Project Selection

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention dialysis_infection Bioinstrumentation Urology
2 400 Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace dynamic_leg_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
3 Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection aortic_dissection Medical Imaging, Biomechanics Cardiology
4 400 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration macular_degeneration_model Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials Ophthalmology
5 Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing abdominal_breathing Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pulmonology
6 Skin cancer detector skin_cancer_detector Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Oncology
7 Expandable bone graft bone_graft Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurology
8 Wearable digital loupe magnification device digital_loupe Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors Surgery
9 Back support for surgeons back_support Biomechanics Surgery
10 Continuous monitoring of asthma control asthma_control Bioinstrumentation Pulmonology
11 Model of ex vivo lung development exvivo_lung Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics Pulmonology
12 Orthopedic screw torque measurement torque_measurement Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Orthopedic Surgery
13 To develop a surgical centrifuge that saves blood surgical_centrifuge Biomechanics, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Surgery
14 Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor protein_sensor Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation Medical Imaging
15 Design of minimally invasive spinal rods cutters (or bender) spinal_rod_cutter Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
16 Hip aspirate model to teach physicians hip_model Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation, Orthopedic Surgery
17 Individualized functional finger prosthesis finger_prosthesis Biomechanics, Biomaterials Plastic Surgery
18 Spider cage to support cerebral palsy patient spider_cage Biomechanics, Human Factors Pediatrics
19 Automatic intraventricular drainage system automatic_IVD Biomechanics Neurology
20 Hydrocephalus shunt valve measuring ambient pressure shunt_valve Biomechanics Neurology
21 Sleep apnea therapy device sleep_apnea Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pulmonology
22 Respiratory motion MRI phantom respiratory_phantom Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Medical Simulation, Radiology
23 3D scanning tank phantom positioning validation device phantom_position Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Medical Imaging
24 400 Water-free radiation depth dose profile measurement device radiation_depth Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Medical Imaging
25 Automated quality assurance system for clinical CT systems CT_quality Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Radiology, Medical Imaging
26 Ergonomic re-design of a surgical stapling device surgical_stapler Human Factors, Biomechanics Surgery
27 System design for densitometry: DXA densitometry Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Medical Imaging
28 I've fallen and need to get up-Device to lift a fallen elder back into their chair life_assist Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Geriatrics
29 200/300 Lightweight device with an LED and fan to reduce strain on orthopedic surgeons spacesuit_light Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors Surgery
30 Microscope cell culture incubator scope_incubator Bioinstrumentation, Cellular Engineering Research
31 Non-invasive continuous glucose monitor glucose_monitor Bioinstrumentation Endocrinology
32 200/300 Non invasive EMG/NCV non_invasive_emg Bioinstrumentation Neurology
33 Handicap accessible bicycle sidecar Human Factors, Biomechanics Rehabilitation
34 Wheelchair tennis adaptive devices for quad tennis adaptive_tennis Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Rehabilitation
35 Ergonomic laboratory vortex mixer ergonomic_vortex Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Research tool
36 Ergonomic nutritional laboratory flask ergonomic_flask Human Factors, Biomechanics Research tool
37 Automated bioanalytical chemistry sample tube uncapping and capping device the_capper Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Research tool
38 Ergonomic bianalytical chemistry sample tube ergonomic_tube Human Factors, Biomechanics Research tool
39 Metal syringe adaptor for office based injection procedures ergonomic_syringe Human Factors, Biomechanics Medicine
40 Johnson Health Tech: BioSensors biosensors Bioinstrumentation, Physical Therapy,
41 Facial injection analgesic device injection_analgesic Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Plastic Surgery
42 Kinect-based video tracking on simulated clinical examinations: The Clubfoot Correction clubfoot_correction Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Medical Simulation
43 Discriminating force and technique using sensors on the thyroid examination thyroid_exam Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation
44 Synthetic bowel tissue development synthetic_bowel Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Medical Simulation
45 200/300 Osteochondral transplant system graft_delivery Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics Orthopedics
46 Impedance/Tonometry system hemodynamics Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Cardiology
47 Implantable light source for driving optogenetic constructs implantable_light Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Medical Imaging
48 Alternative to Ice Socks for bikers ice_socks Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation , Physical Therapy
49 200/300 Tumor measurement tumor_measurement Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics, Medical Imaging Oncology
50 Therapeutic home blood pressure device fake_bp Bioinstrumentation Medicine
51 200/300 Spinal cord stimulator leads inflated by air spinal_cord_stimulator Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Anesthesiology
52 Development of a cast liner that protects from cast saw injury cast_saw_stop Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Orthopedics
53 Cryostat freezing platform for Mohs sections freezing_platform Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Pathology
54 Chemical dissolution of abdominal adhesions causing recurrent bowel obstructions adhesion_dissolution Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering Surgery
55 400 Device to measure fungal biofilm dispersion biofilm_dispersion Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Research tool
56 Development of a lightweight upper extremity exoskeleton for growing children exoskeleton Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation , Prosthetics


1. Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention

dialysis_infection

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis are trained to detect infection. The standard method requires the patients to inspect a small amount of fluid that has been drained out in a small transparent container. The patients are looking for a change in transparency of the fluid as this would suggest infection. This method has limitations for those with visual problems as well as the relative change can be misleading.

The project that I would like to propose would be the development of a device to aid in the detection of a change in the transparency for these patients. The poor detection of change for many patients has resulted in infection, hospitalization, loss of ability to do dialysis and even death.

This is a continuation project from last semester. I would like to continue with this project including pursuit of another method that was proposed.

Previous method was the use of Optics to determine the presence of cells in the fluid which would indicate possible infection.
I would like to try use of Smart phone technology involvement especially the camera to detect possible infection.
so project would be development of Device to work in conjunction with a smart phone and it's software ( To be developed as well) to determine the presence of White Blood cells.

Materials
Previous material available.
Will need to be purchased for additional items.

References
BME Design: Past Teams Spring 2015-16:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/dialysis_infection/

Client:
Dr. R. Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW Hospital
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


2. Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace

dynamic_leg_brace

BME 400

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Biomechanics

Summary
People with cerebral palsy frequently have a crouched stance and gait due to muscle weakness and spasticity. Ankle foot orthotics are often used to improve the biomechanics of gait, however a limitation of this type of brace is that they are not dynamic. They are either fixed, allowing for no significant dorsi/plantar flexion, or they are articulated which allows for too much crouch during times of high fatigue or weakness. We are interested in refining an anti crouch, dynamic brace developed over previous semesters. This is a leg brace that allows dorsi flexion when needed functionally, but spring loads back to keep the tibia in line with the ankle during stance. Our goals for this semester:
1.Make the orthotic more lightweight
2.Make the orthotic quieter (current model makes a lot of mechanic noise during ambulation)
3.Develop a "kit" to retrofit this technology to conventional articulated orthotics
4.Work through Intellectual Property issues with the project
5.Complete a manuscript with data from a study conducted last semester.

Submit IRB and conduct trial.

Materials
We have an anti-crouch, dynamic leg orthotic that was previously used and some access to an orthotics specialist.

References
BME Design: Past Teams Fall 2014-Spring 2016:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/dynamic_leg_brace/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/dynamic_leg_brace/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/dynamic_leg_brace/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/dynamic_leg_brace/

Client:
Dr. Donita Croft
Medicine
Medical School
(608) 445-1536
dc2@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Wendy Stewart, PT
(608) 263-8412
wstewart@uwhealth.org


3. Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection

aortic_dissection

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Aortic dissection occurs when the intimal lining of the aorta tears, allowing blood to pass into the layers of the aorta thereby separating those layers. Blood can pass through the true lumen or the newly created false lumen. This can result in obstruction of blood flow to organs and/or weakening of the aortic wall. Type A aortic dissection involves the ascending aorta and require emergent open surgical repair. Type B aortic dissection involves the descending aorta and may require a surgical operation when complicated by malperfusion of organs. The mortality of this condition remains high 10-12% for all comers and 25% for those who require surgical intervention. Currently, two strategies exist for treatment. The first is covering of the entrant tear with an endovascular stent graft (firm wire cage with fabric lining). In ideal anatomy this prevents propagation of the dissection and restores blood flow to organs by collapsing false lumen. Due to anatomical considerations and complicated flow dynamics of the dissected aorta, often a technique called fenestration is required. This consists of cutting the intimal flap to connect the true and false lumens, which equalizes the pressure between true and false lumen, subsequently restoring the blood flow to organs. If performed through an open surgical incision, the morbidity and mortality was very high due to the complicated anatomy after the aortic dissection. Recently, new technique has been developed to perform fenestration without open surgery. Basically, two wires will be passed into the true and false lumen of the aorta via groin cannulation. These wires with the catheter will then be pushed or pulled to cut the intimal flap. This is called “endoscissors” technique. Although less invasive than open repair, this technique often fails simply because the wires with the catheter cannot cut the thickened intimal flap. Instead, it can tear more intimal off the aortic wall, making the aortic dissection worse. For this reason, we are seeking to design a simple, but elegant “endoscissors” device to cut the intimal flap reliably so that we can perform endovascular fenestration effectively and safely.

The design faculty feel this is a multi-semester project.

Materials
1. standard endovascular equipment (wires, catheters, etc.)
2. access to models of aortic dissection
3. access to collaboration with radiology models of dissection in progression
4. extensive clinical experience with aortic dissection

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/aortic_dissection/

Websites:
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/41/2873
http://www.annalscts.com/article/view/3851/5093

Journal articles:
1: Vendrell A, Frandon J, Rodiere M, Chavanon O, Baguet JP, Bricault I, Boussat B, Ferretti GR, Thony F. Aortic dissection with acute malperfusion syndrome: Endovascular fenestration via the funnel technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Jul;150(1):108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.056. Epub 2015 Apr 2. PubMed
PMID: 25940416.

2: Wolfschmidt F, Hassold N, Goltz JP, Leyh R, Bley TA, Kickuth R. Aortic Dissection: Accurate Subintimal Flap Fenestration by Using a Reentry Catheter with Fluoroscopic Guidance-Initial Single-Institution Experience. Radiology. 2015 Apr 22:140520. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25902186.

Client:
Dr. Dai Yamanouchi
Surgery
Medicine and Public Health
(212) 810-6442
yamano@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Patrick Phelan
(608) 265-4420
pphelan@uwhealth.org


4. 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration

macular_degeneration_model

BME 400

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, microfluidics

Summary
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. It affects more than 17 million people in the U.S., which is more than all cancers combined. Neovascularization is the defining feature of late-stage, or ‘wet’, AMD, which represents 90% of AMD cases that lead to blindness. These abnormal vessels leak fluid or blood that damage the retina and cause acute vision loss. Unfortunately, existing treatments for wet AMD are accompanied by serious risks, and over 50% of patients still experience vision loss; the development of more effective therapies has been hampered by limited insight into the molecular mechanisms that promote angiogenesis in the retina.

The goal of this project is to design an in vitro 3D co-culture platform that mimics key components of the retinal milieu, specifically the sclera, choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Development of this platform will require a combination of tissue engineering and microfluidic construction techniques. Ultimately, it is hoped that this 3D system may be used to investigate causes of wet AMD and to identify novel treatments and serve as a drug testing platform.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/macular_degeneration_model/
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/macular_degeneration_model/

Client:
Prof. Kristyn Masters
Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering
kmasters@wisc.edu


5. Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing

abdominal_breathing

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
The prescription of breathing exercises is common in both medical and psychological practices. In particular, slow, deep abdominal breathing has been shown to have therapeutic benefit for a variety of clinical problems, including asthma, anxiety in patients receiving chemotherapy, motion sickness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac disease and gastroesophegeal reflux disease. It is also used extensively in stress management programs. There is, in Japanese culture, a variation of abdominal breathing, called hara or tanden breathing, which is taught in Zen meditation, that has also been related to health.

To date, very little emphasis has been placed how to optimize the acquisition of the skill of abdominal breathing, let alone hara breathing. While electronic biofeedback devices using strain gauges or pressure sensors have been shown to be useful in training people in hara breathing, the laboratory equipment used in these studies is expensive and impractical to use one’s daily life. A team of students taking Biomedical Engineering Design 200/300 during the 2015 Fall semester designed a prototype digital device using an electro-resistive band as stretch sensor. A second team taking BMD 301 during the Spring Semester improved the device using conductive fabric instead of the electro-resistive band. They also designed a graphical interface—which displayed in real time expansion and contraction of the lower abdomen—via an on the go USB connection to an Android phone. Preliminary testing showed that this device provided the desired graphical feedback on a smartphone of abdominal expansion and contraction as requested by the client. However, further development is necessary. Important questions that remain include the durability of the conductive fabric and the stability and usefulness of the graphical interface. In addition the development of a Bluetooth interface as well as training protocols using the device remain as project goals.

The purpose of this project is to continue the development of an inexpensive digital biofeedback device to monitor abdominal pressure, and output these pressure readings in a format that can be ingested by diagnostic applications.

Draft specifications for the device are:
-Is Bluetooth / Wi-Fi compatible
-Exports pressure readings in a format that is easy for Android / iOS apps to ingest
-Pressure readings accurate enough for training purposes [further investigation may be needed to define what level this is]
-Can be adapted for use by large range of individuals of varying body sizes and types
-Is small enough to easily fit in pocket or clip inside belt
-Can be worn with a variety of types of clothing
-Weighs 100g or less
-Is wear-and-tear resistant
-Self contained, rechargeable power supply sufficient for at least 3 hours of use

Priorities for the Fall 2016 semester are as follows:
-Transition from USB OTG for data transfer and power to Bluetooth connectivity and battery power.
-Implement a printed circuit board to reduce size and increase reliability
-Determine the durability of the conductive fabric
-Adjust belt design to improve comfort and reduce the number of hanging cords
-Make the following Android application improvements:
-Smooth visualization curve to increase effectiveness
-Create guidelines for exercises
-Session statistics
-Personalized history for progress tracking
-Continue characterization of sensor and use data to improve effectiveness of data visualization

Materials
The student will be asked to make recommendations for supplies and equipment required for the project. These items will be purchased as needed by the sponsors.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/abdominal_breathing/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/abdominal_breathing/

Cysarz, D., & Büssing, A. (2005). Cardiorespiratory synchronization during Zen meditation. Eur J Appl Physiol, 95(1), 88–95. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1379-3

Fumoto, M., Sato-Suzuki, I., Seki, Y., Mohri, Y., & Arita, H. (2004). Appearance of high-frequency alpha band with disappearance of low-frequency alpha band in EEG is produced during voluntary abdominal breathing in an eyes-closed condition. Neuroscience Research, 50(3), 307–317. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2004.08.005

Hirai, T. (1978). Zen and the Mind: Scientific approach to Zen practice. Tokyo: Japan Publications.

Kaushik, R., Kaushik, R. M., Mahajan, S. K., & Rajesh, V. (2005). Biofeedback assisted diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation versus propranolol in long term prophylaxis of migraine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13(3), 165–174. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2005.04.004

Lehrer, P. (2001). Biofeedback for Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Tanden Breathing among Zen Monks: Studies in Cardiovascular Resonance. In Respiration and Emotion (pp. 113–120). Tokyo: Springer Japan. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-67901-1_11

Lehrer, P., Sasaki, Y., & Saito, Y. (1999). Zazen and cardiac variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(6), 812–821.

Yu, X., Fumoto, M., Nakatani, Y., Sekiyama, T., Kikuchi, H., Seki, Y., et al. (2011). Activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system is associated with improvements in mood and EEG changes induced by Zen meditation practice in novices. Int J Psychophysiol, 80(2), 103–111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.02.004

Client:
Dr. Ken Kushner
(608) 235-2905
kkushner@wisconsinzen.org


6. Skin cancer detector

skin_cancer_detector

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
We want to develop a skin cancer detector. It would be placed on the skin to examine moles. A hand held pen sized probe would be placed on the mole. The 2 mm diameter cylindrical tip would have 2 outer electrodes to pass current I into the mole and 2 inner electrodes to measure the resulting voltage V. This yields resistance R = V/I, which may be lower for rapidly developing cancer. A thermocouple or resistance temperature detector would measure temperature, which may be higher for rapidly developing cancer. Write an application to do research on human subjects and submit it to the UW Institutional Review Board (IRB). Test patients at a skin cancer clinic to compare results from cancerous and noncancerous moles.

Materials
Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/skin_cancer_detector/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/skin_cancer_detector/

http://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Rosemount%20Analytical%20Documents/Liq_ADS_43-018.pdf Fig. 4

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
UW Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Donald S Schuster, Dept Dermatology
(608) 238-7179
donaldsgolf@yahoo.com


7. Expandable bone graft

bone_graft

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
In some cases in spine surgery it is necessary to perform a bone fusion in the intervertebral space (the space between the 2 vertebral bodies). This is done by removing the intervertebral disc and then placing bone graft. Traditional bone grafts are rectangular or cresent shaped. The graft is placed through a small surgical corridor. The graft needs to be large enough to support the vertebral bodies but not so large that it injures the surrounding nerves. It would be easier and safer to develop an expandable bone graft that could be inserted in a collapsed form and then expanded to fill the disk interspace. The goal of this project would be to develop an expanding interbody bone graft. This has already been done using a mechanical jack design. However, I would like to develop an expandable graft that is similar to a balloon but would be filled with bone graft material. This should be made out of a biomaterial that would allow bone fusion to occur but also would be strong enough to support the biomechanical forces of the spine as healing occurs.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/bone_graft/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/bone_graft/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/bone_graft/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s14/bone_graft/

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


8. Wearable digital loupe magnification device

digital_loupe

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Magnification Loupes for surgical applications have existed for over 100 years. The overall design of these loupes has not changed considerably in that time. An example of these loupes is available at this website (http://designsforvision.com). Essentially these consist of glass magnifying optics mounted in eyeglass frames or head mounted. These loupes are practical and relatively inexpensive but they suffer from a few flaws that I believe current technological advances will be able to improve.

There are 4 areas of improvement for surgical loupes. 1) Loupes are mounted in line of sight. Therefore in order to look at the surgical field the surgeon has to flex the neck which can cause pain, strain and repetitive injury because of poor ergonomics. 2) The loupes are mounted in the visual field and therefore to work without magnification the user must turn the head to look around the loupes. 3) The depth of field and working length are fixed in the current loupe design. 4) The weight of surgical loupes increases with increased magnification and can be uncomfortable.

This invention is a wearable digital video loupe magnification. The invention will be worn like glasses. Two cameras will be mounted on the brow of the glasses to allow for a stereoscopic view of the surgical field. The camera images will then be projected in the field of view of the surgeon to allow for visualization of tissue and anatomical structures. Variations of this design would include head mounted and stand mounted cameras that could provide the image of the surgical field. The digital signal processor (DSP) may be either wired and worn by the surgeon or may be connected wirelessly.

Technology now exists that is likely to be small enough and powerful enough to allow significant improvement in the design of surgical loupes: 1) miniature HD digital cameras exist such as those used in smart phones 2) Wearable displays are being developed for use in entertainment as video viewers. However, these may be able to be modified to display digital camera data.

This invention will improve on existing magnification loupe technology in the following ways:
1) The angle of the camera will allow the surgeon’s head position to be neutral to avoid neck strain and repetitive injury. 2) These loupes will allow adjustable magnification and working distance. 3) These loupes will also allow an unobstructed unmagnified view when not in use. This will be done using a prism lens that can be moved out of the field of view or with a miniature high definition LCD screen where the image can be modified to be seen partially or not at all (as desired). 4) The digital camera will allow improved light amplification using digital signal processing. 5) The digital cameras will allow visualization of light outside the visible spectrum for fluorescence mapping.

Materials
Digital Cameras
Lenses
Glasses/Goggles

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/digital_loupe/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/digital_loupe/

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UWSMPH
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


9. Back support for surgeons

back_support

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Dr. Radwin’s contact, a father of a surgeon, attempted to design an exoskeleton to act as a support during surgery, as his son is experiencing lower back problems from bending over as far as 45 degrees during surgery for a duration as long as eight hours. A more effective and less encumbering design must be created to alleviate the surgeon’s back problems.

Last semester a BME design team designed a functioning proof-of-concept prototype. The goal for the current semester is to the modify the design to allow for a greater range of movement, and not interfere with the surgeon’s normal movement. Also the design must be more compact to fit under the surgeon’s gown. Usability tests should be conducted to validate the design based on EMG muscle activity measurements in the back.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/back_support/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/back_support/

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Chase Lee
(732) 463-2100


10. Continuous monitoring of asthma control

asthma_control

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
An asthma action plan (AAP) is a set of medication changes custom designed for asthma patients in case of an asthma exacerbation. However, many asthma patients fail to utilize the plan due to the subjective nature of when to implement and insensitivity to early symptoms of an asthma exacerbation. Continuous monitoring of important indicators of asthma exacerbation such as shortness of breath from decreased respiratory volumes, cough and wheeze allows real time detection of an asthma exacerbation and helps patients utilize their AAP in a more timely manner. This project involves taking an existing "asthma shirt" with sensors that measure volume changes and sounds to optimize data collection and establish algorithms to analyze tidal volume, respiratory rate, cough and wheezing sounds, remove motion artifacts, and combine these data to alert the patient to proceed with an AAP.

Materials
1. Asthma shirt that measures ventilation and sounds
2. Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/asthma_control/

1. Gavriely, N., Palti, Y., Alroy, G., & Grotberg, J. B. (1984). Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57(2), 481-492.
2. Oletic, D., Arsenali, B., & Bilas, V. (2014). Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing. Sensors, 14(4), 6535-6566.
3. Kraman, Steve S., et al. "Measurement of respiratory acoustic signals: effect of microphone air cavity width, shape, and venting." CHEST Journal 108.4 (1995): 1004-1008.
4. Korenbaum, V. I., Tagil’tsev, A. A., Kostiv, A. E., Gorovoy, S. V., & Pochekutova, I. A. (2008). Acoustic equipment for studying human respiratory sounds. Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 51(2), 296-303.
5. Gaetano D Gargiulo, Aiden O’Loughlin and Paul P Breen, Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study, Physiol. Meas. 36 (2015) N35–49, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/2/N35

Client:
Dr. Sameer Mathur
Medicine-Allergy
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-2804
sm4@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


11. Model of ex vivo lung development

exvivo_lung

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Fetal breathing is initiated very early in gestation and stimulates lung growth and pulmonary blood flow. It is postulated that the mechanical force generated by fetal breathing directs fetal lung growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, in conditions where the normal mechanics of fetal breathing are disrupted by congenital defects, lung growth is dramatically and adversely altered. One of these defects is congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In these infants, there is a hole in one of the hemidiaphragms. Intestinal organs herniate through this hole into the chest thereby disminishing the normal mechanical forces of both inspiration (negative pressure) and expiration (positive pressure). Predictably, neonates born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) face significant morbidity and mortality mainly because their under-developed lungs cause severe gas-exchange insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension.

In our laboratory, we want to study how mechanical forces control lung development. We want to create a device that simulates mechanic properties of an embryonic mouse' thoracic cavity around gestational day 10-20. The device is used to culture embryonic mouse lung explants that harvested at day 9.5 and grow until day 15. The anticipated volume of these explants are around 1-3 cm^3. The device will contain tissue culture media in an chamber that will be able to generate a range negative and positive pressures to simulate the forces applied on the lungs by chest wall anddiaphragm. It is important to have a precise control of these pressures and ability to fluctuate these pressures to mimic breathings via pressure transducers inside the chamber. A transparent chamber would also be ideal as it allow investigators to monitor explant growth during the course of the experiment.

Understanding the effect of mechanical forces on lungs will help us better understand how lung develop, growth and regenerate. We hope to be able to recapitulate this process in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia to help their lungs grow after birth to improve survival. Moreover, our knowledge of pulmonary mechanicosensing can also help us understand many other lung diseases such as brochopulmonary dysplasia or lung trauma from mechanical ventilation.

Materials
- Embryonic mouse lungs
- Tissue culture media
- Pressure transducers (if needed)

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/exvivo_lung/

Polglase, G. R., Wallace, M. J., Grant, D. A. & Hooper, S. B. Influence of fetal breathing movements on pulmonary hemodynamics in fetal sheep. Pediatr. Res. 56, 932–938 (2004).

Quinn, T. P., Schlueter, M., Soifer, S. J. & Gutierrez, J. A. Mechanotransduction in the Lung Cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF and FGF-2 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells Cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF and FGF-2 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 282, 897–903 (2002).

Rhodes, J., Saxena, D., Zhang, G., Gittes, G. K. & Potoka, D. a. Defective Parasympathetic Innervation is Associated with Airway Branching Abnormalities in Experimental CDH. Am. J. Physiol. - Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. ajplung.00299.2014 (2015). doi:10.1152/ajplung.00299.2014

Client:
Dr. Hau D. Le
Surgery
SMPH
(617) 510-2118
leh@surgery.wisc.edu


12. Orthopedic screw torque measurement

torque_measurement

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior. Unlike smaller animals or human patients, long bone fracture constructs in horses experience substantial loading during recovery from general anesthesia immediately after fracture repair. After surgery, horses will typically apply substantial static loads to the construct, as they cannot stand or walk on three limbs. Therefore, the fracture-implant construct needs to be as strong as possible mechanically to allow the fracture to heal successfully without implant breakage or loosening. During orthopedic surgery, bone screws are typically tightened to a subjective torque value by the surgeon during placement. Despite reported ranges of optimal torque in the literature, there is no definitive standardized optimal tightening torque values that reflect potential torque relaxation of bone screws after insertion in bone in equine patients undergoing fracture repair.

Our goal is to design and engineer a digital torque screwdriver for use in clinical patients during implant placement for fracture repair or method to measure torque during screw implantation.

Materials
We have example Synthes 4.5 mm, 3.5 mm and 5.5 mm screw drivers and bone screws available for use in this design project and other surgical instruments that may be relevant to the work.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/torque_measurement/

Complete extended project description from client:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/temp/BMEdesignprojectDigitaltorquescrewdrivermodel.pdf

Client:
Dr. Sabrina Brounts, DVM, MS, DACVS, DECVS, DACVSMR
Large Animal Surgery
UW School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 263-7600
sabrina.brounts@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Dr. Jennifer Whyard, BVetMed MRCVS
(608) 335-1659
jennifer.whyard@wisc.edu

Prof. Peter Muir BVSc, MVetClinStud, PhD, Diplomate ACVS, ECVS
(608) 263-7600
peter.muir@wisc.edu


13. To develop a surgical centrifuge that saves blood

surgical_centrifuge

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Currently blood loss in the operating room is managed by use of a cell saver. With that technology blood is sucked up and filtered and given back to the patient. Unfortunately a lot of blood is also soaked up in sponges that are like super fine rags. This blood cannot be retrieved and is lost. One solution is to have a washing machine/centrifuge on the operating room table that will spin and wash the sponges gently with sterile saline and then the bloody fluid is delivered into the cell saver and filtered and given back to the patient.

In this project Students would develop a centrifuge that washes the sponges and centrifuges the blood cells to the cell saver.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/surgical_centrifuge/

Client:
Dr. Ken Noonan
Orthopedics
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-1344
noonan@ortho.wisc.edu


14. Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor

protein_sensor

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Software

Summary
A quantitative reporting of protein level is important in many biomedical applications. For example, the blood coagulation cascade consists of a complex interaction between many proteins ultimately resulting in the formation of a blood clot. Abnormal levels of the coagulation proteins can result in coagulation abnormality leading to pathological thrombosis (too much blood clot) or bleeding. A simple point-of-care reporting of the amounts of proteins of the coagulation cascade will allow rapid diagnosis and treatment for bleeding abnormalities.

The project uses a novel short peptide-based reporter sensitive to the microenvironment. Binding of the reporter to the target protein results in an increase in the light intensity and a shift in the emitted light (i.e. a color changing and turning-on, CCTO sensor). We have identified a CCTO sensor to a model glutathione transferase model protein target and ongoing efforts will attempt to discover CCTO sensors to the coagulation cascade proteins.

The engineering task is to develop a compact inexpensive optoelectronic device for recording and quantifying the CCTO sensor output.

Materials
1. CCTO reporter targeting a model GST protein target with a well-characterized spectral absorption and emission.
2. Supply money of up to $5000. for purchase of materials and supplies.

I envision an LED-based excitation light source stimulating the CCTO reporter where the fluorescence output will be proportional to the amount of target GST protein present. The emitted light will be captured by a photoelectric cell and the analog signal digitized by a A/D converter and processed by an Arduino microprocessor.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/protein_sensor/

Taki et al "Selection of color-changing and intensity-increasing fluorogenic probe as protein-specific indicator obtained via the 1-BASE-T", Analytical Chem, 2015, epub ahead of print.

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
Medicine and Public Health
jyang75@wisc.edu


15. Design of minimally invasive spinal rods cutters (or bender)

spinal_rod_cutter

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Spinal deformity surgery is common in pediatric orthopedics. Often cobalt chrome, stainless steel, or titanium rods in 4.0-6.0 mm diameters are used to correct the deformity and hold the correction. Often the relative length of the rod needed for the deformity correction can be difficult to get precisely correct prior to implanting the devices. Occasionally these need to be recontoured once they are placed. Currently very large "rod benders" exist, but fitting these devices into the proximal or distal ends of the surgical wound can be difficult. Similarly if the rod is too long following insertion, they can be cut, but again using current cutting devices can be very difficult. This project involves designing a rod cutter and or rod bender that can be placed easily into the wound.

Materials
We have spinal fixation devices, rods, and access to current cutting and bending devices. Lab space and mechanical testing areas are available in the lab as well.

References
BME Design: Past Team:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/spinal_rod_cutter/

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Medicine
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


16. Hip aspirate model to teach physicians

hip_model

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software, Anatomy

Summary
1) OVERVIEW
Septic arthritis of the hip is a pediatric orthopedic emergency. Failure to accurately diagnose the condition in a timely manner can lead to life long sequelae. Fortunately septic arthritis is a relatively uncommon childhood disorder occurring in about (3-12.5/100,000). Most commonly this infection involves children under the age of 2 years old. It is generally felt that the intra-articular infection occurs when bacteria are transmitted hematogenously from other common sites of childhood infection (ears, nose, throat, cuts, scrapes etc.) to the proximal femur. Because the proximal femoral growth plate resides within the hip joint capsule, the bacterial can spread from the bone into the joint space itself. Once in the joint, the bacteria and the ensuing immune response, with its cytotxic chemicals, can cause destruction of the hip joint cartilage. As the infection continues, increased pressure builds within the hip joint that can eventually decrease the vascular perfusion of the femoral head and lead to avascular necrosis. Avascular necrosis in these young children can result in lifelong disability and pain.

The optimal care for these children involves timely diagnosis and treatment, including appropriate antibiotic coverage and surgical debridement. While vital signs, clinical exam, and blood tests can aid in making an accurate diagnosis, joint fluid obtained from X-ray or ultrasound (US) guidance, is critical in confirming the diagnosis. At many centers, hip aspiration relies on the availability of fellowship trained MSK or pediatric radiologists to aspirate fluid from the hip joint. When they are unavailable, the child often has ideal treatment delayed, until the diagnostic procedure can be performed. This often occurs despite “hip joint aspiration and debridement” being one of the required ACGME surgical skills necessary to document orthopedic resident proficiency. Due to the relatively low frequency of this disorder, and yet the high clinical importance of accurate diagnosis, orthopedic and radiology residents get very little hands-on experience practicing and performing these procedures, despite the ACGME requirement. Currently there are no commercially available simulation models that would allow residents to practice X-ray and US guided hip aspiration in the infant.

The long-term goal of this proposal is to develop an infant hip model and OSATS that will allow residents to practice and document proficiency at X-Ray and US guided hip aspiration as well as the anterior surgical approach to the hip joint. Once completed, this would ideally be available for use at multiple training centers. We will accomplish this by the development of a base infant model. An aspiration insert and an anatomic insert will be developed. These inserts will be easily replaceable for use and reuse of the model. While the model will be able to address both aspiration and debridement, the focus of this grant will be joint aspiration.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/hip_model/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/hip_model/

Client:
Dr. Matthew A Halanski
Orthopedics and rehabilitation
AFCH
(608) 265-4086
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


17. Individualized functional finger prosthesis

finger_prosthesis

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Plastic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics, 3D printing

Summary
Finger prostheses have been provided to individuals who have sustained amputation of their fingers. Due to the inherent difficulty of retaining finger prostheses securely to restore grip strength and function many efforts to restore the finger have shifted focus toward cosmesis. These aesthetic silicone prostheses can be detailed and tinted to look very natural, and the restored length does restore passive function.

This project will focus on the development of a mechanical unit that is actuated by flexion/extension in the residual finger and that is adaptable to patient-specific finger sockets created by the prosthetist.

Materials
Polymers - silicones, polyurethanes, epoxies, PMMA, etc. Additional resources and budget available to purchase hardware. Access to scanning/3D printing process on UW campus. Access to laboratory for experimentation with materials,fabrication and assembly of prototypes.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/finger_prosthesis/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/finger_prosthesis/

www.didrickmedical.com, www.NakedProsthetics.com
www.MedicalArtProsthetics.com, www.HandProsthesis.com
www.FingerProsthesis.com

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


18. Spider cage to support cerebral palsy patient

spider_cage

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
A spider cage is a device used by therapists to work with people (usually kids) who have cerebral palsy. It supports their weight with bungy cords connected to a custom suit so the person can work on building leg and arm strength. This is something that is available commercially, but is very expensive. We are looking for a design that is relatively inexpensive, is collapsible and able to fit in a car, and has custom features that meet the need of one particular person.

Materials
This project will be conducted in conjunction with ME senior design students as a joint team - an excellent interdisciplinary project.

Amanda Miller, OT from Wisconsin Therapists has agreed to help with project specifics and can meet during the semester to evaluate your design.

References
Here is a basic design:
http://www.suittherapy.com/ueu.htm

BME Design: Past Team:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/spider_cage/
The design needs to be redone as the parts modeled were not available.

Client:
Mr. Matt Jahnke
United Cerebral Palsy
(608) 279-5897
mattjahnke@ucpdane.org


19. Automatic intraventricular drainage system

automatic_IVD

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Currently, intraventricular drainage systems require consistent nursing assistance and for patients to remain in the same position unless a nurse is there to adjust it. Currently, nurses have to manually adjust and level the height of the collection container which is time-consuming and imprecise. A device is needed that eliminates this leveling process through the precise regulation of fluid flow.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
A newer approach using a custom valve
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/automatic_IVD/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/IVD_leveler/

A different approach in BME Design using automatic leveling:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/IVD_drain_leveller/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s14/IVD_drain_leveller/

Client:
Dr. Joshua Medow
Director of Neurocritical Care
versity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
medow@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


20. Hydrocephalus shunt valve measuring ambient pressure

shunt_valve

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Each time the heart beats it squirts a bolus of blood into the brain. Normal brains permit drainage from the rigid skull container to make space for the next bolus. Patients who do not have adequate Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) drainage experience increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This is called hydrocephalus or water on the brain. To prevent the increased pressure from crushing the brain and causing morbidity or death, neurosurgeons implant a tube called a shunt into the brain and discharge the excess liquid into the abdomen.
Design a shunt valve that does not depend on the differential pressure between the ICP and the abdomen. The shunt valve should depend on the differential pressure between the ICP and the ambient pressure. It must prevent external forces from increasing pressure on the device. Thus enclose it within a rigid external frame with openings that transmit ambient pressure through the scalp. We must prevent scar tissue from occluding the openings so make the frame of steroid-eluting material similar to cardiac pacing leads that minimize scar tissue formation.
Design and make a hydrocephalus shunt valve that measures ambient pressure and test on the bench. At semester end demonstrate it opens when the ICP exceeds 15 mmHg.

Materials
None

References
James M. Drake and Christian Sainte-Rose. The Shunt Book, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 1994

Medow, J E and Luzzio C C, Medical shunt/valve for regulation of bodily fluids, US patent 7,951,105, May 31, 2011. (go to Pat2Pdf and put in 7,951,105 to get the complete patent)

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
COE UW
(608) 233-8410
john.webster@wisc.edu


21. Sleep apnea therapy device

sleep_apnea

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
An escalating percentage of the general US population has clinically significant sleep apnea. Those affected from sleep apnea repeatedly stop breathing, suffer from interrupted sleep, have significant cardio-vascular morbidities, develop insulin resistance, have neural injury and accelerated mortality. The standard therapy is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), but nearly half of patients cannot tolerate CPAP and adherence is poor. CPAP requires a blower, increased pressure and a tight fitting mask, rendering patients to reject it. Continuous dead space rebreathing (an increase in anywhere from 2 to 5 mmHg of CO2) led to the stabilization of the central respiratory output and prevented airway obstruction in a significant percentage of patients with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Design a device with no blower, no increased pressure, and no valve that automatically adjusts the volume of inspired CO2. Take a 1st plastic tube 200 long and 80 mm in diameter. Insert into it a 2nd tube 10 mm in diameter with many holes for ventilation. At the drug store buy a blood pressure machine for about $30 and take it apart. Put the bladder into the large space. Use the air pump to inflate and a valve to deflate the bladder. Cap the ends. Breathe through the small cylinder. If apnea, deflate the bladder to yield large dead space. If no apnea inflate bladder. Develop algorithm and demonstrate at end of semester.

Materials
None

References
Giannoni, A, Baruah, R., Willson, K., Mebrate, Y., Mayet, J., Emdin, M., Hughes, A. D, Manisty, C. H., Francis, D. P., 2010, Real-time dynamic carbon dioxide administration: A novel treatment strategy for stabilization of periodic breathing with potential application to central sleep apnea, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 56(22)1832–7.

Khayat R N, Xie A, Patel A K, Kaminski A and Skatrud J B 2003 Cardiorespiratory effects of added dead space in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea Chest 123 1551–1560

Thomas RJ and Daly RW, 2011 Gas systems and methods for enabling respiratory stability, US Patent US 7,886,740 B2 (get from pat2Pdf)
Xie, A., Teodorescu, M., Pegelow, D., Teodorescu, M., Gong, Y., Fedie, J., & Dempsey, J. 2013. Effects of stabilizing or increasing respiratory motor outputs on obstructive sleep apnea. J. Appl. Physiol., 115, 22–33.

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
COE UW
(608) 233-8410
john.webster@wisc.edu


22. Respiratory motion MRI phantom

respiratory_phantom

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Radiology
Skills: Chemistry, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) software technology have made it possible to image lung structure with quality approaching that of x-ray computed tomography (CT). These MRI methods, however, require 5-10 minute scan times and therefore must incorporate respiratory gating or motion compensation techniques to mitigate motion artifacts.

While simple respiratory gating methods have proven highly successful in healthy human subjects who have regular, triphasic respiratory waveforms, they have not been as successful in sick human subjects who can have much more variable breathing patterns.

It would be very useful to have a MRI-compatible phantom that could simulate respiratory motion using actual measured human patient respiratory waveforms. This would help with the development of more robust respiratory gating or respiratory motion correction algorithms and would facilitate cross-platform standardization of structural lung imaging techniques across the different MRI equipment manufacturers’ platforms.

There are existing products on the market that are MRI compatible and simulate respiratory motion in 1-dimension using a piston-like design. These have generally been targeted at the radiation treatment planning market in which simulation of the superior-inferior motion of a tumor is goal.

With structural lung MRI imaging methods, artifacts arise not only from the superior-inferior motion of the diaphragm, however, but also from the expansion and contraction of the chest wall in the transverse dimension (antero-posterior and right-left). Therefore, a somewhat compliant chest wall enclosure, a more mobile "diaphragm", and some moist sponge-like, open-cell foam material within an air-tight bag connected to an input/output tube to represent the lungs and trachea would be ideal.

In order to drive the respiratory motion, the phantom should allow either passive or active ventilation to be simulated. Passive ventilation could be simulated by connecting the phantom airway to a MRI-compatible ventilator capable of simulating the input respiratory waveform. Active ventilation could be simulated by direct mechanical drive of the diaphragm and the chest wall.

Materials
example CT and MRI medical images
medical image processing software
actual 5-10min respiratory waveforms acquired from real patients.

References
Soultanidis, G. M., Mackewn, J. E., Tsoumpas, C., & Marsden, P. K. (2013). PVA Cryogel for Construction of Deformable PET-MR Visible Phantoms. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60(1), 95–102. http://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2013.2238952

Hellerbach A, Schuster V, Jansen, A, Sommer J. MRI phantoms -- Are there alternatives to agar? PLOS ONE, 8(8):e70343

US Patent # 4,729,892 "Use of cross-linked hydrogel materials as image contrast agents in proton nuclear magnetic resonance tomography and tissue phantom kits containing such materials" (Paula T. Beall)

US Patent # 5,141,973 "Metho of preparing polyvinyl alcohol gel" (Tomokazu Kobayashi and Toshio Morihiro)

Shelley PET/MRI/CT compatible respiratory tumour motion phantom http://www.simutec.com/Products/Respiratoryphantoms.html

Shelley MRI compatible heart motion phantom http://www.simutec.com/Products/dynamicmultimodality.html

Client:
Dr. Scott Nagle
Radiology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-6429
snagle@uwhealth.org


23. 3D scanning tank phantom positioning validation device

phantom_position

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Scanning water tanks are used to measure in three dimensions the dose distribution produced by radiation beams. These devices consist of mechanical stages which position a single detector to desired (x,y,z) coordinates. Motion may also be coordinated to produce profile scans along a prescribed linear direction, e.g. across or along a beam's central axis.

Before these devices are able to be utilized, their performance must be validated. In particular, the following needs to be established:
1. Static positioning accuracy.
2. Positioning reproducibility.
3. Scan linearity.
4. Scan reproducibility.

We need to have a device which can independently read the detector position in time as a means to validate scanner performance. The measurements should be performed in air when the tank does not have water. The device will produce arrays of data corresponding to the above four measurements.

Materials
2D scanning tank and controller

References
"Acceptance testing of an automated scanning water phantom," D.E. Mellenberg et al., Medical Physics 17, 311.

Client:
Dr. Sean Frigo
Human Oncology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-9964
frigo@humonc.wisc.edu


24. Water-free radiation depth dose profile measurement device

radiation_depth

BME 400

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The measurement of radiation dose in the direction along a beam's axis is used for two purposes: (1) To locate the depth of maximum dose deposition, and (2) characterize the energy spectrum of the incident beam. The standard reference is a tank of water as a surrogate for human tissue. A more convenient alternative method is to use sheets of specialized plastic to mimic water or tissue. The former involves positioning a detector in the water using a mechanical stage. The latter involves manually placing sheets of plastic material to vary the measurement depth, which does without the water, but is manual and tedious to produce a depth dose profile, i.e. a curve representing dose with depth from the surface.

We need to a device that has the convenience of the plastic material, and the ability to produce a depth dose curve like a mechanical scanning system in water. Ideally, this device will accept standard radiation ion chambers and be remote controllable from outside the shielded room wherein the radiation generating device resides. The device will produce an array of data of detected signal versus depth in the material. The device needs to operate in two modes: (1) Constant surface distance from the source, but varying depth from the surface, and (2) Variable surface distance and variable depth.

Materials
Solid water slabs, ion chamber detector

References
1D scanning water tank example: http://www.standardimaging.com/phantoms/doseview-1d/

Plastic stack and detector example: http://www.standardimaging.com/phantoms/stereotactic-dose-verification-phantom/

Client:
Dr. Sean Frigo
Human Oncology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-9964
frigo@humonc.wisc.edu


25. Automated quality assurance system for clinical CT systems

CT_quality

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology, Medical Imaging
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
To maintain a high level of patient care, daily, weekly, monthly and annual tests must be performed on computed tomography (CT) systems. The tests vary in complexity for each testing frequency. Currently, the results from the tests are manually entered into a spreadsheet based reporting tool by the client. This is not an optimal method for longitudinal tracking of scanner performance. Ideally, an automated system would be created that was capable of: (1) reading DICOM images representing various quality assurance test scans, (2) evaluating the test images without user interaction , (3) reporting the outputs from the tests into an easy to read report, and finally (4) writing the test results to a database so trends in individual scanner performance can be tracked over time. This project will ideally produce such a system.

Materials
Students will be trained in the proper methods for CT scanner testing and evaluation as their background allows. Students will be given sample testing data and sample reports to serve as a model design solution. Algorithm development will not be expected of the team, scripts to perform the tests will be provided. A research CT scanner will be available for student use to evaluate any ideas the students have in improving the current testing methods. Students will be expected to write the software mainly using Matlab or Octave to facilitate the use of the software after the design team semester has been completed.

References
http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/accreditation/CT

http://www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/default.asp see report #39

Client:
Prof. Timothy Szczykutowicz
Radiology and Medical Phyiscs
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-5729
tszczykutowicz@uwhealth.org


26. Ergonomic re-design of a surgical stapling device

surgical_stapler

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Surgical staplers have undergone many design modifications including the recent addition of powered devices. Stapling devices are used both for intestinal resections and anastomoses as well as for vascular control. The users of these devices have also changed overtime with both the increase in female surgeons as well as an aging surgeon population. Opportunities for improvements in device design for the increasingly diversified surgeon users are multiple. This project provides the opportunity for lab based and field study investigation of the ergonomic implications for the device users as well as potential for novel design modifications and/or solutions.

Materials
Sample devices - powered and non-powered.
Access to surgeons for interviews and demonstrations.

References
http://www.ethicon.com/healthcare-professionals/products/staplers

http://www.medtronic.com/covidien/products/surgical-stapling

J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997 Feb;42(1):1-9.
Surgical staplers: a review.
McGuire J1, Wright IC, Leverment JN.

Surg Technol Int. 2015 Nov;27:97-101.
Current Developments and Unusual Aspects in Gastrointestinal Surgical Stapling.
Frattini F1, Amico F2, Rausei S1, Boni L1, Rovera F3, Dionigi G3.

Client:
Dr. Amy Liepert
Surgery
University Hospital and UWSMPH
(608) 262-6246
liepert@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Mary Sesto
(608) 263-5697
msesto@wisc.edu


27. System design for densitometry: DXA

densitometry

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
System design for densitometry. The project will include software development and image processing for body land marks. The software will be used for longitudinal studies to help identify stress fracture risk and investigate body changes through rehabilitation programs such as ACL reconstruction. Currently the UW-athletic department uses the technology to monitor body composition changes throughout team training cycles and as a tool in rehabilitation to quantify change. We need to develop an interface to simplify custom measurements.

Materials
The project will use the iDXA scanner in Camp Randall Stadium.

References
BME Design team's prior work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/densitometry/

http://ortho.wisc.edu/bap

Client:
Ms. Jennifer Sanfilippo
Athletics
UW-Madison
(608) 262-8036
js1@athletics.wisc.edu


28. I've fallen and need to get up-Device to lift a fallen elder back into their chair

life_assist

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
The fastest growing segment of our population is > 85 years of age. Many of these elders continue to live in their home despite significant frailty. They often live with a similarly frail caregiver. When someone like this falls and is unable to get back up, they often have to summon paramedics or other people that could help them back into the chair. The use of 911 for this common non emergent situation wastes significant resources and takes emergency personnel away from other more emergent tasks.
If we could develop a device that could lift the fallen elder back up into their chair, this would allow more efficient use of limited resources.
The device should be low cost, durable, easy to use, and effectively elevate the fallen elder so that they can get back into their chair.
The only device that I have found is an inflatable lift manufactured in UK.

Materials
Two options possible-
Hydraulic lift with small motor or inflatable elevating device.
Wheels

References
Available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


29. Lightweight device with an LED and fan to reduce strain on orthopedic surgeons

spacesuit_light

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
The idea itself is simple: developing a portable LED light for joint surgery in spacesuit.

This light will be fastened to body with a waistband with battery integrated in the waistband. Light will be connected by a carbon-fiber rod (material that is light and durable). On top of the rod there will be a ring and a built in fan in the ring that will allow surgeon's head as well as the light to be draped in. This way, the light will no longer cause cervical spine strain like the current helmet does.
Like all the engineering design project, there will be many details to be ironed out.

Materials
LED light
carbon-fiber rod
belt

References
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00590-013-1178-1
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183196/

Client:
Dr. Ting Zhang
Orthopedic Surgery
UWHC
(408) 930-0770
tzhang@uwhealth.org


30. Microscope cell culture incubator

scope_incubator

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Cellular Engineering
Medical Specialty: Research
Skills: Cell Biology, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Develop a low cost cell culture incubation chamber with interchangeable culture plates that is compatible with an inverted microscope and capable of live imaging. This incubation chamber must be able to maintain an internal environment of 37 C, 5% CO2, and 95-100% humidity over long a duration of time, without compromising the integrity of the microscopes optics or functionality. Special consideration should be taken to maintain even heating and humidity across the chamber as gradients can result in evaporation from low volume cultures such as microfluidic devices. Current commercially available systems are prone to these issues are are extremely expensive.

Materials
Microscope
Cells
Devices/plates

Client:
Dr. John Puccinelli
Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering
(608) 890-3573
puccinelli@bme.wisc.edu


31. Non-invasive continuous glucose monitor

glucose_monitor

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Endocrinology
Skills: Biomaterials, Chemistry, Electronics, Software

Summary
The prevalence of diabetes continues rise. Managing diabetes requires constant testing of blood glucose levels, however these discrete readings do not show trends in the glucose level. Continuous monitoring has been shown to help maintain healthy glucose levels. Various implantable sensors have been developed, but they are costly and can be prone to infection and discomfort. In theory glucose can be monitored through the skin, though no commercial product is available.

Materials
Glucose meters

References
http://www.gluco-wise.com/
http://www.mendosa.com/meters.htm
http://www.edn.com/design/systems-design/4422840/Non-invasive-blood-glucose-monitoring-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy

http://www.mendosa.com/The%20Pursuit%20of%20Noninvsive%20Glucose,%20Fourth%20Edition.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10471677
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9051401
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/277/1/012053/pdf

Client:
Dr. John Puccinelli
Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering
(608) 890-3573
puccinelli@bme.wisc.edu


32. Non invasive EMG/NCV

non_invasive_emg

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
The diagnosis of various nerve and muscle disorders is often based on Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Velocity testing. While these tests provide significant information that can aid in the diagnosis of various disorders, many people are very apprehensive about undergoing these invasive tests because of discomfort.

Finding a non-invasive test that could provide similar information without the discomfort associated with the current test would likely be attractive to patients.

To scope the project, we would focus on median nerve compressive neuropathy- e.g. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Materials
EMG NCV machine (could borrow)
Electrical equipment to non-invasively measure electrical activity

References
Available on request

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
(608) 260-6488
philip.bain@deancare.com


33. Handicap accessible bicycle

sidecar

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Hi, My name is Ted Elias and I graduated from the Occupational Therapy Master’s program this last December from this great University. I was wondering if the biomechanics engineers wanted to take on a project for us. My wife has a traumatic brain injury and I am her full time caregiver. She is in wheelchair and I would like to take her on bike rides. The problem is I cannot find bikes made where I can sit her in a side or back seat while I drive. I know she would really enjoy going for bike rides with me and it would really help her quality of life. The UW Madison made a video of us that was featured on the their website, below is the links. If you could help us we would be extremely grateful.

Alternate email: telias@uwalumni.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNW7jaMoDFU

Client:
Mr. Ted Elias
(608) 444-9225
tedredland@hotmail.com


34. Wheelchair tennis adaptive devices for quad tennis

adaptive_tennis

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
There is a division of wheelchair tennis specifically for Quadriplegic athletes and those with disabilities affecting at least three limbs. Athletes in this Quad division often deal with one or more of the problems listed below:

1.Inability to toss the ball for a serve.

Some players must have someone toss the ball for them which creates significant timing problems.
Some players must toss the ball with the same arm that holds the racquet which results in inconsistent tosses.

2.Inability to grip the tennis racquet.

Some players must hold the racquet and use athletic tape to tape their hand to the racquet. This results in a fixed grip and can require re-taping if the hand sweats or slides out of position.

3. Inability to lift or move the arm sufficiently for backhand or higher shots.

Although players may have the ability to create horizontal arm movements, often players have deficiencies in up and down motions required to reach more balls.
This project will address the above problems and create a suite of assistive devices to improve the ability of a quad tennis player to play wheelchair tennis.

Examples of possible solutions might include:

1. A mechanical device to consistently launch a tennis ball for a serve.
2. An attachment for a tennis racquet that assists with grip support but does not restrict hand movement on the racquet.
3. A mobile arm support that allows for the arm to be supported specifically during tennis racquet motions.

Materials
In addition to an actual Quad wheelchair tennis player, the solution may utilize power from the player's electric wheelchair which runs on two 12V batteries. A spare wheelchair may be available to use for the duration of the project.

References
http://www.jaecoorthopedic.com/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eq4jNpK3078
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eq4jNpK3078
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1v3rEnMvT6Y

Client:
Mr. Dan Dorszynski
(808) 389-4740
wetsand@gmail.com


35. Ergonomic laboratory vortex mixer

ergonomic_vortex

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
Laboratory vortex lab mixers often vibrate while holding a sample, resulting in vibration exposure to the lab technician hands. Harmful levels of vibration can cause peripheral nerve and vascular injuries in the hands and fingers. A design of a device that can hold a test tube on the mixer while isolating vibration exposure in the hands. The technician must be able to see sample while it is mixing. A machine that can vortex multiple tubes without holding the tubes in the hands is another option.

Materials
Supplies and materials will be supplied.

References
This project is being proposed in-conjunction with a local company. Inventors will own their own IP. Strong communication skills and planning of meetings will be important.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
BME/ISE
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


36. Ergonomic nutritional laboratory flask

ergonomic_flask

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
A large commercial food testing laboratory (>400 employees) repeatedly cap and uncap laboratory flasks, glass beakers and jars. This is causing strain the the lab technician's hands and fingers. A design of a stationary jar opener tool or fixture is desired that will help reduce stress and strain while performing lab tests (as many as 50 to 100 jars per day per employee). The design of the tool or fixture must accommodate variable size jars and flasks.

Materials
Supplies and materials will be provided by the client.

References
This project is being proposed in-conjunction with a local company. Inventors will own their own IP. Strong communication skills and planning of meetings will be important.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
BME/ISE
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


37. Automated bioanalytical chemistry sample tube uncapping and capping device

the_capper

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics,
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Employees in a commercial laboratory cap and uncap more than 500-700 samples done per day for a rapid, high throughput analyzer. This is causing stress in the lab technician's fingers and hands. A design of a completely automated sample bottle cap cassette is desired that will relieve stress on lab technician's hands during use the analyzer. There are several constraints that must be considered in the sample tube cap design:

Rapid
Not rate limiting step
High Throughput
Over 10,000 samples per month on average
Flexible / Versatile
Multiple tube and cap sizes
Low Cost
Operation, maintenance, manufacture
Small Foot Print
Limited bench space
Robust / Rugged
Multiple users and extensive use
Reliable
Must work every time
Ease of Use
Must be able to train all chemists to use
Low Maintenance
High utilization rate and low down-time
Ability to Validate
Regulated work environment
Stand Alone
With and without automated system

Materials
Materials and supplies will be provided by the client.

References
This project is being proposed in-conjunction with a local company. Inventors will own their own IP. Strong communication skills and planning of meetings will be important.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
BME/ISE
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


38. Ergonomic bianalytical chemistry sample tube

ergonomic_tube

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Chemistry, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
Employees in a commercial laboratory cap and uncap more than 500-700 samples done per day for a rapid, high throughput analyzer. This is causing stress in the lab technician's fingers and hands. A design of a new sample bottle cap is desired that will account for a lab technician's physical capabilities to use the analyzer. There are several constraints that must be considered in the sample tube cap design:

Rapid
Not rate limiting step
High Throughput
Over 10,000 samples per month on average
Flexible / Versatile
Multiple tube and cap sizes
Low Cost
Operation, maintenance, manufacture
Small Foot Print
Limited bench space
Robust / Rugged
Multiple users and extensive use
Reliable
Must work every time
Ease of Use
Must be able to train all chemists to use
Low Maintenance
High utilization rate and low down-time
Ability to Validate
Regulated work environment
Stand Alone
With and without automated system

Materials
Design teams will gain access to the laboratory and to observed the analyzer usage, talk with the lab technicians, and receive sample tubes for testing. The client will cover design prototype fabrication costs such as 3D printing, materials and supplies.

References
This project is being proposed in-conjunction with a local company. Inventors will own their own IP. Strong communication skills and planning of meetings will be important.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
BME/ISE
Engineering
(608) 263-0659
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


39. Metal syringe adaptor for office based injection procedures

ergonomic_syringe

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Sterile syringe adapter to increase leverage and improve comfort during injection procedures.

Prolotherapy is an in-office injection procedure for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain, including knee osteoarthritis. Treatments include injection of prolotherapy solution at multiple different tender points often requiring 30-80 mL of solution delivered via either 10 mL or 5 mL standard syringes. Needle length may vary from 1.25-2.0 inches. Repetitive injections often cause thumb pain for the injectors due to the high volume, increased resistance from thin needle, and limited surface area on syringe for finger placement. Older syringes had greater surface area allowing for 3-4 fingers to counter resistance pressure while injecting. Modern day syringes do not even provide enough surface area for 2 fingers. Plastic adaptors have subsequently been made to increase surface area and ease pressure on the thumbs of injectors. Unfortunately plastic adaptors cannot go through the autoclave to be sterilized. The ideal solution is to create metal adaptors for both 5 and 10 mL syringes that can be autoclaved for sterilization purposes between patients.

This requires limited time. As simple as a circular ring that fits over the syringe with two wings providing for 4 finger gripping. Additional comfortable finger cutouts would work as well, but are not necessary. Multiple different adaptor models can be demonstrated and discussed. Stainless steel or similar metals than can be sterilized with an autoclave will work.

Target audience: Prolotherapy providers, high volume injectors, in-office or surgical injectors.

Please note, UW is the home for the most robust and internationally renown prolotherapy randomized controlled trials to date. The study demonstrated good efficacy for knee pain from osteoarthritis. This is a growing procedure. Hundreds of prolotherapists perform this around the world. Many would appreciate a syringe adaptor that can be sterilized.

Materials
syringes, needles prolotherapists

References
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40141-016-0111-z

http://www.annfammed.org/content/11/3/229.full

http://www.fammed.wisc.edu/files/webfm-uploads/documents/donate/prolo-research.pdf

http://hacketthemwall.org/WELCOME.html

Client:
Dr. Bobby Nourani
Family Medicine
School of Medicine
(562) 546-2811
bobby.nourani@gmail.com


40. Johnson Health Tech: BioSensors

biosensors

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation,
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy,
Skills: Electronics, Software, Hardware

Summary
Work with a development team at Johnson Health Tech to identify sensors capable of implementing specific features as requested by the product management team.
Specific metrics of interest are:
1) % body fat
2) User weight
3) body temperature
4) hydration

I will be relying on the student team to help define the project scope based on the available time and budget. Students will have an opportunity to work with electrical and software engineers here at Johnson Health Tech. Cumulatively, the team should have a good foundation in electronics and circuit design along with programming experience (C, C++, and/or Python).

*Note: Students working on the project will be required to sign a non-disclosure agreement. Any intellectual property developed as a part of the this project would be owned by Johnson Health Tech.

Materials
Materials and supplies will be provided as needed.

Client:
Ms. Jolene Enge
Johnson Health Tech
(608) 839-1240
jolene.enge@johnsonfit.com


41. Facial injection analgesic device

injection_analgesic

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Plastic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
Millions of patient receive cosmetic injections of Botox and fillers annually due to the minimally invasive nature of these injections and the no to little downtime associated. However, pain during injection and bruising continue to be the biggest drawback to these injections. Several techniques have been suggested to improve the patient experience, including topical anesthetics, application of ice, and use of mechanical stimulation during the injection. Topical anesthetics are unpopular as they take 45-60 minutes to work and help mainly with the pain of the needle passing through the skin and not the pain of the injection being delivered. Ice application continues to be the most common modality employed. However, ice alone is painful if applied for more than a few minutes, is limited in effect, and requires an extra hand (the injector or the patient ) to hold it in place. Battery operated vibrating machines have been used in addition or in place of ice, and are effective in reducing the pain associated with the injections. However, the vibrations are often extremely bothersome to patients (as annoying as the injection itself ) and these machines usually require an assistant to hold them in place.

We are proposing the design of a product that will look and act similar to a cooling face mask, but will also provide slight vibration or similar mechanical stimulation when activated. This product should be soft and flexible, easily fitting the contours of a patient's face when lying supine. Ideally, the surgeon should be able to fold the product at defined seams, allowing injection at one part of the face while the rest of the face is still covered. The surface of the product facing the patient should have a granular or pebbled surface. The surgeon should be able to initiate vibrations or movement of the fluid within the product by a simple tab (preferably) or with the use of a vibrating device. We anticipate that this product would be cooled prior to patient use. Several minutes before the injection procedure, this mask would be placed on a patient's face to allow for pre-procedure cooling. During the procedure, the clinician would activate the movement or vibratory component of the mask, which would provide additional analgesic during the injection. This slight mechanical stimulation should be strong enough so as to be noticeable to the patient (distracting from the pain of the injection) , but not so vigorous that the soft tissues of the face move as the clinician is injecting. The mask would be left in place over the whole face as the clinician uncovers only the area being injected . Finally, when the injection procedure is complete, the mask would be left in place to continue to provide cooling for several minutes post-procedure. The device should be stable enough when placed on the patient's face in the supine position, thus eliminating the need for an assistant or the patient holding the device in place, and freeing the surgeon to use both hands and focus on the injection only. It will also speed the process for the patient and the surgeon; currently the surgeon often needs to apply ice to one area, inject that area, apply ice to the same area again and to the next area to be injected, and so on. If ice application is omitted , bruising and pain can mar the patient experience. This proposed device will allow cooling of both the areas already injected and the areas to be injected to proceed simultaneously while the surgeon only uncovers the part of the face being addressed.

Materials
Will need to purchase

References
(1) Baxter AL1, Cohen LL, McElvery HL, Lawson ML, von Baeyer CL. An integration of vibration and cold relieves venipuncture pain in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Dec;27(12):1151-6. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318237ace4.

(2) Kakigi R1, Watanabe S. Pain relief by various kinds of interference stimulation applied to the peripheral skin in humans: pain-related brain potentials following CO2 laser stimulation. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1996;1(3):189-98.

(3) Hollins M, McDermott K, Harper D. How does vibration reduce pain? Perception. 2014;43(1):70-84.

(4). Engel SJ, Afifi AM, Zins JE. Botulinum toxin injection pain relief using a topical anesthetic skin refrigerant.J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010 Sep;63(9):1443-6.

Additional sources for anatomic areas and overview of botox and filler injections:

(4) Carruthers J1, Fagien S, Matarasso SL; Botox Consensus Group. Consensus recommendations on the use of botulinum toxin type a in facial aesthetics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Nov;114(6 Suppl):1S-22S.

(5) Fitzgerald R1, Rubin AG. Filler placement and the fat compartments. Dermatol Clin. 2014 Jan;32(1):37-50. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.09.007.

Client:
Dr. Ahmed Afifi, MD
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 261-1541
afifi@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Lisa M Block, MD
lblock@uwhealth.org


42. Kinect-based video tracking on simulated clinical examinations: The Clubfoot Correction

clubfoot_correction

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
Clubfoot is defined as a range of foot abnormalities (typically present at birth) in which the baby's foot is oriented out of normal shape or position, preventing correct walking motion if not properly treated. Clubfoot is now corrected using the Ponseti method, a weeks-long series of sessions correcting foot deformity using foot manipulations and casting. Although the Ponseti method is a highly successful clubfoot correction technique, novices to the Ponseti method struggle in learning this technique. Experts teaching the Ponseti method focus on reaching specific angles and force placements on the foot, which are difficult to convey to a novice. We believe the best solution would be to provide objective feedback to learners, assisting them in matching the performance of experts. We are looking for a motion tracking solution to record clinicians performing the Ponseti method (in either the clinic or on our plastinated simulator) and provide objective evaluations of their technique (foot angles, force placement, fulcrum point, etc). The solution developed will be used on a sample of participants, to discern expert users from novices.

Materials
-Kinect
-Clubfoot Simulator

Client:
Mr. Calvin Kwan
Department of Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-5241
kwan@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Shannon DiMarco
(608) 263-5218
dimarco@surgery.wisc.edu


43. Discriminating force and technique using sensors on the thyroid examination

thyroid_exam

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
Thyroid gland pathology is prominent in the United States, and clinical evaluation of the thyroid gland is widely performed by health care practitioners to evaluate for disease. This examination technique is taught in medical school and refined during residency training. Performance assessment is necessary for determining whether a trainee has met defined standard. In determining competency, observational tools including global assessment scales and task-specific checklists have shown validity and reliability. However, using sensor technology could provide a more objective approach in determining competency, rather than relying purely on observational tools. We are looking to instrument our Thyroid Exam simulator with cloth-based sensor technology. The cloth sensor system should be designed to differentiate between superficial touch and deeper palpation, be undetectable by users, and wearable by both our simulated thyroid model and a human standardized patient.

Materials
-Cloth sensor materials (conductive fabric, etc)
-Plastinated Thyroid Exam Simulator

Client:
Mr. Calvin Kwan
Department of Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-5241
kwan@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Shannon DiMarco
(608) 263-5218
dimarco@surgery.wisc.edu


44. Synthetic bowel tissue development

synthetic_bowel

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Tissue Engineering

Summary
Physical examination skills are taught and assessed throughout medical school and residency. Use of simulation technology for teaching and evaluation has introduced a wide variety of options for clinical performance assessment. However, many clinical skills are taught on animal tissue, which can be unavailable, expensive, or short-lived. We are looking for an alternative, synthetic solution to provide our medical students and residents with more on-demand practice tissue. Although we typically use Smooth-On based products to develop our simulated training products, we are open to other solutions for synthetic bowel tissue.

Materials
-Smooth-On silicone rubbers and associated materials
-Common medical instruments and suture

Client:
Mr. Calvin Kwan
Department of Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-5241
kwan@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Shannon DiMarco
(608) 263-5218
dimarco@surgery.wisc.edu


45. Osteochondral transplant system

graft_delivery

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The treatment of chondral defects in young active patients continue to evolve. Although stem cell therapies show promise, they are still in early development especially for the treatment of focal lesions. Moreover, the use of osteochondral grafts have the ability to transfer mature hyaline cartilage with respective extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the bone graft has the innate ability to heal into place. Several recent studies, however, have shown that success depends on maintaining chondrocyte cell viability, a goal that is paradoxically difficult due to our current surgical technologies. My idea is the development of a system that will allow surgeons to transplant osteochondral grafts without potentially, or at least minimizing, damage during surgery. My thoughts, after preliminary data collection of impaction force during implantation, is the development, of a system to screw in the plug rather than impact the graft. This will require a drill tap, a reamer to prepare the osteochondral graft, and a insertion tool that would be similar to a screwdriver to allow the surgeon the ability to both screw in and rotate out the bone graft.

Materials
Cadaveric specimens
Fresh grafts
Sutures
Current osteochondral autograft instrument

References
1. Borazjani BH, Chen AC, Won CB, et al. Effect of impaction on chondrocyte viability during insertion of human osteochondral grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88-A(9):1934-1943.
2. Cook JL, Stannard JP, Stoker AM, et al. Importance of donor chondrocyte viability for osteochondral allografts. Am J Sports Med. 2016 May;44(5):1260-1268
3. Flanigan DC, Harris JD, Trinh TQ, et al. Prevalence of chondral defects in athletes’ knees: A systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):1795-1801.
4. Ghazavi MR, Pritzker KP, Davis AM, et al. Fresh osteochondral allografts for post-traumatic osteochondral defects of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1997;79:1008-1013.
5. Gross AE, Kim W, Las Heras F, et al. Fresh osteochondral allografts for posttraumatic knee defects: long-term followup. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008;466(8):1863-1870.
6. Kang RW, Friel NA, Williams JM, Cole BJ, Wimmer MA. Effect of impaction sequence on osteochondral fraft damage: the role of repeated and varying loads. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Jan;38(1):105-113.
7. Pallante AL, Chen AC, Ball ST, et al: The in vivo performance of osteochondral allografts in the goat is diminished with extended storage and decreased cartilage cellularity. Am J Sports Med 2012;40(8):1814-1823.
8. Pallante AL, Gortz S, Chen AC, et al: Treatment of articular cartilage defects in the goat with frozen versus fresh osteochondral allografts: Effects on cartilage stiffness, zonal composition, and structure at six months. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012.94(21):1984-1995.
9. Sherman SL, Garrity J, Bauer K, Cook J, Stannard J, Bugbee W. Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation of the knee: Current Concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2014;22:121-133.

Client:
Dr. Brian Walczak
Orthopedics
SMPH
(630) 631-8227
walczak@ortho.wisc.edu


46. Impedance/Tonometry system

hemodynamics

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Non invasive assessment of hemodynamics for diagnoses and prognoses is possible by measuring the pulse pressure with tonometry and blood flow with ultrasound. We would like to set up a system to do so with healthy volunteers.

Materials
Many of the pieces required are available in the lab but we need a group to design, assemble and test a functional system.

References
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809928

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12265-012-9359-6

https://cardiovascularultrasound.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-7120-5-6

Client:
Prof. Naomi Chesler
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 265-8920
naomi.chesler@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Diana Tabima
dtabimamarti@wisc.edu


47. Implantable light source for driving optogenetic constructs

implantable_light

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Software

Summary
Optogenetic is a rapidly evolving area of investigation taking advantage of an ion channel that opens (activated) upon 470 nm light stimulation. Channel rhodopsin can be expressed in many organs using direct injection of a recombinant virus and activity of excitable cells in an organ controlled by external light stimulation. A fundamental limitation in this area of investigation is the necessity to attach an external light source through a tethered optical fiber to stimulate the cells. Availability of a micro-implantable light source controllable by wireless communication will greatly expand the possibility of exploring the utility of optogenetics in freely moving animals.

A specific task of this project will be to design and create a prototype micro-implantable light source for stimulating channel rhodopsin expressed in the sciatic nerve with the goal of developing a novel method of treating chronic pathological pain.

Materials
cDNA and AAV virus expressing ChR for biological experiments.

References
Lin JY (2011) Exp Physiol 96.1 pp19-25. doi: 10.1113/expphysil.2009.051961

Towne et al (2013) PlosOne 8(8):e72691. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072691

Montgomery et al. (2016) Sicne Transl Med 8:337rv5

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
SMPH
(608) 265-6710
jyang75@wisc.edu


48. Alternative to Ice Socks for bikers

ice_socks

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: , Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
The current method of choice for professional bike teams to cool their riders during events is to fill nylons with ice cubes and hand them out as riders pass by, the rider then stuffing the "ice sock" in his/her jersey on the back of the neck. The ice melts, which is a positive in keeping weight down, the holy grail of cycling, but the melted ice can sometimes run all the way into a riders crotch, not so positive. The leftover nylon sometimes blows out of the jersey, sometimes falls into the back, getting discarded eventually one way or the other. When preparing for a long day, 3-4 socks per rider, upwards of 9 riders on a team, making these socks is a time consuming ordeal. And a waste of nylon material. EVERY team in the world does this, they must go through tens of thousands of socks a year. So, my questions are these....is there a better way to cool a rider? If not, is there a better, more eco-friendly and budget-wise reusable material to make socks from? Would it just be better to make adjustments to current jerseys to accommodate the socks, and/or control the flow of melting ice? Are there are other questions/alternatives/issues that might lead to a solution?

Materials
Cycling apparel.

Client:
Mr. Steve Jacob
(262) 308-4243
sjacob@sbcglobal.net


49. Tumor measurement

tumor_measurement

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Imaging, Software

Summary
Cancer drug development requires testing drugs in preclinical trials using animal models. One such popular model requires growing tumors on the back of the animals. These tumors grow in many shapes and the trick is accurately measuring the size. At present the only way to measure tumors in three dimensions (length, width and height) is using Vernier calipers and that's where lot of human error creeps in. The tumor has to be measured in three dimensions and then we calculate the volume using the formula for the volume of an ellipsoid
Tumor volume = 1/2(length × width 2)
Is there a way to develop a hand held device that can measure the tumor more accurately minimizing human error? The device could cup around the tumor and find volume?

Just an idea??

Any takers

Materials
animals with tumors

References
https://bmcmedimaging.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2342-8-16

Client:
Dr. Vaqar Adhami
Dermatology
SMPH
(608) 262-6389
vmadhami@wisc.edu


50. Therapeutic home blood pressure device

fake_bp

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
Home blood pressure monitors (HBPM) are being proposed as a way to diagnose hypertension, monitor blood pressure, and improve treatment in patients with hypertension. This could lead to lower cost and improved management of hypertension. However, and important hurdle in the use of HBPM is that it is unclear whether patients who use HBPM fare better than those under usual clinical care. Trials comparing HBPM and usal care are challenging because it is very difficult to prevent both the patient and the investigator from knowing the intervention each patient is using. One way to address this problem would be to modify an existing HBPM device so that it shows the patient true or "fake" BP values in a random fashion. We aim to conduct a trial where patients would be assigned to periods when they use a regular HBPM and periods when they use a modified HBPM. Depending on how patients use information on BP values to tailor their treatment, some may due better using regular and other may due better using modified "therapeutic" HBPM. Thus a "therapeutic HBPM" could be useful for research as well as for clinical care.

Materials
None at this time.

References
(1) Goldberg EM, Levy PD. New Approaches to Evaluating and Monitoring Blood Pressure. Current Hypertension Reports 2016; 18: 1-7.

(2) Krakoff LR. Blood Pressure Out of the Office: Its Time Has Finally Come. Am J Hypertens 2015.

(3) Uhlig K, Patel K, Ip S, Kitsios GD, Balk EM. Self-Measured Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Management of HypertensionA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2013; 159: 185-94.

(4) Parati G, Omboni S, Bilo G. Why Is Out-of-Office Blood Pressure Measurement Needed?: Home Blood Pressure Measurements Will Increasingly Replace Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension. Hypertension 2009; 54: 181-7.

Client:
Dr. Leonelo Bautista
Population Health Sciences
Medicine
(608) 265-6176
lebautista@wisc.edu


51. Spinal cord stimulator leads inflated by air

spinal_cord_stimulator

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Anesthesiology
Skills: Human Subjects

Summary
Spinal cord stimulator leads come in 2 forms, percutaneous leads which can be placed through epidural needles to reach the epidural space or paddle leads which are wider leads that require a laminectomy surgery for their placement.

My idea is to create a paddle lead that can be of small diameter, introduced through an epidural needle and once in place, it can be inflated by air to become wider. This will allow utilizing the advantage of placing it through a needle like a percutaneous lead, achieve the broad coverage of a paddle lead and avoid the laminectomy surgery needed to place a paddle lead.

Client:
Dr. Alaa Abd-Elsayed
Anesthesiology
UW-Madison
(216) 346-1739
abdelsayed@wisc.edu


52. Development of a cast liner that protects from cast saw injury

cast_saw_stop

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
Casts are used in many orthopedic treatments. Casts are typically removed using oscillating cast saws that can damage the underlying skin through either abrasive or thermal injury. Cast saw injuries continue to occur despite widespread knowledge of the potential and the need to use proper technique when removing a cast. Previous BME groups have designed a novel cast saw detection system that alerts a user that the cast has been cut and the blade is touching an underlying strip via a simple circuit. In this project I would like to develop a stockinet and or cast padding that could work with the detection system to automatically signal the cast saw to stop when it is touched.

Materials
Cast saws, cast material and cast liners

References
1 Ansari MZ, Swarup S, Ghani R, Tovey P. Oscillating saw injuries during removal of plaster. European journal of emergency medicine : official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine. 1998 Mar;5(1):37-9.

2 Shore BJ, Hutchinson S, Harris M, et al. Epidemiology and prevention of cast saw injuries: results of a quality improvement program at a single institution. The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume. 2014 Feb 19;96(4):e31.

3 Ansari MZ, Swarup S, Ghani R, Tovey P. Oscillating saw injuries during removal of plaster. Eur J Emerg Med. 1998 Mar;5(1):37-9.

4 Halanski M, Noonan KJ. Cast and splint immobilization: complications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Jan;16(1):30-40.

5 Killian JT, White S, Lenning L. Cast-saw burns: comparison of technique versus material versus saws. J Pediatr Orthop. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5):683-7.

6 Shore BJ, Hutchinson S, Harris M, et al. Epidemiology and prevention of cast saw injuries: results of a quality improvement program at a single institution. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Feb 19;96(4):e31.

7 Shuler FD, Grisafi FN. Cast-saw burns: evaluation of skin, cast, and blade temperatures generated during cast removal. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Dec;90(12):2626-30.

8 Moritz AR, Henriques FC. Studies of Thermal Injury: II. The Relative Importance of Time and Surface Temperature in the Causation of Cutaneous Burns. American Journal of Pathology. 1947 Sep;23(5):695-720.

9 Puddy AC, Sunkin JA, Aden JK, Walick KS, Hsu JR. Cast saw burns: evaluation of simple techniques for reducing the risk of thermal injury. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Dec;34(8):e63-6.

10 Killian JT, White S, Lenning L. Cast-saw burns: comparison of technique versus material versus saws. Journal of pediatric orthopedics. [Comparative Study]. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5):683-7.

11 Halanski MA, Halanski AD, Oza A, Vanderby R, Munoz A, Noonan KJ. Thermal injury with contemporary cast-application techniques and methods to circumvent morbidity. The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume. 2007 Nov;89(11):2369-77.

12 Shuler FD, Grisafi FN. Cast-saw burns: evaluation of skin, cast, and blade temperatures generated during cast removal. The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2008 Dec;90(12):2626-30.

13 Monroe KC, Sund SA, Nemeth BA, Noonan KJ, Halanski MA. Cast-saw injuries: assessing blade-to-skin contact during cast removal. Does experience or education matter? Phys Sportsmed. 2014 Feb;42(1):36-44.

14 Moktar J, Popkin CA, Howard A, Murnaghan ML. Development of a cast application simulator and evaluation of objective measures of performance. The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume. 2014 May 7;96(9):e76.

15 Lavalette R, Pope MH, Dickstein H. Setting temperatures of plaster casts. The influence of technical variables. The Journal of bone and joint surgery American volume. 1982 Jul;64(6):907-11.

Client:
Dr. Ken Noonan
Orthopaedics
Medicine
(608) 886-6232
noonan@ortho.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Matthew Halanski
Orthopedics
(608) 228-3368
halanski@ortho.wisc.edu


53. Cryostat freezing platform for Mohs sections

freezing_platform

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Pathology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Mohs surgery is a technique used to treat high-risk skin cancers or skin cancers in critical locations. It requires the cancer to be removed, rapidly frozen, sectioned, and stained so that margins can be evaluated while the patient is in the clinic. If margins are positive, additional tissue can be immediately removed from the area where the cancer is tracking in the skin.

The tissue processing normally happens in the cryostat on the platform used to cut the tissue. In some cases, patients come in with tumors large enough that this either does not provide enough space to freeze the tissue, or it starts to warm up (after multiple pieces of tissue are frozen on it), and it starts to take longer to freeze the tissue.

We would like to have some kind of conductive platform that can stay in the cryostat, at the same temperature (-20C). There it would function to extract the heat from the tissue rapidly, ideally without warming up too rapidly itself. This would allow for faster tissue freezing and speed up the surgical treatment of these patients.

Client:
Dr. Andrew Swanson
Dermatology
UW Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
(415) 254-9218
aswanson@dermatology.wisc.edu


54. Chemical dissolution of abdominal adhesions causing recurrent bowel obstructions

adhesion_dissolution

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Human Subjects, Tissue Engineering

Summary
Patients that undergo radiation therapy and/or surgcal procedures involving the abdomen frequently develop abdominal adhesions that often result in recurrent bowel obstruction. Treatment options are limited to conservative therapy- e.g. bowel rest and gradual re institution of enteral feeding without addressing the underlying problem. Surgical Adhesiolysis is sometimes used when conservative therapy is not effective, but this is problematic as re entering the abdomen can itself result in further development of adhesions.

If chemical dissolution of adhesions could be used successfully, this could make recurrent bowel obstruction less likely. Obviously the chemical dissolving agent would need to preferentially dissolve only the adhesions without disrupting the normal connective tissue.

Materials
samples of abdominal adhesions could be obtained from surgical procedures for analysis.

Note: no human samples may used in the teaching lab. All testing must be completed in the client's lab under the client's supervision. Additional training is required to work with any human samples. A tissue engineered model of the tissue may need to be created first to be used as a test sample.

References
Available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
Dean Clinic
Dean Clinic
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


55. Device to measure fungal biofilm dispersion

biofilm_dispersion

BME 400

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
As medical technology has advanced, the use of a variety of medical devices has proliferated. Unfortunately, many of the invasive life-sustaining devices necessary for delicate patient populations disrupt the patient’s natural protective barriers (e.g. skin, mucosal membranes) and provide a natural conduit for infection. At least half of all hospital-acquired infections are associated with a medical device. Invasive fungal infections in particular represent a devastating complication associated with high mortality and high morbidity. Candida yeast species cause 80-90% of these infections and it is estimated that anywhere from 15-50% of patients who develop invasive Candida infections die.

Medical devices are colonized by fungal biofilms when planktonic cells adhere to the device and develop into highly structured communities comprised of layers of yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in an extracellular matrix. These biofilms serve as reservoirs of infection; yeast-form cells dispersed from the biofilm seed metastatic infections and are the main culprits associated with establishment of invasive disease. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that Candida biofilms incapable of dispersion are relatively avirulent. Thus, it appears it is the release of cells from the device-associated biofilm that leads to fatal infection and not establishment of the biofilm per se. This suggests that inhibition of dispersion would be a viable antifungal strategy for preventing the mortality and morbidity associated with fungal biofilms. However to date the majority of research and development has been focused on understanding, preventing, and disrupting formation of biofilms. An experimental device for measuring dispersion is desperately needed to advance our understanding of the cues that cause cells to disperse from fungal biofilms and how this process might be prevented.

The goal of this project is to design a device for experimentally measuring dispersion from fungal biofilms. This device should allow a fungal biofilm to be established within the device and cells dispersed from the biofilm to be collected for quantification and assessment of virulence properties such as adhesion and invasiveness. The device should allow the biofilm to be exposed to different environmental conditions, such as nutrient depletion or antifungal drugs, so that the effect of the environment on biofilm dispersion can be tested. The device should be amenable to miniaturization and parallelization so that many biofilms can be tested at the same time allowing us to assess dispersion in different mutant strains and under different conditions in a medium-throughput manner. Finally, the ability to monitor biofilm development and dispersion using light-microscopy throughout the course of the experiment would be ideal.

Materials
The design team will have access to equipment available in the BME teaching labs and common spaces. Additional resources (including microscopy equipment, incubators, and other culturing supplies) within the McClean lab can be made available as needed.

References
A good overview of Candida albicans biology and disease associated with this organism:
Clarissa J Nobile and Alexander D Johnson. Candida albicans biofilms and human disease. Annual Review of Microbiology, 69(1), 2015.

This is a good review that discusses fungal biofilm dispersion and why it is important yet understudied:
Priya Uppuluri and Jose L Lopez-Ribot. Go forth and colonize: Dispersal from clinically important microbial biofilms. PLoS Pathog, 12(2):e1005397, 2016.

There is only one existing published assay for measuring dispersion from Candida albicans biofilms discussed in the following papers:
Priya Uppuluri, Ashok K Chaturvedi, and Jose L Lopez-Ribot. Design of a simple model of candida albicans biofilms formed under conditions of flow: development, architecture, and drug resistance. Mycopathologia, 168(3):101–109, 2009.

Priya Uppuluri, Ashok K Chaturvedi, Anand Srinivasan, Mohua Banerjee, Anand K Ramasubramaniam, Julia R Köhler, David Kadosh, and Jose L Lopez-Ribot. Dispersion as an important step in the candida albicans biofilm developmental cycle. PLoS Pathog, 6(3):e1000828, 2010.

Client:
Dr. Megan N McClean
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 890-0416
mmcclean@wisc.edu


56. Development of a lightweight upper extremity exoskeleton for growing children

exoskeleton

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: , Prosthetics
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Many congenital and acquired neuromuscular childhood diseases lead to inability to use the upper extremities properly in affected children.

Exoskeletons have been developed to help individuals with disabilities due to paralysis, muscle weakness or other causes. Many are very heavy, require electronics, are difficult to adjust and are very expensive. These are significant limitations especially for children who are still growing and might be afraid of the design.

Because of this upper extremity exoskeletons have been developed that do not require electronics, are light and can be 3D printed to reduce costs. The WREX (Wilmington Robotic EXoskeleton) has gained public attention and appears to have improved some children's mobility and functioning.

However, in discussion with one of the UW pediatric physical therapists Karen Patterson, PT, MS current devices still have limitations and get mixed reviews but rehab specialists and patients/parents. As such, there is a need to improve current exoskeleton approaches based on feedback from stakeholders such as patients, families and rehab specialists.

I am looking for a group of motivated students who are interested in working with Karen Patterson, my collaborator on this project, to identify limitations and weaknesses of current designs by interviewing rehab specialists who have been using upper extremity exoskeletons. Based on this information the group then should develop a new design and prototype that addresses limitations of current devices.

Materials
N/A

References
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21654447

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17601194

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123200

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WoZ2BgPVtA0

http://jaecoorthopedic.com/products/products/WREX%3A-Wilmington-Robotic-EXoskeleton-Arm.html

Client:
Dr. Bjoern Buehring
Department of Medicine
SMPH
(608) 265-6410
bbuehring@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Karen Patterson, PT, MS
(608) 263-6743
pattersonk@pt.wisc.edu

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