter could be advanced one at a time. These catheters would have a normal sized distal end, but then narrow down to a thin stiff area near the site of vascular access. This would allow us to switch from 3 access points to a single access point.

Materials
I can obtain previously utilized catheters as well as expired catheters for dissection and reproducing. I will have a (fairly) limited amount of funds available.

References
None. This is the first of it's kind. No similar findings on limited web and patent search.

Client:
Dr. Nick Von Bergen
Pediatrics
The University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics
(608) 356-7911
vonbergen@pediatrics.wisc.edu


11. Fall triggered hip protectors

hip_protectors

BME 402
Students assigned: Patrick Cummings, Catherine Finedore, Cameron Hays, James Hermus, Austin Scholp
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics, Prosthetics
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Hip fractures are the most devastating osteoporosis related fractures causing increased risk for immobility, nursing home placement and death. Almost all hip fractures are related to a fall. Medications to improve bone quality can reduce hip fracture risk by 30-50%. Because of this hip protectors have been developed to absorb energy created by a fall and reduce the force placed on the femur. Studies have shown that hip protectors reduce hip fracture risk in older adults but the major problem is that acceptance of wearing them is very low because of discomfort, appearance and difficulties putting them on and getting them off. As such, there is a need to develop novel hip protectors that are capable of absorbing energy and prevent fractures but at the same time are comfortable to wear, easy to put on and take off and not noticeable.

Recently a Swedish company has developed an airbag for cyclist (http://www.hovding.com/how_hovding_works) which reacts (inflates) in case of an accident but not with usual motion. I am looking for a team which could develop a design that is based on the same concept - a wearable device (such as a belt) that would inflate / trigger an airbag in the event of a fall but not with usual movements such as walking, sitting down, walking stairs. It will require designing the hardware (wearable device, airbag and sensors) and develop an algorithm that can trigger the airbag in the event of a fall but not with usual movement

Materials
I have a mannequin from a previous project that could be use to test falls and design the wearable device.

References
http://www.iofbonehealth.org/epidemiology

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24687239

http://www.hovding.com/how_hovding_works

Client:
Dr. Bjoern Buehring
Department of Medicine
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-6410
bbuehring@medicine.wisc.edu


12. Upper limb support and immobilization during moderate aerobic exercise

arm_support

BME 402
Students assigned: David Neuser, Timothy Tyrrell, Benjamin Vander Loop
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The instructors of human physiology require a novel device that will immobilize the upper arm and therefore allow error-free blood pressure readings while the student is performing moderate aerobic exercise. More specifically, attempts to measure blood pressure with commercially available automatic pressure cuffs have been problematic as frequent errors result from cuff and arm movement while the students are utilizing recumbent exercise bicycles in our teaching laboratory. Thus we seek a device that comfortably supports and immobilizes the upper arm based on a design that includes adjustable height, adjustable angle, and adjustable position relative to the bicycle seat and student physique. This device will allow for technically adequate blood pressure readings to be taken once per minute while the student completes pre-programmed courses of varying intensity.

Materials
Exercise bicycles
Automatic blood pressure cuffs
Large number of students to test the device

Client:
Prof. Andrew Lokuta
Neuroscience
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-7488
ajlokuta@wisc.edu


13. Non-invasive quantitative airflow measurement

airflow_measurement

BME 402
Students assigned: Emily Carroll, Ping Hu, Jacob Kanack, Laura Wierschke
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
A need for a non-invasive quantitative flow sensor device arises not only in the research and teaching field but also in the medical filed inside and especially outside of the hospital environment. I am a pediatric anesthesiologist who works with very sick children and encounters difficult airway situations on a daily basis. Currently, the assessment of airway patency and hence airflow is a subjective measure and very dependent on provider expertise.

There are indirect airflow measure and surrogate measures available which are limited in their interpretation and are not accurate since they require either an invasive tool (airway intubation), or patient co-operation (spirometry), or need markers (magnetometer, pneumotography), or are not quantitative (End-tidal Co2 measurement, single laser sensor), or are limited to body movement (Fiber-Grating vision sensor, infrared thermography). Currently there is NO device available which meets these criteria
of measuring airflow non-invasively and quantitatively which has high sensitivity and low mean error.

The product would be a device, which continuously and non-invasively measures airflow through the upper airways (via a nasal cannula and/or face mask which is used on induction of pediatric patients), giving a quantitative measure of airway patency and indirectly information about ventilator effort/mechanics in non-intubated patients and facilitates early detection of decreased airflow during drug administration.

This device will be a respiratory thermal flow sensor (transducer), which will fulfill the requirements to measure volume flow rates during the breathing cycle.

The device must be easy to interpret, easy to apply in a clinical setting, well tolerated by different patient groups (especially the pediatric population), and provide visual and/or auditory information about airflow changes to the provider.
The device will meet the flow range of 0 -2.5 l/min, have a low mean error, show minimal flow resistance, contribute to dead space minimally (less then 10% of physiological dead space), will not need calibration, will have a dynamic range (different respiratory rates and different tidal volumes will be measured with the same device), will be reliable, easy to clean, must be small size and easy to apply.

This tool could also be used as a teaching device for airway management in anesthesia departments and other departments where sedation is given by non-anesthesia providers (any sedation changes the airflow and airway mechanics/ventilator efforts of patients).
In an office based setting, it is essential for practitioners to detect airway problems early allowing intervention in a timely fashion during the procedure preventing potential airway complications. Patient safety in office based settings where sedatives / anesthetics are used by non- anesthesiologists (i.e. dentists, endoscopic outpatient procedures in clinics) would be improved (obviously necessary based on several reports in the media recently documenting inadvertent complications including death in patients undergoing outpatient elective procedures). In the era of obesity and expanding outpatient procedures by non-anesthesiologists, recognition of impeding respiratory compromise is vitally important.

The current modalities to assess airflow changes and ventilator mechanics have limitations (Pulse oximetry, End-Tidal capnography, Thoracic impedance monitoring).

This project idea has its origin in the frustration for me as a pediatric anesthesiologist to teach my residents the respiratory volume changes during initiation of anesthesia for the pediatric patients. The smaller the patients the bigger are the consequences for delayed recognition of airway and flow changes. And this is I, an expert in the field saying this. My passion is to make this safer for our patients and to have a better teaching tool. But outside of our field, non-airway trained and non-anesthesiologist providers perform sedation for procedures. These providers are lack the airway training necessary to detect and treat airway compromise early. Tools currently available are delayed and are very prone to error, false positives leading to provider fatigue and are not reliable.

Materials
Ventilator which are used in the operating rooms to induce our patients into anesthesia

Breathing masks

Ventilator circuits

Hyperinflation and self inflating ambu-bags

Nasal cannulas

End-tidal Co2 moitors

Pulse oxymetry monitors

Flow measurements on our ventilator

My brain to pick on:)

And anything else you need, I can see if I can find it.

References
1: Schena E, Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Cecchini S. Flow measurement in
mechanical ventilation: a review. Med Eng Phys. 2015 Mar;37(3):257-64. doi:
10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.01.010. Epub 2015 Feb 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 25659299.

2: Cleary DR, Phillips RS, Wallisch M, Heinricher MM. A novel, non-invasive
method of respiratory monitoring for use with stereotactic procedures. J Neurosci
Methods. 2012 Aug 15;209(2):337-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.06.029. Epub
2012 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 22771713; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3429636.

3: te Pas AB, Wong C, Kamlin CO, Dawson JA, Morley CJ, Davis PG. Breathing
patterns in preterm and term infants immediately after birth. Pediatr Res. 2009
Mar;65(3):352-6. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318193f117. PubMed PMID: 19391251.

4: Hager DN, Fuld M, Kaczka DW, Fessler HE, Brower RG, Simon BA. Four methods of
measuring tidal volume during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Crit Care
Med. 2006 Mar;34(3):751-7. PubMed PMID: 16505661.

5: Al-Salaymeh A, Jovanović J, Durst F. Bi-directional flow sensor with a wide
dynamic range for medical applications. Med Eng Phys. 2004 Oct;26(8):623-37.
PubMed PMID: 15471690.

6: Kann T, Hald A, Jørgensen FE. A new transducer for respiratory monitoring. A
description of a hot-wire anemometer and a test procedure for general use. Acta
Anaesthesiol Scand. 1979 Aug;23(4):349-58. PubMed PMID: 495038.

Client:
Dr. Guelay Bilen-Rosas
Anesthesiology
School of Medicine
(608) 695-9349
bilenrosas@wisc.edu


14. Tri-axial ergonomic knee brace hinge

knee_brace

BME 402
Students assigned: Kevin Knapp, Jacob Levin, Kaitlyn Reichl, Conor Sullivan, Alexander Yueh
Advisor: Joseph Towles

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Solidworks design; prototyping

Summary
Background:
The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in athletes, with acute and overuse injuries seen as a result of participation in virtually all athletic activities, and is also commonly afflicted by osteoarthritis. Current knee braces are designed to resist abnormal joint motion, augment inherent mechanical stability of the normal knee and assist in restoration of normal mechanical stability in injured or rehabilitating knees. Hinged knee braces provide maximum level of stability, with prevention of hyperextension during activity.

Problem:
While the mechanical performance of hinges has been studied and improved over the years, the ergonomics of the hinge design are often lacking. Most hinges follow a straight line profile, even though the side of the knee does not follow this profile. An examination of leg size (thigh, knee, and calf) across non-athletic and athletic populations is needed to generate a more appropriate shape.

Project Description:
The team will redesign the tri-axial knee brace hinge such that it conforms better to the user’s knee, thus improving the fit, form, and function of the hinged knee braces. Using anthropomorphic research into the profile of the leg (width and curvature along the thigh, knee, and calf), the team will determine the correct shape(s) and size(s) of the hinge to fit a variety of end users (i.e. runners, football players, non-athletes). Emphasis will be placed on accommodating the largest number of end users with the minimum number of different hinges. A computer model will be built for preliminary testing to ensure adequate strength of the hinge (change of material recommendations or dimension and/or angle changes may result from early test results), and a model of the final design will be used to generate a prototype and drawing of the hinge.

Student Output:
•Anthropomorphic research to determine the profile of the leg
•Determination of the correct shape and size (curvature, length of upper and lower arms, width of hinge, etc.) of the hinge to fit the end user
•Building and preliminary testing of a computer model of the hinge design
•Prototype

References
1.Martin, T. J. Technical Report: Knee Brace Use in the Young Athlete. Pediatrics 108, 503–507 (2001).
2.Van Es, K. & Fryatt, K. (ed). Practical Concepts in Bracing. (2001). at
3.Noyes, F. R., Dunworth, L. A., Andriacchi, T. P., Andrews, M. & Hewett, T. E. Knee Hyperextension Galt Abnormalities in Unstable Knees Recognition and Preoperative Gait Retraining. Am. J. Sports Med. 24, 35–45 (1996).
4.Gravlee, J. R. & Van Durme, D. J. Braces and splints for musculoskeletal conditions. Am. Fam. Physician 75, 342–348 (2007).
5.France, E. P. & Paulos, L. E. Knee Bracing. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 2, 281–287 (1994).
6.Iorio, R. & Healy, W. L. Unicompartmental arthritis of the knee. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 85-A, 1351–1364 (2003).
7.Matsuno, H., Kadowaki, K. M. & Tsuji, H. Generation II knee bracing for severe medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 78, 745–749 (1997).
8.Pollo, F. E., Otis, J. C., Backus, S. I., Warren, R. F. & Wickiewicz, T. L. Reduction of Medial Compartment Loads with Valgus Bracing of the Osteoarthritic Knee. Am. J. Sports Med. 30, 414–421 (2002).
9.Gamble, R., Wyeth-Ayerst, J., Johnson, E. L., Searle, W.-A. & Beecham, S. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Arthritis Rheum. 43, 1905–1915 (2000).

Client:
Dr. Sarah Kuehl
Mueller Sports Medicine
(608) 643-8530
sarah.kuehl@muellersportsmed.com


15. Neural coding software suite

neural_coding

BME 402
Students assigned: Elliott Janssen Saldivar, Ian Kinsella, Zachary Petersen, Alison Walter, Laura Xu
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
The brain is an immensely complex network of billions of neurons, and the activity of these neurons is the basis for all of the cognitive processes that constitute conscious life. The study of these processes, via computational analyses, have prompted the development of new optimization routines, capable of discovering relevant signals in highly sophisticated systems such as the brain, by engineers and computer scientists. Be that as it may, these state of the art algorithms often remain inaccessible, because their use requires a level of computational knowledge and technical skill that amounts to a substantial barrier, which few cognitive neuroscientists overcome.

A team of student engineers will work together with researchers from UW Madison's Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science, and Psychology departments to transcend this boundary. The aim of the project will be to develop an fMRI analysis suite cable of implementing state of the art machine learning algorithms in conjunction with distributed high throughput computing systems such as HTCondor and the Open Science Grid.

This project is geared towards students with a computational foundation, and the skills that will be developed are best suited towards those with interests in medical imaging, machine learning, statistics, signal processing, cognitive neuroscience, data management, and web/UI design.

Materials
Computational resources and relevant software will be made available to the development team.

References
Figueiredo, M. & Nowak, R. (2014). Sparse estimation with strongly correlated variables using ordered weighted L1 regularization. Eprint arXiv:1409.4005, 2014.

Rao, N., Nowak, R., Cox, C.R., and Rogers, T.T. (2014). Logistic Regression with Structured Sparsity. to appear in the Journal of Machine Learning Research.

Rao, N., Cox, C.R., Nowak, R., and Rogers, T.T. (2013). Sparse Overlapping Sets Lasso for Multitask Learning and its Application to fMRI Analysis. Part of: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26.

Rasmussen M.A. , Bro R. (2012). A tutorial on the Lasso approach to sparse modeling, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 119 21–31.

Wright, S. J.; Nowak, R. D. & Figueiredo, M. A. T. (2009), 'Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation.', IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 57 (7) , 2479-2493 .

Client:
Dr. Rebecca Willett
Electrical and Computer Engineering
College of Engineering
willett@discovery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Chris Cox
crcox@wisc.edu


16. Ergonomic rodent bleed syringe

ergonomic_syringe

BME 402
Students assigned: Matthew Anderson, Nicholas Difranco, Yifan Li, Samantha Mesanovic, Joseph Ulbrich
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
When laboratory techs collect blood from rodents for analysis, they hold the syringe in one hand with their thumb and index and draw back with middle finger (the hand is in the supinated position). The amount of blood draw needed requires more length than most human fingers have in that position. Additionally, it is a static hold because the syringe creates negative pressure and can rebound back if released.

Ergonomic Improvement Idea:
o Design a tool or assist for pushing the syringe plunger back and can be used with one hand (stipulation: the motion needs to be very accurate).

In order to reduce fatigue and long-term injury experienced by laboratory technicians when performing the routine task of blood drawing, last semester's BME design team created an ergonomic syringe attachment that will allow for the efficient blood drawing from rats and other animals. The attachment will accomplish this by reducing the drawback force and joint angles required by the user when withdrawing various amounts of blood from a subject.

In the current semester, after a second iteration of the design process, the team will meet with the technicians and gather their opinions on the updated designs and examine the responses both qualitatively and quantitatively. After a final design has been chosen, production and materials for fabrication will be researched and chosen based on mechanical properties, cost, and weight. Materials and production rely heavily on which design is chosen, since they are so different. Once materials have been chosen for the final design, a final prototype (or prototypes) will be fabricated for testing purposes. Testing and data analysis will be done on the working prototype

Materials
Students will have an opportunity to observe the lab technicians performing this task and an opportunity for lab techs to field test their prototype ergonomic syringe tool. Supplies and materials needed to fabricate the ergonomic tool will be provided.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


17. Ergonomic tool to reduce lab technician strain

ergonomic_tool

BME 402
Students assigned: Matthew Grondin, Yitong He, Claire Hintz, Jonathon Leja, Micaella Poehler, Olivia Velazquez
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
Lab rodents are housed in caging on a stainless steel rack with plastic drawers that slide in and out to hold the animals. Each rack can house 50-100 animals (depending on species). The problem is caused when the plastics stick causing strain on lab tech's shoulders, wrists, elbows because of the high forces needed to pull them. The cages stick much like a used drawer on a dresser. Each cage is opened 6-8 times each day and the tech has to reach the top cages as well as the bottom ones, putting them in frequent awkward postures and loads in the arms and shoulders.

Ergonomic Improvement Ideas
o Design a cage opener (pulling mechanism, lever, handle etc. - needs to be very efficient)
o Devise a way to make the plastics stick less (cannot alter size/shape of cages, lubricants need to be able to withstand washing)

In order to make ergonomic improvement to reduce the lab technician strain, last semester's BME design team developed an ergonomic hand tool to open the bins and reduce the physical strain on the lab technicians. The final prototype utilizes leverage as a mechanical advantage to reduce the pulling force. Preliminary testing showed the time to open the bin when using the hand tool increased, but the perceived exertion and the force required to pull out the bin decreased. The current semester goals are to refine the design and conduct usability tests at the commercial laboratory facility.

Materials
Students will have the opportunity to observe lab techs performing the task and pilot test their prototype mechanism to verify that it reduces loading in the technicians' arms and shoulders.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


18. Measuring exercise systolic BP using finger laser doppler in kids

exercise_BP

BME 402
Students assigned: Michal Adamski, Katherine Barlow, Madison Boston, Haley Knapp, Lazura Krasteva
Advisor: Paul Thompson

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics, Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
We currently use simple auscultory-cuff method to measure BP during treadmill stress testing in adults and kids. In younger kids, 6-12 yr old however it is often difficult to hear the peak systolic sound that defines systolic pressure. Laser Doppler sampling from 1st finger or thumb at rest gives nice pulsed signal that can be used with BP cuff to find peak systolic BP equivalent. ( We use similar technique now using ultrasound Doppler to measure arm and leg systolic pressures).

The problem is that laser Doppler signals are motion sensitive.
Luckily when we do exercise BPs with kids on treadmill, we hold the arm up off the treadmill.

What we need is stabilizing glove/device that holds a laser Doppler probe in place on 1st finger or thumb pulp, while stabilizing the finger or thumb from movement that causes artifact on laser Doppler signal.

I'm hoping no amplification of signal will be needed.

Our group made great progress in acquiring readable and more stable signal to help determine systolic BP in kids exercising on treadmill (in which it is often difficult to auscultate the Korotkoff sounds).

By adding a second laser Doppler probe higher up on arm ( forearm or upper arm or even under the BP cuff itself), we are hoping to better define systolic pressure but also add pulse wave velocity measurement , which varies with arm blood pressure and adds useful information on arm artery stiffness.

If time allows we could also work on evaluation of endothelial function pre and post exercise.

Materials
I have been collecting laser Doppler devices off Ebay for 20 yrs, and have several Perimed laser Dopplers with different probes, a Transsonic device , and Medpacific device, plus Tektronix oscilloscope.

We can test anything we come up with on ourselves on treadmill.

Transonic Laser Doppler system with capacity for two laser Doppler probes.

Oscilloscope.

Video printer to record still frames from oscilloscope, ( or other data capture method, still working on this)

References
1) "Review of methodological developments in laser Doppler flowmetry"
Rajan V, Varghese B, van Leeuwen T, Stteenbergen W, Lasers Med Sci(2009), 24:269-283.

2) "Assessment of Endothelial and Neurovascular function in human skin
Microcirculation" Roustit and Crakowski, Trends in Pharm. Sci 34:373,
2013

3) "Non-invasive determination of skin perfusion pressure using laser Doppler", Castronuovo JJ et al, J Cardiovasc Surg 28:253-257, 1991

4) "Pulse transit times to capillary bed evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry", Bernjak A and Stefanovska, Physiol. Meas. 30: 245-260, 2009

Client:
Dr. Allen Wilson
Pediatric cardiology
UW-Madison
(608) 572-0634
adwilson@pediatrics.wisc.edu


19. Intraluminal tracheal ring stent for treatment of collapsing trachea in dogs

ring_stent

BME 402
Students assigned: Justin Faanes, Brian Frino, Isabella Griffay, Brenda McIntire
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Clinical problem:

Collapsing trachea in small breed dogs

Goal:

To design an intraluminal, self-expanding, ring stent for treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs

Background:

Tracheal collapse is a relatively common problem in small breed dogs such as the Yorkshire terrier, poodle, and Maltese. Tracheal collapse is typically due to chondromalacia and weakening of cartilaginous rings that results in flattening and collapse during breathing. Collapse typically occurs at the thoracic inlet but can involve the entire trachea including the main stem bronchi.

Tracheal collapse is classified as extrathoracic (cervical), intrathoracic or combined depending upon the anatomical location affected. The degree of collapse is also graded on a scale of 1 to 4 with grade 1 representing 25 percent collapse and grade 4 representing 100 percent collapse.

Clinical signs of tracheal collapse include a chronic honking cough that can progress to episodes of severe respiratory distress, hypoxia, cyanosis and collapse. For mild to moderate cases (grades 1 and 2), medical management including cough suppressants, anti-inflammatory medication, and sedation is often successful at reducing coughing episodes. However, tracheal collapse is generally progressive and many dogs go on to develop a more severe grade and eventually require surgical treatment.

Current surgical options include some type stent to support the trachea and prevent further collapse. Stents are classified as either intraluminal or extraluminal.

Intraluminal stents are typically made of a self-expanding metal (nickel-titanium alloy) that are placed under endoscopic or fluoroscopic guidance. The stent is deployed within the lumen of the trachea such that it spans the entire affected area and opens the trachea when it expands.

Extraluminal stents are typically made of rigid polypropylene that is molded into a “C” shape ring. The polypropylene rings are placed around the collapsed portion of the trachea via an open surgical approach and sutured to the cartilage to expand the collapsed area.

Both techniques are relatively effective but do have significant limitations and potential complications.

My experience with these cases has motivated me to investigate a better technique for managing tracheal collapse in dogs that combines the advantages of both the intraluminal and extraluminal stents while avoiding the respective limitations and complications.

Client:
Dr. Robert Hardie
Department of Surgical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 262-7257
hardier@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


20. Johnson Health Tech: Adaptive fitness equipment

adaptive_fitness_equipment

BME 402
Students assigned: Christopher Blanchard, Sarah Dicker, Anneka Littler, Andrew Siedschlag
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
About our Johnson Health Tech:
http://www.johnsonfitness.com/content/corporate-info

Since our beginning in 1975, Johnson Health Tech (JHT) has specialized in the design, production and marketing of award-winning fitness equipment. In our more than 35 years of business, JHT has grown tremendously in the ever-evolving fitness market. Based in Taiwan, we are Asia's largest, the world's third largest and one of the industry's fastest growing fitness equipment manufacturers.

Our brands have been sold across 60 countries and are marketed to the commercial, specialty and home-use markets. Our commitment to product innovation, superior value, and unmatched customer service has made JHT a leading provider of high-quality fitness equipment around the world.

About the project:

We are interested in developing adaptive devices to allow individuals who have lost a limb or have other physical disabilities to use our existing fitness equipment. Specifically, we would like a design team to choose one piece of equipment to modify. The two options are a seated rower or the KRANKcycle.

1. http://www.matrixfitness.com/en/group-training/cardio/Rower
2. http://www.krankcycle.com/

Students will be asked to sign a non-disclosure agreement.
Students may be asked to present at the North American Headquarters in Cottage Grove, Wisconsin.

Materials
A rower or Krankcycle will be made available.
Other materials and supplies will be made available as needed.

Client:
Ms. Jolene Enge
Johnson Health Tech
(608) 839-1240
jolene.enge@johnsonfit.com


21. Development of a microfluidic sampling and imaging device for microbial bioreactors

microfluidic_sampling

BME 402
Students assigned: Jehad Al-Ramahi, Jack Kegel, Alexander Letourneau, Emily Yachinich
Advisor: Mitch Tyler

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Cell Biology, Electronics, Imaging, Software, Microfluidics

Summary
Recently my lab has demonstrated real-time optogenetic feedback control of gene expression in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in a chemostat (Melendez, et al 2014). A chemostat is a bioreactor in which fresh nutrient-limited medium is continuously added and cell culture is continuously removed to keep the culture volume constant. The ability to accurately control a specific protein at a precise concentration will allow researchers to accurately measure the relationship between protein concentration and cell biological outputs including transcription and metabolism. Additionally, the ability to perturb specific proteins can be used for biological network identification. Finally, the ability to do real-time feedback control of protein concentration opens up the possibility of externally controlling synthetic and natural networks. We anticipate eventually being able to extend this technology to stem cells and other biological systems.

To accurately measure cell biology features such as morphology, protein localization, and gene expression in single cells we would like to be able to sample cells from the bioreactor (while these cells are undergoing protein control) and assay these features using fluorescence microscopy. To do this, we need a sampling device that will take a small volume of cells, trap the cells in a microfluidic device on a microscope, allow for imaging, and then move the cells to waste or back into the bioreactor. The sampling and trapping needs to be rapid, minimally perturb the cells, and be timed with appropriate image acquisition. The microfluidic device will most likely need to be valved, which will require an extra layer of device control. Images of the cells then need to be rapidly processed for features such as cell size and localization of fluorescence reporters. A crude device was described in Melendez, et al but it does not allow for detailed imaging. This project will require expertise in cell biology, microfluidics, image processing, instrumentation, and laboratory automation.

Materials
The relevant imaging system (Nikon TI-E inverted microscope), cell culture materials and yeast strains, and the device described in Melendez, et al

References
Melendez, J., Patel, M., Oakes, B.,Xu, P., Morton, P., and McClean, MN.(2014) Real-time optogenetic control of intracellular protein concentration in microbial cell cultures Integrative Biology 6(3) 366-72

Client:
Prof. Megan N McClean
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 890-0416
mmcclean@wisc.edu


22. Design of a novel HIV viral load assay for use in resource settings

HIV_viral_load

BME 402
Students assigned: Nicolaas Angenent-Mari, Bailey Flanigan, Theo Loo, Joseph Vecchi
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Global Health Engineering
Medical Specialty: Rural/Global Medicine
Skills: Cell Biology, Chemistry, Imaging, Software, Tissue Engineering, Molecular Biology

Summary
While HIV anti-retroviral treatments (ART's) are becoming more available in developing nations, Viral Load (VL) measurement continues to pose a challenge. VL measurement is crucial to management of HIV infections, and there is a need for both Point-of-Care (POC) and non-Point-of-Care VL assays that are are more suited to resource-poor settings (cost less, rely less on infrastructure such as electricity, etc).

Client:
Dr. David Beebe
Biomedical Engineering
UW-Madison
(608) 262-2260
djbeebe@wisc.edu


25. 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration

macular_degeneration_model

BME 301
Students assigned: Joshua Bensen, Nathan Bressler, Liu Leona, Joanna Mohr
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, microfluidics

Summary
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. It affects more than 17 million people in the U.S., which is more than all cancers combined. Neovascularization is the defining feature of late-stage, or ‘wet’, AMD, which represents 90% of AMD cases that lead to blindness. These abnormal vessels leak fluid or blood that damage the retina and cause acute vision loss. Unfortunately, existing treatments for wet AMD are accompanied by serious risks, and over 50% of patients still experience vision loss; the development of more effective therapies has been hampered by limited insight into the molecular mechanisms that promote angiogenesis in the retina.

The goal of this project is to design an in vitro 3D co-culture platform that mimics key components of the retinal milieu, specifically the sclera, choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Development of this platform will require a combination of tissue engineering and microfluidic construction techniques. Ultimately, it is hoped that this 3D system may be used to investigate causes of wet AMD and to identify novel treatments and serve as a drug testing platform.

References
BME Design team's prior work Fall 2015:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/macular_degeneration_model/

Client:
Prof. Kristyn Masters
Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering
kmasters@wisc.edu


26. Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing

abdominal_breathing

BME 301
Students assigned: Anupama Bhattacharya, Kayla Huemer, Hannah Lider, Melanie Loppnow
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
The prescription of breathing exercises is a common in both medical and psychological practices. In particular, slow, deep abdominal breathing has been shown to have therapeutic benefit for a variety of clinical problems, including asthma, anxiety in patients receiving chemotherapy, motion sickness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac disease and gastroesophegeal reflux disease. It is also used extensively in stress management programs. There is, in Japanese culture, a variation of abdominal breathing, called hara or tanden breathing, which is taught in Zen meditation, that has also been related to health.

To date, very little emphasis has been placed how to optimize the acquisition of the skill of abdominal breathing, let alone hara breathing. While electronic biofeedback devices using strain gauges or pressure sensors have been shown to be useful in training people in hara breathing, the laboratory equipment used in these studies is expensive and impractical to use one’s daily life. A team of students taking Biomedical Engineering Design 200/300 during the 2015 Fall semester designed a prototype digital device using an electro-resistive band as stretch sensor. Preliminary testing showed that this device provided the desired graphical feedback on a laptop computer of abdominal expansion and contraction requested by the client. However, further development is necessary.

The purpose of this project is to continue the development of an inexpensive digital biofeedback device to monitor abdominal pressure, and output these pressure readings in a format that can be ingested by diagnostic applications.

Draft specifications for the device are:

• Is Bluetooth / Wi-Fi compatible
• Exports pressure readings in a format that is easy for Android / iOS apps to ingest
• Pressure readings accurate enough for training purposes [further investigation may be needed to define what level this is]
• Can be adapted for use by large range of individuals of varying body sizes and types
• Is small enough to easily fit in pocket or clip inside belt
• Can be worn with a variety of types of clothing
• Weighs 100g or less
• Is wear-and-tear resistant
• Self contained, rechargeable power supply sufficient for at least 3 hours of use

Priorities for the Spring semester are as follows:
• Troubleshoot connection problems between the device and the monitor
• Test the physical durability of the electro-resistive bands
• Develop Wi-Fi/Bluetooth compatibility
• Miniaturize the circuitry
• Improve the digital feedback (eg visual or auditory)
• Field test the device

Materials
The student(s) will be asked to make recommendations for supplies and equipment required for the project. These items will be purchased as needed by the sponsors.

References
BME Design team's prior work Fall 2015:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/abdominal_breathing/

Cysarz, D., & Büssing, A. (2005). Cardiorespiratory synchronization during Zen meditation. Eur J Appl Physiol, 95(1), 88–95. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1379-3

Fumoto, M., Sato-Suzuki, I., Seki, Y., Mohri, Y., & Arita, H. (2004). Appearance of high-frequency alpha band with disappearance of low-frequency alpha band in EEG is produced during voluntary abdominal breathing in an eyes-closed condition. Neuroscience Research, 50(3), 307–317. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2004.08.005

Hirai, T. (1978). Zen and the Mind: Scientific approach to Zen practice. Tokyo: Japan Publications.

Kaushik, R., Kaushik, R. M., Mahajan, S. K., & Rajesh, V. (2005). Biofeedback assisted diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation versus propranolol in long term prophylaxis of migraine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13(3), 165–174. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2005.04.004

Lehrer, P. (2001). Biofeedback for Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Tanden Breathing among Zen Monks: Studies in Cardiovascular Resonance. In Respiration and Emotion (pp. 113–120). Tokyo: Springer Japan. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-67901-1_11

Lehrer, P., Sasaki, Y., & Saito, Y. (1999). Zazen and cardiac variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(6), 812–821.

Yu, X., Fumoto, M., Nakatani, Y., Sekiyama, T., Kikuchi, H., Seki, Y., et al. (2011). Activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system is associated with improvements in mood and EEG changes induced by Zen meditation practice in novices. Int J Psychophysiol, 80(2), 103–111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.02.004

Client:
Dr. Ken Kushner
(608) 235-2905
kkushner@wisconsinzen.org


27. Skin cancer detector

skin_cancer_detector

BME 301
Students assigned: Andrew Duplissis, Ashley Hermanns, Nicholas Hoppe, Jason Wan
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
We want to develop a skin cancer detector. It would be placed on the skin to examine moles. A hand held pen sized probe would be placed on the mole. The 2 mm diameter cylindrical tip would have 2 outer electrodes to pass current I into the mole and 2 inner electrodes to measure the resulting voltage V. This yields resistance R = V/I, which may be lower for rapidly developing cancer. A thermocouple or resistance temperature detector would measure temperature, which may be higher for rapidly developing cancer. Write an application to do research on human subjects and submit it to the UW Institutional Review Board (IRB). Test patients at a skin cancer clinic to compare results from cancerous and noncancerous moles.

Materials
Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/skin_cancer_detector/

http://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Rosemount%20Analytical%20Documents/Liq_ADS_43-018.pdf Fig. 4

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
UW Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Donald S Schuster, Dept Dermatology
(608) 238-7179
donaldsgolf@yahoo.com


30. inseRT MRI: MR guidance system for microwave ablation

MR_probe_holder

BME 301
Students assigned: Zachary Burmeister, Jin Hwang, John Jansky, Michael McGovern, Katherine Peterson
Advisor: Beth Meyerand

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Radiology, Oncology
Skills: Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, 3D printing

Summary
Neuwave Medical is Madison-based startup that has generated an FDA-approved method to kill tumors in a minimally invasive manner by placing a needle-lke antenna into the body and heat the tumor from within with microwave energy.

Guiding the needle-like device is often done with ultrasound. In some cases however, tumors are only visible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI also allows the surgeon to map the temperatures created by the device, which allows the surgeon to protect healthy tissue while assuring temperatures high enough to kill the tumor are created in the tumor zone. This capability would be very desirable in certain parts of the body where crucial tissues are nearby, for example near the spinal cord near a bone metates in the spinal column.

The ideal team would be mechanically inclined to develop 1) additional hardware that is compatible with the Neuwave probe and 2) methods to attach the port to the body. The fun of the project will be designing solutions that fit in the cramped MR bore. The clients have ideas where you could start.

Opportunities in developing intellectual property are likely available.
A successful device would be utilized in pre-clinical MR-guided surgical experiments this spring that is aimed for a peer-reviewd publication. Authorship will be considered for all team members who contribute to the end result.

Materials
Client will work with team if 3D printing and/or other facilities are needed either on campus or Sector 67.

Clients will help team learn the applications intended and work to demonstrate their prototypes in the MR environment.

Design team will work with a heavily motivated and funded team of UW BME Professors ( Block and Brace), staff scientists ( Ethan Brodsky and Peng Wang), and surgeons.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/MR_probe_holder/

1. Liver Ablation: Best Practice.
Wells SA, Hinshaw JL, Lubner MG, Ziemlewicz TJ, Brace CL, Lee FT Jr.
Radiol Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;53(5):933-71. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2015.05.012. Review.
PMID: 26321447
Similar articles
Select item 26133361

2. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems.
Harari CM, Magagna M, Bedoya M, Lee FT Jr, Lubner MG, Hinshaw JL, Ziemlewicz T, Brace CL.
Radiology. 2015 Jul 2:142151. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 26133361
Similar articles
Select item 25539257

3. Microwave ablation of hepatic tumors abutting the diaphragm is safe and effective.
Smolock AR, Lubner MG, Ziemlewicz TJ, Hinshaw JL, Kitchin DR, Brace CL, Lee FT Jr.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Jan;204(1):197-203. doi: 10.2214/AJR.14.12879.
PMID: 25539257
Similar articles
Select item 25446425
4.

Client:
Dr. Peng Wang
inseRT MRI
UW Madison Radiology
(608) 320-3973
pwang6@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Walter Block
Biomedical Engineering
(608) 265-9686
wfblock@wisc.edu


31. Expandable bone graft

bone_graft

BME 301
Students assigned: Annamarie Ciancio, Kristen Driscoll, Trenton Roeber, Brian Yasosky
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
In some cases in spine surgery it is necessary to perform a bone fusion in the intervertebral space (the space between the 2 vertebral bodies). This is done by removing the intervertebral disc and then placing bone graft. Traditional bone grafts are rectangular or cresent shaped. The graft is placed through a small surgical corridor. The graft needs to be large enough to support the vertebral bodies but not so large that it injures the surrounding nerves. It would be easier and safer to develop an expandable bone graft that could be inserted in a collapsed form and then expanded to fill the disk interspace. The goal of this project would be to develop an expanding interbody bone graft. This has already been done using a mechanical jack design. However, I would like to develop an expandable graft that is similar to a balloon but would be filled with bone graft material. This should be made out of a biomaterial that would allow bone fusion to occur but also would be strong enough to support the biomechanical forces of the spine as healing occurs.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/bone_graft/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/bone_graft/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s14/bone_graft/

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


32. Wearable digital loupe magnification device

digital_loupe

BME 301
Students assigned: Keith Dodd, Austin Gehrke, Andrew Hajek, Douglas Streeten
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Magnification Loupes for surgical applications have existed for over 100 years. The overall design of these loupes has not changed considerably in that time. An example of these loupes is available at this website (http://designsforvision.com). Essentially these consist of glass magnifying optics mounted in eyeglass frames or head mounted. These loupes are practical and relatively inexpensive but they suffer from a few flaws that I believe current technological advances will be able to improve.

There are 4 areas of improvement for surgical loupes. 1) Loupes are mounted in line of sight. Therefore in order to look at the surgical field the surgeon has to flex the neck which can cause pain, strain and repetitive injury because of poor ergonomics. 2) The loupes are mounted in the visual field and therefore to work without magnification the user must turn the head to look around the loupes. 3) The depth of field and working length are fixed in the current loupe design. 4) The weight of surgical loupes increases with increased magnification and can be uncomfortable.

This invention is a wearable digital video loupe magnification. The invention will be worn like glasses. Two cameras will be mounted on the brow of the glasses to allow for a stereoscopic view of the surgical field. The camera images will then be projected in the field of view of the surgeon to allow for visualization of tissue and anatomical structures. Variations of this design would include head mounted and stand mounted cameras that could provide the image of the surgical field. The digital signal processor (DSP) may be either wired and worn by the surgeon or may be connected wirelessly.

Technology now exists that is likely to be small enough and powerful enough to allow significant improvement in the design of surgical loupes: 1) miniature HD digital cameras exist such as those used in smart phones 2) Wearable displays are being developed for use in entertainment as video viewers. However, these may be able to be modified to display digital camera data.

This invention will improve on existing magnification loupe technology in the following ways:
1) The angle of the camera will allow the surgeon’s head position to be neutral to avoid neck strain and repetitive injury. 2) These loupes will allow adjustable magnification and working distance. 3) These loupes will also allow an unobstructed unmagnified view when not in use. This will be done using a prism lens that can be moved out of the field of view or with a miniature high definition LCD screen where the image can be modified to be seen partially or not at all (as desired). 4) The digital camera will allow improved light amplification using digital signal processing. 5) The digital cameras will allow visualization of light outside the visible spectrum for fluorescence mapping.

Materials
Digital Cameras
Lenses
Glasses/Goggles

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/digital_loupe/

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UWSMPH
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


34. Hip aspirate model to teach physicians

hip_model

BME 301
Students assigned: My An-Adirekkun, Jessica Brand, Stephen Schwartz
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software, Anatomy

Summary
1) OVERVIEW
Septic arthritis of the hip is a pediatric orthopedic emergency. Failure to accurately diagnose the condition in a timely manner can lead to life long sequelae. Fortunately septic arthritis is a relatively uncommon childhood disorder occurring in about (3-12.5/100,000). Most commonly this infection involves children under the age of 2 years old. It is generally felt that the intra-articular infection occurs when bacteria are transmitted hematogenously from other common sites of childhood infection (ears, nose, throat, cuts, scrapes etc.) to the proximal femur. Because the proximal femoral growth plate resides within the hip joint capsule, the bacterial can spread from the bone into the joint space itself. Once in the joint, the bacteria and the ensuing immune response, with its cytotxic chemicals, can cause destruction of the hip joint cartilage. As the infection continues, increased pressure builds within the hip joint that can eventually decrease the vascular perfusion of the femoral head and lead to avascular necrosis. Avascular necrosis in these young children can result in lifelong disability and pain.

The optimal care for these children involves timely diagnosis and treatment, including appropriate antibiotic coverage and surgical debridement. While vital signs, clinical exam, and blood tests can aid in making an accurate diagnosis, joint fluid obtained from X-ray or ultrasound (US) guidance, is critical in confirming the diagnosis. At many centers, hip aspiration relies on the availability of fellowship trained MSK or pediatric radiologists to aspirate fluid from the hip joint. When they are unavailable, the child often has ideal treatment delayed, until the diagnostic procedure can be performed. This often occurs despite “hip joint aspiration and debridement” being one of the required ACGME surgical skills necessary to document orthopedic resident proficiency. Due to the relatively low frequency of this disorder, and yet the high clinical importance of accurate diagnosis, orthopedic and radiology residents get very little hands-on experience practicing and performing these procedures, despite the ACGME requirement. Currently there are no commercially available simulation models that would allow residents to practice X-ray and US guided hip aspiration in the infant.

The long-term goal of this proposal is to develop an infant hip model and OSATS that will allow residents to practice and document proficiency at X-Ray and US guided hip aspiration as well as the anterior surgical approach to the hip joint. Once completed, this would ideally be available for use at multiple training centers. We will accomplish this by the development of a base infant model. An aspiration insert and an anatomic insert will be developed. These inserts will be easily replaceable for use and reuse of the model. While the model will be able to address both aspiration and debridement, the focus of this grant will be joint aspiration.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/hip_model/

Client:
Dr. Matthew Halanski
Orthopedics and rehabilitation
AFCH
(608) 265-4086
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


36. Back support for surgeons

back_support

BME 301
Students assigned: Alec Hill, Molly Scott, Liam Takahashi, Michael Weiser
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Dr. Radwin’s contact, a father of a surgeon, attempted to design an exoskeleton to act as a support during surgery, as his son is experiencing lower back problems from bending over as far as 45 degrees during surgery for a duration as long as eight hours. A more effective and less encumbering design must be created to alleviate the surgeon’s back problems.

Last semester a BME design team designed a functioning proof-of-concept prototype. The goal for the current semester is to the modify the design to allow for a greater range of movement, and not interfere with the surgeon’s normal movement. Also the design must be more compact to fit under the surgeon’s gown. Usability tests should be conducted to validate the design based on EMG muscle activity measurements in the back.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/back_support/

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Chase Lee
(732) 463-2100


41. Continuous monitoring of asthma control

asthma_control

BME 402
Students assigned: Lida Acuna Huete, Cassandra Thomas, Jesse Wang
Advisor: Thomas Yen

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
An asthma action plan (AAP) is a set of medication changes custom designed for asthma patients in case of an asthma exacerbation. However, many asthma patients fail to utilize the plan due to the subjective nature of when to implement and insensitivity to early symptoms of an asthma exacerbation. Continuous monitoring of important indicators of asthma exacerbation such as shortness of breath from decreased respiratory volumes, cough and wheeze allows real time detection of an asthma exacerbation and helps patients utilize their AAP in a more timely manner. This project involves taking an existing "asthma shirt" with sensors that measure volume changes and sounds to optimize data collection and establish algorithms to analyze tidal volume, respiratory rate, cough and wheezing sounds, remove motion artifacts, and combine these data to alert the patient to proceed with an AAP.

Materials
1. Asthma shirt that measures ventilation and sounds
2. Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
1. Gavriely, N., Palti, Y., Alroy, G., & Grotberg, J. B. (1984). Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57(2), 481-492.
2. Oletic, D., Arsenali, B., & Bilas, V. (2014). Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing. Sensors, 14(4), 6535-6566.
3. Kraman, Steve S., et al. "Measurement of respiratory acoustic signals: effect of microphone air cavity width, shape, and venting." CHEST Journal 108.4 (1995): 1004-1008.
4. Korenbaum, V. I., Tagil’tsev, A. A., Kostiv, A. E., Gorovoy, S. V., & Pochekutova, I. A. (2008). Acoustic equipment for studying human respiratory sounds. Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 51(2), 296-303.
5. Gaetano D Gargiulo, Aiden O’Loughlin and Paul P Breen, Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study, Physiol. Meas. 36 (2015) N35–49, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/2/N35

Client:
Dr. Sameer Mathur
Medicine-Allergy
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-2804
sm4@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


43. Model of ex vivo lung development

exvivo_lung

BME 301
Students assigned: Anjali Begur, Jacob Diesler, Katrina Ruedinger, Michelle Tong, Trevor Zarecki
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Fetal breathing is initiated very early in gestation and stimulates lung growth and pulmonary blood flow. It is postulated that the mechanical force generated by fetal breathing directs fetal lung growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, in conditions where the normal mechanics of fetal breathing are disrupted by congenital defects, lung growth is dramatically and adversely altered. One of these defects is congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In these infants, there is a hole in one of the hemidiaphragms. Intestinal organs herniate through this hole into the chest thereby disminishing the normal mechanical forces of both inspiration (negative pressure) and expiration (positive pressure). Predictably, neonates born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) face significant morbidity and mortality mainly because their under-developed lungs cause severe gas-exchange insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension.

In our laboratory, we want to study how mechanical forces control lung development. We want to create a device that simulates mechanic properties of an embryonic mouse' thoracic cavity around gestational day 10-20. The device is used to culture embryonic mouse lung explants that harvested at day 9.5 and grow until day 15. The anticipated volume of these explants are around 1-3 cm^3. The device will contain tissue culture media in an chamber that will be able to generate a range negative and positive pressures to simulate the forces applied on the lungs by chest wall anddiaphragm. It is important to have a precise control of these pressures and ability to fluctuate these pressures to mimic breathings via pressure transducers inside the chamber. A transparent chamber would also be ideal as it allow investigators to monitor explant growth during the course of the experiment.

Understanding the effect of mechanical forces on lungs will help us better understand how lung develop, growth and regenerate. We hope to be able to recapitulate this process in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia to help their lungs grow after birth to improve survival. Moreover, our knowledge of pulmonary mechanicosensing can also help us understand many other lung diseases such as brochopulmonary dysplasia or lung trauma from mechanical ventilation.

Materials
- Embryonic mouse lungs
- Tissue culture media
- Pressure transducers (if needed)

References
Polglase, G. R., Wallace, M. J., Grant, D. A. & Hooper, S. B. Influence of fetal breathing movements on pulmonary hemodynamics in fetal sheep. Pediatr. Res. 56, 932–938 (2004).

Quinn, T. P., Schlueter, M., Soifer, S. J. & Gutierrez, J. A. Mechanotransduction in the Lung Cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF and FGF-2 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells Cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF and FGF-2 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 282, 897–903 (2002).

Rhodes, J., Saxena, D., Zhang, G., Gittes, G. K. & Potoka, D. a. Defective Parasympathetic Innervation is Associated with Airway Branching Abnormalities in Experimental CDH. Am. J. Physiol. - Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. ajplung.00299.2014 (2015). doi:10.1152/ajplung.00299.2014

Client:
Dr. Hau D. Le
Surgery
SMPH
(617) 510-2118
leh@surgery.wisc.edu


44. Orthopedic screw torque measurement

torque_measurement

BME 301
Students assigned: Connor Ford, Madalyn Pechmann, Rachel Reiter, Heather Shumaker
Advisor: Chris Brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior. Unlike smaller animals or human patients, long bone fracture constructs in horses experience substantial loading during recovery from general anesthesia immediately after fracture repair. After surgery, horses will typically apply substantial static loads to the construct, as they cannot stand or walk on three limbs. Therefore, the fracture-implant construct needs to be as strong as possible mechanically to allow the fracture to heal successfully without implant breakage or loosening. During orthopedic surgery, bone screws are typically tightened to a subjective torque value by the surgeon during placement. Despite reported ranges of optimal torque in the literature, there is no definitive standardized optimal tightening torque values that reflect potential torque relaxation of bone screws after insertion in bone in equine patients undergoing fracture repair.

Our goal is to design and engineer a digital torque screwdriver for use in clinical patients during implant placement for fracture repair or method to measure torque during screw implantation.

Materials
We have example Synthes 4.5 mm, 3.5 mm and 5.5 mm screw drivers and bone screws available for use in this design project and other surgical instruments that may be relevant to the work.

References
Complete extended project description from client:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/temp/BMEdesignprojectDigitaltorquescrewdrivermodel.pdf

Client:
Dr. Sabrina Brounts, DVM, MS, DACVS, DECVS, DACVSMR
Large Animal Surgery
UW School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 263-7600
sabrina.brounts@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Dr. Jennifer Whyard, BVetMed MRCVS
(608) 335-1659
jennifer.whyard@wisc.edu

Prof. Peter Muir BVSc, MVetClinStud, PhD, Diplomate ACVS, ECVS
(608) 263-7600
peter.muir@wisc.edu


45. Pacemaker - epicardial wire - telemetry adaptor

telemetry_adaptor

BME 301
Students assigned: Matthew Knoespel, Randal Mills, James Olson, Connor Sheedy, Philip Terrien
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
The device is an adaptor which allows both pacing and recording of cardiac signals from temporary pacing wires which are placed on the outside of the heart (epicardium) after cardiac surgery. The device is to be used in a patient who has had epicardial wires placed after a cardiac surgery (as the epicardial wires are not part of the device itself). The epicardial wires attach to the device, which can relay the signals to the bedside telemetry and to a bedside pacemaker. If pacing is required the device limits the pacing artifact to the bedside telemetry while preserving the remainder of the signal. This can then allow continual monitoring of the cardiac signals, while allowing pacing to be utilized if necessary all while attached both to a pacemaker, and the beside telemetry.

I am currently using a voltage gated switch to isolate the pacing spike from the bedside telemetry (wiring diagram available on request). The switch disconnects the bedside telemetry at the onset of the pacing spike, and reconnects at the conclusion of the pacing spike. This was functional in the biomedical laboratory with simulated signals, but has not been tested on cardiac tissue. I think it may be better served with a switch to wire impedance matching, but will appreciate assistance by the Bio-med team...

This is the status of the device to date as developed by me (while at the University of Iowa with slight further development here). I have been discussing with Erick Oberstar (Biomedical PHD student), who will likely assist.

I need to
1) Test other ideas out (impedance matching...)
2) Improve the prototype based on changes to the system/design
3) Test in biomedical engineering lab
4) Eventually, we can test in the pig lab.

Materials
1) Basic wiring diagram of first iteration with breadboard.
2) I can provide money for the development of the project.
3) I can provide prior work.

References
None.

Client:
Dr. Nick Von Bergen
Pediatric Cardiology
UW Hospitals and Clinics
(319) 594-3636
vonbergen@pediatrics.wisc.edu


46. Design of minimally invasive spinal rods benders and cutters

spinal_rod_cutter

BME 301
Students assigned: Joshua Bunting, Anna Elicson, Danielle Redinbaugh, Brittany Warnell, Lisa Wendt
Advisor: John Puccinelli

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Spinal deformity surgery is common in pediatric orthopedics. Often cobalt chrome, stainless steel, or titanium rods in 4.0-6.0 mm diameters are used to correct the deformity and hold the correction. Often the relative length of the rod needed for the deformity correction can be difficult to get precisely correct prior to implanting the devices. Occasionally these need to be recontoured once they are placed. Currently very large "rod benders" exist, but fitting these devices into the proximal or distal ends of the surgical wound can be difficult. Similarly if the rod is too long following insertion, they can be cut, but again using current cutting devices can be very difficult. This project involves designing a rod cutter and or rod bender that can be placed easily into the wound.

Materials
We have spinal fixation devices, rods, and access to current cutting and bending devices. Lab space and mechanical testing areas are available in the lab as well.

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


48. To develop a surgical centrifuge that saves blood

surgical_centrifuge

BME 301
Students assigned: Peter Moua, Christopher Nguyen, David Piotrowski, Mitch Resch, Tasnia Tabassum
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Currently blood loss in the operating room is managed by use of a cell saver. With that technology blood is sucked up and filtered and given back to the patient. Unfortunately a lot of blood is also soaked up in sponges that are like super fine rags. This blood cannot be retrieved and is lost. One solution is to have a washing machine/centrifuge on the operating room table that will spin and wash the sponges gently with sterile saline and then the bloody fluid is delivered into the cell saver and filtered and given back to the patient.

In this project Students would develop a centrifuge that washes the sponges and centrifuges the blood cells to the cell saver.

Client:
Dr. Ken Noonan
Orthopedics
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-1344
noonan@ortho.wisc.edu


49. Wireless, small and adhesive ultrasound probe for research

wireless_ultrasound

BME 301
Students assigned: Steven Gock, Peter Hartig, Nicholas Maurer, Jack McGinnity, Jennifer Westlund
Advisor: Beth Meyerand

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
The goal of this study is to develop a non-invasive method to detect alterations in airflow during the administration of sedation and anesthesia using ultrasound signaling. Trans-tracheal ultrasound imaging technology has the potential to detect early airway compromise in sedated patients, particular in the pediatric population.

The image area of interest is very narrow and needs a very steady and quiet hand to hold the ultrasound probe in position. During various breathing maneuvers, this challenge is even bigger.

We are proposing a design development for a wireless and small ultrasound probe which has the capability to attach via a ultrasound conductive adhesive.

Despite technological advancements and improved anesthetic agents leading to a high safety profile of anesthesia and sedation, morbidity and mortality rates remain high in spontaneously breathing patients due to the delayed detection of early airway obstruction. This is primarily due to an increasing number of procedures requiring sedation in an outpatient setting, compounded by the burgeoning practice of non-anesthesiologists with varying levels of education and training for airway management providing sedation.

Current monitoring techniques are ineffective in directly measuring airflow changes necessary to detect early airway obstruction in spontaneously breathing and non-intubated patients undergoing sedation.

The most common method employed in monitoring airflow is End-tidal CO2. However, End-tidal CO2 has inherent limitations as it is an indirect measure of alterations in airflow and becomes increasingly inaccurate in non-intubated patients due to the lack of a closed circuit. The end result is data, which is difficult for the practitioner to interpret in spontaneously breathing patients often leading to delays in the treatment of early airway compromise.

Presently, the success of early detection of airway obstruction relies heavily on physician expertise. A minimally invasive method of quantifying small changes in airflow patterns will allow physicians with various degrees of experience to detect early airway obstruction and provide an efficient teaching tool in the training of residents and fellows.

If successful, ultrasound provides an inexpensive, widely available technology that could be adapted to monitor tracheal tissue changes associated with changes in airflow leading to improvement in the current methods of airway monitoring thus improving patient outcome.

Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely
Guelay Bilen-Rosas, MD

Materials
Ultrasound at UW Hospital
Animal cadavers

References
References

1. Sohn DW, Chai IH, Lee DL, Chan HC, Kim HS, Oh, B.H>, Lee MM, Park YB, Choi YS, Seo JD and Lee YW. Assessemnt of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1997;30:474-480.

2. Nagueh SF, Middleton KJ, Kopelen HA, Zoghbi WA and Quinones MA. Doppler tissue imaging: A noninvasive technique for evaluation of left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressures. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1997;30:1527-1533.

3. Nagueh SF, Sun H, Kopelen HA, Middleton KJ and Khoury DS. Hemodynamic determinants of the mitral annulus diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2001;37:278-285.

4. Bae HK, Choi HS, Sohn S, Shin HJ, Nam JH and Hong YM. Cardiovascular screening in asymptomatic adolescents with metabolic syndrome. J Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2015;23:10-19.

Client:
Dr. Guelay Bilen-Rosas
Anesthesiology
School Of Medicine
(608) 695-9349
bilenrosas@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Carol Mitchell
(608) 262-0680
ccm@medicine.wisc.edu

Humberto G. Rosas
(608) 265-2762
hrosas@uwhealth.org


50. Fastest shoes on the planet

enhanced_orthotics

BME 301
Students assigned: Sheetal Gowda, Madeline Gustafson, Breanna Hagerty, Isaac Loegering, Christina Sorenson
Advisor: Ed Bersu

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Mechanics, mechatronics, applied physics, CAD, bioengineering

Summary
We have design Foot Orthotics enhanced with advanced composite spring levered simple machine gait system. US Pat. # 8,353,968

We are looking for a design assessment (re-design if necessary) including Finite Element Analysis of the advanced composite spring lever gait system, 3D modeling of devices, and benchtop testing for spring moduli of composite materials with current ASTM standards.

Materials
Kingetics can supply composite materials and samples of orthotic systems.

References
www.kingetics.com -- look under the MAREN tab for current research results and sample footwear systems.

www.mauipodiatry.com -- for published articles

http://www.wearablerobotics.com/view-submissions/ --for WearRAcon 16 new innovation submission, accepted as 2016 finalist.

http://www.thecamx.org/wp-content/uploads/2015-ACE-Awards-Book.pdf -- for CAMX 2015 new innovation award.

Client:
Dr. Steven King DPM C.Ped
Kingetics LLC -a veteran owned American small business
(808) 243-5464
kingetics@gmail.com


51. Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor

protein_sensor

BME 301
Students assigned: Samantha Bremner, Brendan Drackley, Mona Omari, Ryan Sepehr
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Software

Summary
A quantitative reporting of protein level is important in many biomedical applications. For example, the blood coagulation cascade consists of a complex interaction between many proteins ultimately resulting in the formation of a blood clot. Abnormal levels of the coagulation proteins can result in coagulation abnormality leading to pathological thrombosis (too much blood clot) or bleeding. A simple point-of-care reporting of the amounts of proteins of the coagulation cascade will allow rapid diagnosis and treatment for bleeding abnormalities.

The project uses a novel short peptide-based reporter sensitive to the microenvironment. Binding of the reporter to the target protein results in an increase in the light intensity and a shift in the emitted light (i.e. a color changing and turning-on, CCTO sensor). We have identified a CCTO sensor to a model glutathione transferase model protein target and ongoing efforts will attempt to discover CCTO sensors to the coagulation cascade proteins.

The engineering task is to develop a compact inexpensive optoelectronic device for recording and quantifying the CCTO sensor output.

Materials
1. CCTO reporter targeting a model GST protein target with a well-characterized spectral absorption and emission.
2. Supply money of up to $5000. for purchase of materials and supplies.

I envision an LED-based excitation light source stimulating the CCTO reporter where the fluorescence output will be proportional to the amount of target GST protein present. The emitted light will be captured by a photoelectric cell and the analog signal digitized by a A/D converter and processed by an Arduino microprocessor.

References
Taki et al "Selection of color-changing and intensity-increasing fluorogenic probe as protein-specific indicator obtained via the 1-BASE-T", Analytical Chem, 2015, epub ahead of print.

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
Medicine and Public Health
jyang75@wisc.edu

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