Project Selection

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  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games biofeedback_games Bioinstrumentation Urology
2 RaDistance safety meter radiation_meter Bioinstrumentation Radiology
3 Atrial fibrillation screener afib_screener Bioinstrumentation Medicine
4 Personalized medication disposal system med_drop Biomaterials Pharmacy
5 Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention dialysis_infection Bioinstrumentation Urology
6 Thyroid palpation movement model thyroid_model Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Biomechanics Medical Simulation
7 Transplant organ coolant management system organ_cooler Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
8 Flexible microsurgical background microsurgical_background Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
9 Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace dynamic_leg_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
10 Expandable bone graft bone_graft Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurosurgery
11 Inflatable vertebral body distractor vertebral_body_distractor Biomechanics Neurosurgery
12 Metered dose inhaler (MDI) drug delivery system for rats metered_inhaler Biomechanics Pharmacy
13 Device to measure lung diffusion capacity in rodents lung_diffusion Bioinstrumentation Pulmonology
14 Manual extraction of placenta training simulator placenta_extraction Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation, Obstetrics/Gynecology
15 Impact wrench for orthopedics orthopedic_wrench Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
16 To develop a better cast saw cast_saw Biomechanics Orthopedic Surgery
17 Device to measure airway diameter in patients with laryngotracheal stenosis airway_diameter Biomechanics Otolaryngology
18 200/300 Wearable digital loupe magnification device digital_loupe Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors Surgery
19 Automated quality assurance system for clinical CT systems CT_quality Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Radiology, Medical Imaging
20 Point of care anemia device POC_anemia Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation, Global Health Engineering, Medical Imaging Medical Imaging, Pathology, Rural/Global Medicine
21 Clinical Simulation Material/Model Physical Characterization model_characterization Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics Medical Simulation
22 Rat multi-electrode rat_multielectrode Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Neurology,
23 Taste options for patients with high risk for aspiration taste_options Biomaterials, Human Factors Otolaryngology
24 Needle support device for vortex ports needle_support Biomaterials, Biomechanics , Medicine
25 Design and construction of a quad rat vitals monitor rat_vitals_monitor Bioinstrumentation Medicine
26 Small caliber lead shafts of electrophysiologic catheters multi_catheter Biomechanics Surgery
27 Fall triggered hip protectors hip_protectors Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation Geriatrics, Prosthetics
28 Upper limb support and immobilization during moderate aerobic exercise arm_support Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Medicine
29 Veterinary intravenous (IV) trainer intravenous_trainer Biomaterials, Biomechanics Medical Simulation, Veterinary Medicine
30 Veterinary laryngoscope veterinary_laryngoscope Biomechanics Veterinary Medicine
31 Feline intubation model intubation_model Biomechanics Medical Simulation, Veterinary Medicine
32 Development of a pen-sized, sterilizable and disposable laser pointer laser_pointer Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Surgery
33 Respiratory motion MRI phantom respiratory_phantom Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Medical Simulation, Radiology
34 Non-invasive quantitative airflow measurement airflow_measurement Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pediatrics,
35 Field kit for collection of newborn screening blood samples in low resource home settings blood_collection Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Global Health Engineering, Biomechanics Rural/Global Medicine
36 Tri-axial ergonomic knee brace hinge knee_brace Biomechanics Physical Therapy
37 Neural coding software suite neural_coding Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Neurology
38 Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection aortic_dissection Medical Imaging, Biomechanics Cardiology
39 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration macular_degeneration_model Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials Ophthalmology
40 200/300 Design of a probe-placement fixture for ex vivo microwave ablation experiments probe_fixture Human Factors, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Oncology
41 Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing abdominal_breathing Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pulmonology
42 Steerable catheter from electroactive polymers steerable_catheter Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
43 Ergonomic rodent bleed syringe ergonomic_syringe Human Factors, Biomechanics Veterinary Medicine
44 Mechanism for reducing animal lab technician strain cage_cleaner Human Factors, Biomechanics Veterinary Medicine
45 Ergonomic rodent cage to reduce lab technican strain ergonomic_cage Human Factors, Biomechanics Veterinary Medicine
46 Measuring exercise systolic BP using finger laser doppler in kids exercise_BP Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Pediatrics, Cardiology
47 Continuous monitoring of asthma control asthma_control Bioinstrumentation Pulmonology
48 Skin cancer detector skin_cancer_detector Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Oncology
49 Developing synthetic carttilage - An alternative to joint replacement synthetic_carttilage Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Orthopedic Surgery
50 Comfortable mouthpiece for sleep apnea apnea_mourthpiece Biomechanics, Human Factors Otolaryngology
51 Wireless ECG tank top ECG_tank_top Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
52 Increased flow breast pump breast_pump Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation Obstetrics/Gynecology
53 Measuring mice voiding to study prostate cancer mouse_voiding Bioinstrumentation Oncology, Urology
54 Device to reduce injection pain to the palms and soles for Hyperhidrosis treatment palm_injection Biomechanics, Human Factors Medicine
55 Surgeon's back-support back_support Biomechanics Surgery
56 Adopting 3D printing into prosthetics practice: from purchase to first printed prototype 3Dprinted_prosthetics Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors Prosthetics
57 Intraluminal tracheal ring stent for treatment of collapsing trachea in dogs ring_stemt Biomechanics, Biomaterials Veterinary Medicine
58 Developing a closed head injury device for rodents (and/or miniature pigs) rodent_TBI Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Neurology
59 Johnson Health Tech: Adaptive fitness equipment adaptive_fitness_equipment Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors Physical Therapy
60 Transcranial Doppler ultrasound ultra-headband ultra_headband Biomechanics Medical Imaging
61 Automatic intraventricular drainage system automatic_IVD Biomechanics Neurology
62 Development of a microfluidic sampling and imaging device for microbial bioreactors microfluidic_sampling Cellular Engineering Medicine
63 Apparatus for fusion of surface ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy images in cardiac procedures fiducial_apparatus Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Biomechanics Medical Imaging


1. Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback computer games

biofeedback_games

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Dr. Patrick McKenna joined the UW Department of Urology in September 2012 as the Chief of Pediatric Urology. He brought a new clinical program to our center, whereby children learn to control their pelvic floor muscles using biofeedback. The aspect of his program that is unique nationally is that he utilizes video games in the pelvic floor training. Biofeedback "leads" attached to the patient's pelvic floor muscles connect to an electronic interface that is about 2"x5"x7" in size and connects to a computer that runs the video games. Currently we have two of the electronic interfaces, one in use and one backup. The backup unit will be soon be deployed in a satellite clinic location. The devices have a history of "burning up" after a few years.
Our initial goal is the creation of extra interfaces that can be used if the existing ones fail because the devices are no longer commercially available. A more ambitious goal is the creation of a new interface and video games that run on a modern operating system with high resolution graphics.

Materials
Access to current biofeedback set-up outside normal clinic hours.
Access to a broken interface.
Funds for equipment and supplies with pre-approval.

Client:
Dr. Patrick H. McKenna, MD, FACS, FAAP
Urology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-0475
mckenna@urology.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Stephen Hall, Department Administrator
(608) 263-9032
hall@urology.wisc.edu

Sarah Novinsie, Medical Staff Assistant to Pediatric Urology Division
(608) 262-0475
novinskie@urology.wisc.edu


2. RaDistance safety meter

radiation_meter

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
The therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine (I-131) can be potentially harmful to family members, individuals close to the patient as well as health workers and the environment. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends that radioactive iodine patients receive thorough instructions to avoid direct and indirect contact with infants and young children following the treatment. Design a device/multiple devices that would help radioactive iodine patients interact normally with family members in their home settings post hospital discharge. A possibility is a cap with both distance and heat sensors. If a patient gets within 1 m of a human, the patient could be alerted by acoustic, optical or vibratory feedback.

Fall 2013 a BME design team made a device that looks only ahead described at http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f13/radiation_meter/ Now we need this expanded to look in all directions.

Materials
Develop multiple home pyroelectric intruder sensors and a time-of-flight ultrasonic camera focus sensors.

References
Barrington S , O'Doherty M, Kettle A, Thomson W, Mountford P, Burrell D, et al. 1999. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism, Eur. J. Nucl. Med., vol. 26,pp. 686-692.
Barrington S, Anderson P, Kettle A, Gadd R, Thomson W, et al. 2008. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Nov;35(11):2097-104.
Directorate-General: Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection 1998, Radiation Protection following Iodine-131 Therapy (Exposures due to out-patients or discharged in-patients), European Commission.
Fraden, J., Handbook of modern sensors: physics, designs, and applications, 2nd ed., American Institute of Physics, Woodbury NY, 1997. Pages 267, 280.
Greaves, C. and Tindale, W. 1999, Dose rate measurements from radiopharmaceuticals: Implications for nuclear medicine staff and for children with radioactive parents, Nucl. Med. Commun., vol 20, pp. 179-187.
International Commission on Radiological Protection 1996, Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine, ICRP Publication 73, Annals of the ICRP vol. 26 No. 2.
Matheoud R, Reschini E, Canzi C, Voltini F, Gerundini P. 2004. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism. Med Phys.;31(12):3194-200.
Mathieu I, Caussin J, Smeesters P, Wambersie A, Beckers C. 1999, Recommended restrictions after 131I therapy: measured doses in family members, Health Phys., vol. 76, pp. 129-136.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 1995, Dose limits for individuals who receive exposure from radionuclide therapy patients, NCRP Commentary No. 11.
Rémy H, Coulot J, Borget I, 2012. Thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I: radiation dose to relatives after discharge from the hospital. Thyroid. Jan;22(1):59-63.

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
(608) 263-1574
webster@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Prof. Sarah Hagi
Director of Medical Equipment Planning & Development
Medical Physics Unit, Radiology Dept., King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
sarahhagi@gmail.com

Prof. Brian Bednarz
Medical Physics
(608) 262-5225
bbednarz2@wisc.edu


3. Atrial fibrillation screener

afib_screener

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Software

Summary
Afib is a common, vastly under diagnosed condition. It is diagnosed by a telemetry strip, an ECG or clinically. There is a smartphone app that can diagnose it as well.

What woudl be even more useful is to develop a small device that could attach to a stethoscope that could be placed over the patient's chest and immedicately identify the rhythm.

It would have to be cheap, durable, accurate and easy to use.

Materials
telemetry device.
Display

References
BARCELONA, SPAIN — Incidentally detected atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic and ambulatory patients is associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality, but treating the detected arrhythmia with oral anticoagulants can significantly improve the prognosis of these patients, according to the results of a new study.

The new data suggest that it would be worthwhile to initiate a communitywide screening program to detect and treat AF in these asymptomatic patients. Such a screening program would even be cost-effective, say researchers.

Dr Ben Freedman (Concord Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia) told heartwire that the prevalence of AF worldwide is only going to increase with the aging baby boomers. "This epidemic is looming," he said. "In the next 10 or 20 years, we're going to see this enormous increase in atrial fibrillation. It's going to be asymptomatic and silent."

And unfortunately, the first manifestation of AF can be devastating. "Often, in patients, the first time you learn they have atrial fibrillation is when they present with a stroke," said Freedman. In fact, he said that AF is responsible for 20% to 33% of all strokes and that 20% to 45% of individuals who have an AF-related stroke did not have a prior diagnosis of AF.

Freedman, along with colleagues Dr Carlos Martinez (Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics, and Informatics, Frankfurt, Germany) and Dr Nicole Lowres (University of Sydney), published the new data on the prognosis of incidentally detected ambulatory AF in the August 2014 issue of Thrombosis and Haemostasis[1] and also presented more research on the topic here at this week's European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2014 Congress.

Client:
Dr. Phil Bain
Dean Clinic
Dean
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


4. Personalized medication disposal system

med_drop

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Pharmacy
Skills: Chemistry, Pharmacology

Summary
The number of prescriptions prescribed to patients continues to increase exponentially with each passing year.

Leftover and expired prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines can be found in every household in Dane county. Last year unintentional poisonings killed more Dane County residents than automobile crashes. Misuse or abuse of prescription, over-the-counter or illicit drugs are the major cause. Pain medication when misused, can be especially fatal.

One option currently available is to dispose of the medications using Med Drop boxes in Dane County. This is inconvenient as they currently are only located in Police Departments. Many patients end up flushing the medications down their toilets which negatively impacts the water table. Others may just put the medications in the trash which can contaminate waste management plants. Still others stockpile their unused medication in their medication cabinets, leaving open the possibility of taking the wrong med, overdosing or having the medication stolen.

I would propose that a personalized medication neutralizing container be created that physically or chemically inactivates the medication rendering it inert and non harmful to the environment.

Materials
Recepticle
Chemical or physical means to render the medication inert

References
available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
Community Faculty Member ofUW Medical School
Dean Clinic
philip.bain@deancare.com


5. Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention

dialysis_infection

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis are trained to detect infection. The standard method requires the patients to inspect a small amount of fluid that has been drained out in a small transparent container. The patients are looking for a change in transparency of the fluid as this would suggest infection. This method has limitations for those with visual problems as well as the relative change can be misleading.

The project that I would like to propose would be the development of a device to aid in the detection of a change in the transparency for these patients. The poor detection of change for many patients has resulted in infection, hospitalization, loss of ability to do dialysis and even death.

I have some thoughts but would love to see what you guys come up with.

Client:
Dr. R. Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW Hospital
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


6. Thyroid palpation movement model

thyroid_model

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Synthetic tissue engineering

Summary
Thyroid pathology is prominent in the United States and the thyroid gland examination is an important clinical skill to learn while in medical school, and it is refined during residency training. It is widely practiced in the clinical environment by both primary care and specialty trained physicians to evaluate for pathology of the gland. However, no teaching model exists that accurately models human anatomy, allows for increased hands-on practice and/or allows for quality assessment of proper examination technique. In Dr. Carla Pugh’s lab, we focus on medical education and surgical training research; specifically engineering simulation models and implementing assessment techniques, i.e. sensor technology that allow for improved quantification and qualification of commonly learned skills. We have previously engineered a sensorized thyroid exam model that was validated by two expert endocrinologists. Deficiencies still exist in this model, as it does not allow trainees to practice the full clinical exam, e.g. palpation of thyroid gland while swallowing. This is known to be an important part of the palpation portion of the clinical exam, and helps differentiate neck mass pathology. In an effort to further refine the design and engineering of our current thyroid palpation model we seek motivated students to help in the development of a Movement Model. For this model we envision simulating the normal ascending/descending of the thyroid gland that occurs when an individual swallows. We have not yet begun engineering this component of the model, and only know that one does not currently exist. The students would be able to freely design this focused component of our model, but also have the option of making any additional improvements that they feel could enhance the realism and improve the experience of using this model. This will satisfy a currently unmet need to provide trainees with an anatomically correct and functionally accurate thyroid palpation model.

Materials
Currently available within our lab is a multitude of fabrication materials, i.e. silicone, fabrics, etc. and supplies. We are also open to support the use of externally available materials and supplies should there be a need in order to complete the project.

References
1. Kwan, C. Cohen, E. Pugh, C. Application of a New Adaptable Thyroid Model for Ultrasound and Hands-On Skill Assessment.

2. Siminoski K. The Rational Clinical Examination: Does This Patient Have a Goiter? JAMA. 1995;273(10),813-817.

3. Simonoski K. Differential Movement During Swallowing as an Aid in The Detection of Thyroid Pseudonodules. Head Neck 16:21-24, 1994.

Client:
Dr. Eran C. Gwillim
Surgery
University of Wisconsin
(815) 762-1758
gwillim@surgery.wisc.edu


7. Transplant organ coolant management system

organ_cooler

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Tissue Engineering

Summary
Background:
Transplant surgeons cool organs to near-freezing levels after procurement, but before transplantation in order to decrease rates of cellular metabolism. Even as much as several minutes of “warm time” can harm the organ. Thus, cooling organs is a major concern.

A routine part of transplant surgery is referred to as the “backbench” procedure. During this time (usually 30 min to 1.5 hours) the organs are prepared for transplantation. On the backbench, surgeons may reconstruct blood vessels, remove unnecessary soft tissues (such as fat), and identify important anatomy.

Currently, surgeons wait approximately 30 minutes for sterile ice to be prepared in order to prepare the organ on the backbench. The ice is then placed in a bowl. The transplantable organ is then placed in the bowl, where it is kept cold, while the surgeon preforms the necessary tasks.
During this time, the organs are unwieldy and difficult to manipulate, particularly when a surgeon is alone. As the surgeon manipulates the organ, many times the organ gets warmer than intended, in order to perform the necessary procedures. In addition, ice can be difficult to use as it melts quickly and as it may obstruct the surgeon’s view of the organ as the ice can be quite bulky.

Unmet need:
There is an unmet need for a device capable of 1) keeping an organ cold on the backbench, 2) stabilization of the transplantable organ, and 3) avoidance of bowls of ice on the backbench, 4) rapid cooling to avoid waiting 30 minutes for ice to form.

Suggested device parameters:
1) Must fit on a 2ft x 2ft operating room table
2) Must be sterilizable
3) Must allow for rapid cooling
4) Must be reusable
5) Must not interact with the UW solution or the organ result in harm
6) Must allow for easy manipulation or the organ by the operative surgeon

Materials
As needed. Many supplies are readily available through the UW Medical center. Any additional items are easily accessed.

References
Ortiz et al. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine; Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 187–190, August 2011 - This study is not ideal. It merely discussed the importance of keeping the organ cold. The device presented is helpful immediately after the "backbench procedure" is completed. http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/lib/img/organ_cooler.png

Client:
Dr. Joseph R. Scalea, MD and Dixon Kaufman MD, PhD
Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery
UW
(410) 905-4053
scalea@surgery.wisc.edu


8. Flexible microsurgical background

microsurgical_background

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Creating an optimized operative field for microsurgery is largely dependent on adequate visualization of vessels or nerves to be anastamosed. Two crucial aspects of optimized visualization are a high contrast environment and egress of fluid buildup in the operative field. Currently, a microsurgical "background" device exists, which is a rigid piece of suction tubing fitted to a bright yellow or blue piece of meshed silicone, allowing for constant suctioning of fluid beneath a highly contrasted background mat. Unfortunately, this background tubing is overly rigid such that it will consistently shift, move, and flip over, becoming unusable and requiring constant repositioning.
As such, the surgeons here at UW have created an improvised flexible microsurgical background consisting of a piece of Xeroform mesh (yellow, semipermeable petroleum infused gauze) wrapped around a pediatric feeding tube, which is affixed to low suction. This device serves the same function without the drawbacks of an overly rigid device. Its improvised nature, however, makes it time consuming to repeatedly create.
Our project would propose creating a flexible microsurgical background that could be packaged and reproduced to allow the advantages of a high contrast background and constant suction without the disadvantages of being overly rigid.

Materials
The commercially available MicroMat and previously created improvised devices could be procured and reproduced.

References
Current suction background available: http://www.pmtcorp.com/plastic_suction.html

Client:
Dr. Samuel Poore / Brian Christie
Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery
University of Wisconsin
(615) 500-6897
bchristie@uwhealth.org


9. Development of an anti-crouch, dynamic leg brace

dynamic_leg_brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Biomechanics

Summary
People with cerebral palsy frequently have a crouched stance and gait due to muscle weakness and spasticity. Ankle foot orthotics are often used to improve the biomechanics of gait, however a limitation of this type of brace is that they are not dynamic. They are either fixed, allowing for no significant dorsi/plantar flexion, or they are articulated which allows for too much crouch during times of high fatigue or weakness. We are interested in having an anti crouch, dynamic brace developed. This would be a leg brace that would allow dorsi flexion when needed functionally, but would spring load back to keeping the tibia in line with the ankle during stance. this could be a brace that is a dynamic postural training device that could, ideally, work in combination with a foot orthotic.

Materials
We have articulated and fixed braces that were previously used and some access to an orthotics specialist.

References
To be discussed with team

Client:
Dr. Donita Croft
Medicine
Medical School
(608) 445-1536
dc2@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Wendy Stewart, PT
(608) 263-8412
wstewart@uwhealth.org


10. Expandable bone graft

bone_graft

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
In some cases in spine surgery it is necessary to perform a bone fusion in the intervertebral space (the space between the 2 vertebral bodies). This is done by removing the intervertebral disc and then placing bone graft. Traditional bone grafts are rectangular or cresent shaped. The graft is placed through a small surgical corridor. The graft needs to be large enough to support the vertebral bodies but not so large that it injures the surrounding nerves. It would be easier and safer to develop an expandable bone graft that could be inserted in a collapsed form and then expanded to fill the disk interspace. The goal of this project would be to develop an expanding interbody bone graft. This has already been done using a mechanical jack design. However, I would like to develop an expandable graft that is similar to a balloon but would be filled with bone graft material. This should be made out of a biomaterial that would allow bone fusion to occur but also would be strong enough to support the biomechanical forces of the spine as healing occurs.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


11. Inflatable vertebral body distractor

vertebral_body_distractor

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurosurgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
In some cases of spine surgery the intervertebral disc is removed and the vertebral bodies are distraction to help with alignment of the spine. This is often done with metal spatula shaped tools or with mechanical jacks. Both of these tools have two problems. One, they have a narrow surface area so they can easily fracture the bone with the distractive forces. Two, they work along a linear trajectory so they cannot be manipulated easily to different regions of the intervertebral space to allow working space for graft placement. The goal of this project would be to develop an inflatable vertebral body distractor.

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


12. Metered dose inhaler (MDI) drug delivery system for rats

metered_inhaler

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pharmacy
Skills: Animal Experiments, Fabrication of custom pieces from plastic

Summary
Our research looks at the side effects of inhaled corticosteroid medications (such as Flovent or Symbicort) that people often take for lung disease. In particular, we want to investigate the effects on the musculature of the tongue and upper airway, because atrophy of those muscles can lead to sleep apnea. For the purposes of this research, we need to be able to deliver the medication to rats the same way it is delivered to humans - by a controlled puff of medication into the oral cavity. The design problems we currently face are:
- The mouthpiece of an MDI inhaler used for humans is too big for a rat's mouth and needs to be modified accordingly (i.e. fitted with a custom nozzle to convert it to a rat-sized mouthpiece).
- We need a way to train the animal to put it's mouth around the nozzle voluntarily. This is a challenge because rats tend to feed by either licking or gnawing an object with their front teeth.

Materials
MDI cartridges (Advair, Fluticasone, others)
Research Animals
Treats for training (fruit loops, peanut butter, e.t.c.)
PE tubing of various diameters
General purpose tools and hardware

References
http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=9192

(To see what a metered dose inhaler looks like and how it works).

Client:
Dr. Mihaela Teodorescu
Medicine
UW Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 395-4645
mt3@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Oleg Broytman
(608) 469-7460
obroytma@medicine.wisc.edu


13. Device to measure lung diffusion capacity in rodents

lung_diffusion

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics, Software, Electrochemistry, infrared light absorption

Summary
Diffusion capacity of the lung for Carbon Monoxide (DLCO) is a technique commonly used in the clinic to assess the severity of lung diseases that limit diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the bloodstream (such as smoking, lung fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The test involves a patient breathing in air with a small and known concentration of carbon monoxide and holding their breath for a set amount of time (during which CO diffuses into the blood stream, binds hemoglobin and does not diffuse back into the lungs) and exhaling. By measuring the exhaled CO concentration, one can calculate the rate of CO diffusion across the alveolar walls during the breath hold.

In our laboratory we study lung diseases in rat models. A big part of fibrotic lung diseases is that the alveolar membranes become thicker due to scarring or cigarette tar deposition, and lose surface area because of alveolar tissue degradation. Thus, the diffusion of gases between lungs and blood is impaired, and this impairment is a very informative way to measure disease severity and effectiveness of experimental interventions. We would like to build a device that would allow us to measure DLCO in research animals - a capability that no commercially available equipment currently has. The device would be integrated into our existing equipment for performing pulmonary function tests on anesthetized intubated animals (FlexiVent FX4 from Scireq).

In the clinical setting,the exhaled gas is channeled past a CO sensor (usually an electrochemical cell) and the CO is measured in real time. The maximum value at the end of the exhalation is taken as the [CO] in the alveoli. However, an adult human will exhale more than 1 liter of gas, and a forced exhalation will last about 6 seconds (longer if a person has sick lungs), so the measured value has several seconds to stabilize. A rat has lung capacity of 5 - 20 milliliters and can exhale all of it in 0.5 - 1 seconds. Conventional CO sensors need as much as 10 seconds for the reading to stabilize. So, to make a device that measures DLCO in small animals, we need a CO sensor that will measure small sample volumes and stabilize quickly. It also needs to be accurate in the range of 0 - 0.3% CO. Furthermore, the device needs to be able to simultaneously measure Helium or Neon concentration in the exhaled gas mixture (for details on why, see suggested readings/websites).

Materials
FlexiVent FX4 system with Negative Pressure Forced Expiration extension (Scireq, Inc.) (This system is a finely controlled ventilator that can be used for inhalation, breath hold, exhalation in anesthetized, intubated animals. Input gas can be ambient air or a user-supplied source. Volume and rate of inhalation and exhalation can be controlled be experimenter).

Computer with FlexiWare (software that runs the FlexiVent) and LabChart software.

PowerLab 16/35 data acquisition station.

Research Animals

Surgical and Anesthesia equipment

Gas-tight tubing, stopcocks, valves of various kinds

DLCO test gas (air with 10% He, 0.3% CO)

Tools and hardware (general-purpose and electronics-specific).

References
http://scireq.com/flexivent

Macintyre N, Crapo RO, Viegi G, Johnson DC, van der Grinten CP, Brusasco V,
Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, Enright P, Gustafsson P, Hankinson J, Jensen R,
McKay R, Miller MR, Navajas D, Pedersen OF, Pellegrino R, Wanger J.
Standardisation of the single-breath determination of carbon monoxide uptake in
the lung. Eur Respir J. 2005 Oct;26(4):720-35. PubMed PMID: 16204605.

Takezawa J, Miller FJ, O'Neil JJ. Single-breath diffusing capacity and lung
volumes in small laboratory mammals. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol.
1980 Jun;48(6):1052-9. PubMed PMID: 7380702.

http://www.divesoft.cz/news/he-o2-analyzer-13
(An analyzer that measures Helium concentration in
air using sound speed rather than thermal conductivity:
Much faster time for stabilization.)

http://www.transducertech.com/media/media_tseries.html (Potential lead on better CO sensor technology; look into articles by Dr. Joseph R. Stetter at Illinois Institute of Technology).

Client:
Dr. Mihaela Teodorescu
Medicine
UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 395-4645
mt3@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Oleg Broytman
(608) 469-7460
obroytma@medicine.wisc.edu


14. Manual extraction of placenta training simulator

placenta_extraction

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Retained placenta occurs in approximately 3 percent of deliveries and is occasionally associated with life-threatening hemorrhage. Currently, this skill is taught through reading, video and rarely with supervised experience when need for the procedure arises in clinical care. There is no existing training simulator that allows for the sensory-motor skill development important for competence and confidence performing this procedure. A simulator for manual extraction of the placenta could have broad impact through incorporation into the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) course, which has been taken by over 160,000 maternity care providers in over 66 countries since it was developed in the UW Department of Family and Community Medicine in 1991.

Innovative UW Biomedical Engineering students are needed to develop the above simulator. A trip to labor and delivery at St. Mary’s Hospital will allow BME students to have a realistic understanding of placental anatomy. BME students will be given an existent mold for a uterus and placenta. Their job will be to create appropriate adhesion forces by incorporating small magnets into the placenta and uterus. Sensors will also be embedded and connected to software so those observing the placental extraction can see on a monitor what is occurring within the uterus. BME students will also need to develop an option of simulating a placenta acreta where the placenta has grown into the uterus and cannot be removed without dangerous hemorrhage. This project will have a $1000 budget.

Materials
Existing mold
Software and sensor mechanism
Up to $1000 from UW Dept Family Medicine Small Grant

References
1.Magann E, Evans S, Chauhan S, Lanneau G, Fisk A, Morrison J. The length of the third stage of labor and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:290-293.

2.Axemo P, Fu X, Lindberg B, Ulmsten U, Wessén A. Intravenous nitroglycerin for rapid uterine relaxation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:50-53.

3.Chandraharan E, Arulkumaran S. Acute tocolysis. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2005;17:151-156.

4.Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard J. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1458-1461.

5.Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) syllabus. Leawood, KS: American Academy of Family Physicians; 2014.

Client:
Dr. Lee T. Dresang
UW Department of Family Medicine
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 234-2086
lee.dresang@fammed.wisc.edu


15. Impact wrench for orthopedics

orthopedic_wrench

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Hardware removal is a required part of orthopedics and can be challenging. Screws have often been implanted for over a year when we remove them and can be in quite tight. When a screw gets stripped during removal it becomes much harder to remove.
Impact wrenches for automotive applications exist, but they are too large for the hardware we use in orthopedics. I would be interested in an impact wrench that could be used with the orthopedic screws we use to prevent stripping. It would also have to be sterilizable so it could be used in the operating room.

Materials
I can supply samples of the screws. We would also need \"sawbones\" which are fake bones that we use to practice placing hardware and would be useful for testing the wrench. This can be ordered on line. Ultimately, testing could be done on cadaveric bones, which can be obtained through the department.

Client:
Dr. John Wollaeger
Orthopedics
Meriter and UW School of Medicine
(608) 287-2219
john.wollaeger@uwmf.wisc.edu


16. To develop a better cast saw

cast_saw

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Currently cast saws work by cutting plaster and fiberglass casts with a circular blade that oscillates back in forth. I wonder if a cast saw would be more efficient and safer if it were actually two blades that are the same size, right next to each other and that oscillate in opposite directions, similar to that seen with electric meat cutters.

In this project the students would develop and test such a cast saw in comparison to standard saws.

See the previous teams work: https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f13/cast_saw/

Materials
Cast Material
Standard cast saws

References
1: Puddy AC, Sunkin JA, Aden JK, Walick KS, Hsu JR. Cast saw
burns: evaluation of
simple techniques for reducing the risk of thermal injury. J
Pediatr Orthop. 2014
Dec;34(8):e63-6. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000000274. PubMed PMID:
25075891.

2: Shuler FD, Grisafi FN. Cast-saw burns: evaluation of skin,
cast, and blade
temperatures generated during cast removal. J Bone Joint Surg
Am. 2008
Dec;90(12):2626-30. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.00119. PubMed PMID:
19047707.

3: Killian JT, White S, Lenning L. Cast-saw burns: comparison of
technique versus
material versus saws. J Pediatr Orthop. 1999
Sep-Oct;19(5):683-7. PubMed PMID:
10488876.

Client:
Dr. Ken Noonan
Orthopedics
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-1344
noonan@ortho.wisc.edu


17. Device to measure airway diameter in patients with laryngotracheal stenosis

airway_diameter

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Laryngotracheal stenosis is characterized by narrowing of the airway and can be idiopathic or due to prior intubation, autoimmune disease, or trauma. It is a chronic disease for which patients typically require repeated airway dilations. Treatment efficacy is evaluated in part by estimating the degree of airway narrowing (expressed as a percentage of total diameter) or absolute airway diameter (expressed in centimeters). Currently, airway caliber is primarily estimated subjectively. Thus, there is a need for a device which can measure airway diameter objectively.

Two devices have been proposed which can be used to measure airway diameter and vertical extent of stenosis [1-2]. These devices must be used while the patient is undergoing suspension laryngoscopy [in the operating room under general anesthesia with rigid laryngoscope in place to visualize the larynx directly]. It would be beneficial to be able to measure airway diameter in the office setting while the patient is awake and undergoing fiberoptic transnasal flexible tracheoscopy

Materials
Flexible nasopharyngoscope; materials from balloon manufacturer

References
1) Sharma GK, Foulad A, Verma SP. A novel device for measurement of subglottic stenosis in 3 dimensions during suspension laryngoscopy. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015; 141(4):377-81.

2) Ghosh R, Gopinath R, Sinha D. Measuring subglottic diameter. 2012. https://sites.google.com/site/measuringsubglotticdiameter/home.

Client:
Dr. Seth Dailey, MD
Department of Surgery – Division of Otolaryngolog
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-0192
dailey@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Matthew Hoffman, MD, PhD
Otolaryngology resident
Department of Surgery – Division of Otolaryngology
(262) 352-1799
mrhoffman@wisc.edu


18. Wearable digital loupe magnification device

digital_loupe

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Magnification Loupes for surgical applications have existed for over 100 years. The overall design of these loupes has not changed considerably in that time. An example of these loupes is available at this website (http://designsforvision.com). Essentially these consist of glass magnifying optics mounted in eyeglass frames or head mounted. These loupes are practical and relatively inexpensive but they suffer from a few flaws that I believe current technological advances will be able to improve.

There are 4 areas of improvement for surgical loupes. 1) Loupes are mounted in line of sight. Therefore in order to look at the surgical field the surgeon has to flex the neck which can cause pain, strain and repetitive injury because of poor ergonomics. 2) The loupes are mounted in the visual field and therefore to work without magnification the user must turn the head to look around the loupes. 3) The depth of field and working length are fixed in the current loupe design. 4) The weight of surgical loupes increases with increased magnification and can be uncomfortable.

This invention is a wearable digital video loupe magnification. The invention will be worn like glasses. Two cameras will be mounted on the brow of the glasses to allow for a stereoscopic view of the surgical field. The camera images will then be projected in the field of view of the surgeon to allow for visualization of tissue and anatomical structures. Variations of this design would include head mounted and stand mounted cameras that could provide the image of the surgical field. The digital signal processor (DSP) may be either wired and worn by the surgeon or may be connected wirelessly.

Technology now exists that is likely to be small enough and powerful enough to allow significant improvement in the design of surgical loupes: 1) miniature HD digital cameras exist such as those used in smart phones 2) Wearable displays are being developed for use in entertainment as video viewers. However, these may be able to be modified to display digital camera data.

This invention will improve on existing magnification loupe technology in the following ways:
1) The angle of the camera will allow the surgeon’s head position to be neutral to avoid neck strain and repetitive injury. 2) These loupes will allow adjustable magnification and working distance. 3) These loupes will also allow an unobstructed unmagnified view when not in use. This will be done using a prism lens that can be moved out of the field of view or with a miniature high definition LCD screen where the image can be modified to be seen partially or not at all (as desired). 4) The digital camera will allow improved light amplification using digital signal processing. 5) The digital cameras will allow visualization of light outside the visible spectrum for fluorescence mapping.

Materials
Digital Cameras
Lenses
Glasses/Goggles

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurological Surgery
UWSMPH
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


19. Automated quality assurance system for clinical CT systems

CT_quality

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Radiology, Medical Imaging
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
To maintain a high level of patient care, daily, weekly, monthly and annual tests must be performed on computed tomography (CT) systems. The tests vary in complexity for each testing frequency. Currently, the results from the tests are manually entered into a spreadsheet based reporting tool by the client. This is not an optimal method for longitudinal tracking of scanner performance. Ideally, an automated system would be created that was capable of: (1) reading DICOM images representing various quality assurance test scans, (2) evaluating the test images without user interaction , (3) reporting the outputs from the tests into an easy to read report, and finally (4) writing the test results to a database so trends in individual scanner performance can be tracked over time. This project will ideally produce such a system.

Materials
Students will be trained in the proper methods for CT scanner testing and evaluation as their background allows. Students will be given sample testing data and sample reports to serve as a model design solution. Algorithm development will not be expected of the team, scripts to perform the tests will be provided. A research CT scanner will be available for student use to evaluate any ideas the students have in improving the current testing methods. Students will be expected to write the software mainly using Matlab or Octave to facilitate the use of the software after the design team semester has been completed.

References
http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/accreditation/CT

http://www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/default.asp see report #39

Client:
Prof. Timothy Szczykutowicz
Radiology and Medical Phyiscs
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-5729
tszczykutowicz@uwhealth.org


20. Point of care anemia device

POC_anemia

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation, Global Health Engineering, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging, Pathology, Rural/Global Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Chemistry, Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Anemia is a very common problem worldwide that has significant impact on mortality and morbidity. Anemia disproportionately affects those in developing countries and often goes undetected. Low resource countries often lack the medical infrastructure and resources needed to diagnose anemia. This is unfortunate as many causes of anemia are treatable if diagnosed before significant morbidity has occurred. Anemia can be classified by RBC cell size by measuring the mean corpuscule volume ( MCV).
A device that is low cost, easy to use, durable, reliable and accurate is desperately needed.
This project was begun by a BME team during the 2014-2015 academic year. Many significant strides were made. A proof of concept was validated for a cell counting device using a micro-fluidic channel. Non-blood particles were counted in the device accurately and the device was able to measure the particle sizes. The team elected to pass on the project to another interested individual or group to continue the project and see if through to implementation.

There are at least 2 other labs around the world that has used this technique to measure RBCs, but to our knowledge, no lab has formally tested their device in the field and implemented it into clinical practice. The hope is that once the device has been validated, it will be tested on human blood locally in Madison and then under real world field conditions in a developing country.

Materials
Hemocytometer for improved understanding and comparison, milled Microfluidic device, software program

References
articles from the 2 other labs are available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
Dean Clinic
-
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


21. Clinical Simulation Material/Model Physical Characterization

model_characterization

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics, Tissue Engineering

Summary
Our lab has developed a number of anatomical models that simulate healthy and clinical physical scenarios that surgeons are presented with during training and assessment. These models have been developed in house and mimic a number of features relevant to sufficient realism for effective training. However, we require a quantification of the characteristics: mechanical, haptic and visual, that contribute to model success. The goal of this project is to utilize multiple, nondestructive, testing methods to understand these properties that physicians are sensitive to and to generate these measures for a selection of our models.

For example, some of the metrics include temperature, linear and nonlinear stretch, durometer, tensile and breaking strength, surface texture and roughness, thermal conductivity, shape, stickiness and friction, and visual characteristics, etc. Additional properties within the scope of the project may be determined as suggested by students.

Students would focus on one of these models and then provide as a final result a panel of properties for a specification sheet for the most realistic and reproducible model. This deliverable would serve as a guide for fabrication replication of our existing material models and a potential testing protocol for alternative material suppliers.

Materials
Our lab will provide existing simulation models that have already been fabricated with our equipment and materials. These models include healthy and pathological models of whole breasts, thyroid cartilage, patches of skin, pelvic model, abdominal tumors, and upper temple tissue and skull model. We can provide necessary materials to replicate any of these models as necessary for testing.

Client:
Mr. Drew Rutherford
Dept of Surgery
School of Medicine and Public Health
(262) 210-5277
rutherford@surgery.wisc.edu


22. Rat multi-electrode

rat_multielectrode

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurology,
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Software

Summary
Developing an epidural spinal cord stimulation unit for rats. A 16 electrode array implanted into humans after a spinal cord injury has been shown to enable voluntary movements in patients. We would like to be able to stimulate the rat spinal cord in a similar fashion, thus allowing us to test different rehabilitation experiments.

Materials
we can purchase the materials.

References
Claudia A. Angeli, V. Reggie Edgerton, Yury P. Gerasimenko and Susan J. Harkema. Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans.
Brain 2014.

Client:
Mr. Dan Hellenbrand
Neurological Surgery
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-8800
d.hellenbrand@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


23. Taste options for patients with high risk for aspiration

taste_options

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Biomaterials, Chemistry, Human Subjects, Food science

Summary
Many patients with a wide variety of swallowing disorders still desire to taste food. Eating or drinking often leads to aspiration which can result in pneumonia, sepsis and even death. Being able to taste various foods adds quality to patients' lives who struggle with these disorders.

Fast dissolving oral strips have been used to deliver medications, breath enhancers and other compounds. Using these strips do not require water and GI and first pass metabolism are avoided.

I wonder if creating strips that simulate a variety of tastes would be acceptable and of benefit to patients with swallowing disorders.

Materials
taste strings
various chemical/ compounds that could be used to mimic tastes

References
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757902/

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
UW Medical School Community Faculty member
Dean Health System
(608) 260-6488
philip.bain@deancare.com


24. Needle support device for vortex ports

needle_support

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: , Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics, biomechanical engineering design

Summary
Vortex ports are uniquely designed venous access devices manufactured by AngioDynamics. The conical port chamber is designed to minimize peripheral blood of blood and reduce sludging and clotting. Vortex ports are embedded in subcutaneous tissue, usually in the upper pectoral area. For treatments requiring reliable, repeated venous access, such as red blood cell exchange, or photopheresis, Vortex ports provide a great convenience to patients and health care providers.

In apheresis applications, Vortex ports are typically accessed by inserting two large bore needle through the overlying skin and port chamber cover into the port chamber. One needle is used to draw blood, the other to return blood during extracorporeal apheresis treatments.

Once a patient's ports are accessed, the two needles are approximately an inch apart and project 2 to 3 inches from the skin, perpendicular to the surface. These needles are then attached to tubing that runs to and from the apheresis instrument. Currently, there is no commercial product (that we are aware of) to help support the needles and attached tubing that are projecting from the body surface. At University of Iowa, nurses fashioned a support device from a styrofoam coffee cup. At University of Wisconsin, nurses have been fashioning a makeshift support device from medication dispensing cups.

There is, therefore, an unmet need for a reliable, inexpensive, disposable, professional-looking device to support needles used in accessing Vortex ports.

Materials
We have a demonstration kits that can be used to understand what the port looks like and how it is inserted and accessed. We have patients with the ports in place who can be observed to understand the challenges of supporting the needles. We can provide supplies related to the ports and needles for development of a support device.

References
There is no literature on this topic per se.

Please see AngioDynamics website for background on the company and Vortex port products.

Client:
Dr. Thomas Raife
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
SMPH
(608) 265-8492
traife@wisc.edu


25. Design and construction of a quad rat vitals monitor

rat_vitals_monitor

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Software

Summary
A Quad Rat Vitals Monitor (QRVM) is required to simultaneously monitor vital signs (respiration rate, heart rate, internal temperature, and blood oxygen saturation) of rats in a research setting. The Waisman Center Brain Imaging Core microPET facility currently runs positron emission tomography (PET) scans on four rats simultaneously for a scan duration of up to two hours. The rats are under anesthesia for the duration of the scan and periodic vitals monitoring is used to adjust the anesthetic dose. We require a more accurate, reliable, and easy to use rat vitals monitoring device to aid in this process. Previous BME design teams have laid the ground work and built each vital sign monitor individually, which include force-sensing resistors for monitoring respiration rate, thermistors to monitor rectal temperatures, and pulse oximeters to monitor SpO2 levels and heart rates. The design also includes an easy to read graphical user interface that shows the current vital sign value as well as historical traces for easy understanding of trends over time. We would like a team to continue work on the QRVM so it may be used for future studies. This would require 1) hardware and software modifications to obtain a useful pulse oximeter signal, 2) the integration of the pulse oximeter into the system, 3) working with previous BME teams' code to integrate all four monitors into a single seamless system, and 4) test the system under both controlled and actual research settings. Please see the BME projects from Fall 2008, Spring / Fall 2009, Spring / Fall 2010, and Spring 2011 for previous work done and the linked paper for the current status of the project.

Materials
A semifunctional prototype QRVM, a full electronics workbench, a machine shop with a mill, lathe, drill press, grinder, band saw, and hand tools, and a decent supply of stock metals, plastics, and fasteners. If we do not have a part or tool, we can order it and/or collaborate with our colleagues at WIMR to make it happen. We also have extensive documentation from previous BME teams' efforts on the project.

References
Current project status
https://uwmadison.box.com/s/74owckzqrfr17wjrjo8n6mcxdz3fg538

BME Project Archives from Fall 2008, Spring / Fall 2009, Spring / Fall 2010, and Spring 2011
[a]http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/search/?query=quad+rat[a/]

Client:
Dr. Alex Converse
Waisman Center Brain Imaging Core
Graduate School
(608) 265-6604
akconverse@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Andrew Higgins
(608) 265-0075
athiggins@wisc.edu


26. Small caliber lead shafts of electrophysiologic catheters

multi_catheter

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Electrophysiologic studies require multiple catheters to be placed within the body. Currently this requires multiple sites of vascular access. This can result in 2-4 different puncture sites in the femoral or jugular vessels.

A relatively common complication of electrophysiologic studies is bleeding or bruising from his vascular access points.

Theoretically, multiple catheters could be placed through a single vascular access point as long as there was not significant obstruction by the other catheters. Therefore, the goal of this design project is to develop catheters with a narrow shaft to allow multiple catheters to be placed through a single entry point.

For example, a 7 Fr sheath could be inserted (2.3mm diameter) in the left femoral vein. Through this a 6.5 Fr catheter, a 5 Fr catheter and a 4 Fr catheter could be advanced one at a time. These catheters would have a normal sized distal end, but then narrow down to a thin stiff area near the site of vascular access. This would allow us to switch from 3 access points to a single access point.

Materials
I can obtain previously utilized catheters as well as expired catheters for dissection and reproducing. I will have a (fairly) limited amount of funds available.

References
None. This is the first of it's kind. No similar findings on limited web and patent search.

Client:
Dr. Nick Von Bergen
Pediatrics
The University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics
(608) 356-7911
vonbergen@pediatrics.wisc.edu


27. Fall triggered hip protectors

hip_protectors

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics, Prosthetics
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Hip fractures are the most devastating osteoporosis related fractures causing increased risk for immobility, nursing home placement and death. Almost all hip fractures are related to a fall. Medications to improve bone quality can reduce hip fracture risk by 30-50%. Because of this hip protectors have been developed to absorb energy created by a fall and reduce the force placed on the femur. Studies have shown that hip protectors reduce hip fracture risk in older adults but the major problem is that acceptance of wearing them is very low because of discomfort, appearance and difficulties putting them on and getting them off. As such, there is a need to develop novel hip protectors that are capable of absorbing energy and prevent fractures but at the same time are comfortable to wear, easy to put on and take off and not noticeable.

Recently a Swedish company has developed an airbag for cyclist (http://www.hovding.com/how_hovding_works) which reacts (inflates) in case of an accident but not with usual motion. I am looking for a team which could develop a design that is based on the same concept - a wearable device (such as a belt) that would inflate / trigger an airbag in the event of a fall but not with usual movements such as walking, sitting down, walking stairs. It will require designing the hardware (wearable device, airbag and sensors) and develop an algorithm that can trigger the airbag in the event of a fall but not with usual movement

Materials
I have a mannequin from a previous project that could be use to test falls and design the wearable device.

References
http://www.iofbonehealth.org/epidemiology

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24687239

http://www.hovding.com/how_hovding_works

Client:
Dr. Bjoern Buehring
Department of Medicine
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-6410
bbuehring@medicine.wisc.edu


28. Upper limb support and immobilization during moderate aerobic exercise

arm_support

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The instructors of human physiology require a novel device that will immobilize the upper arm and therefore allow error-free blood pressure readings while the student is performing moderate aerobic exercise. More specifically, attempts to measure blood pressure with commercially available automatic pressure cuffs have been problematic as frequent errors result from cuff and arm movement while the students are utilizing recumbent exercise bicycles in our teaching laboratory. Thus we seek a device that comfortably supports and immobilizes the upper arm based on a design that includes adjustable height, adjustable angle, and adjustable position relative to the bicycle seat and student physique. This device will allow for technically adequate blood pressure readings to be taken once per minute while the student completes pre-programmed courses of varying intensity.

Materials
Exercise bicycles
Automatic blood pressure cuffs
Large number of students to test the device

Client:
Prof. Andrew Lokuta
Neuroscience
UW School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-7488
ajlokuta@wisc.edu


29. Veterinary intravenous (IV) trainer

intravenous_trainer

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Mechanics, synthetic materials

Summary
There is a need for a veterinary specific model that helps to train individuals on how to draw blood and place IV catheters in animals. There are a few on the market now but none of them satisfactorily meet our needs.

The limb would need to have a flexible carpus (wrist), be self-supporting (can be on a stand but should not require that some one hold it for another person to use it), anatomically correct (fur, leather/skin etc. the more realistic the better), have a vein inside of it that will give a 'flash back' of blood. Be easy and relatively inexpensive to make (so that it can be manufactured and sold to the veterinary community), repairable (tubing/flesh will be poked with needles multiple times).

Materials
A variety of current models are available for reference.

Client:
Mrs. Kristen Cooley
Clinical Skills Training Center
Veterinary Medicine
(608) 263-9847
kgcooley@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


30. Veterinary laryngoscope

veterinary_laryngoscope

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
There are a variety of laryngoscopes (a handle with a light used to look into the back of the throat) available but many of them are not specific to the veterinary community. This is a problem because how the laryngoscope is used depends on the species and size of patient you are working with. We are interested in a lightweight handle with a flat, convexed or malleable blade with an LED light source (bright, long life, does not get hot). The blade will need to be available in at least 3 and preferably 4 different sizes (mostly different lengths). It also has to be durable (for student use), rechargeable (battery operated is ok) and able to be properly sanitized after use (with alcohol or antiseptic but won't require submersion).

Materials
A variety of current laryngoscopes are available for comparison.

Client:
Mrs. Kristen Cooley
Clinical Skills Training Center
Veterinary Medicine
(608) 263-9847
kgcooley@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
McLean Gunderson
(608) 890-3777
mgunderson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


31. Feline intubation model

intubation_model

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
There is a need in both veterinary medicine and human pediatrics to develop a realistic feline intubation model. An intubation is the act of placing a tube into the trachea of an unconscious/anesthetized patient to secure an airway. The cat is a challenge to intubate because their mouths are small, their airways are ventral and they are prone to laryngospasm. We have been searching for a model that is anatomical but also gives feedback on technique and is prone to laryngospasm just like in a real cat. For example, when you touch the laryngeal folds with the tube the folds close etc.

Human anesthesiologists will often come to the vet school to intubate cats because it is very similar to intubating infants and pediatric patients. This project would have potential use for them as well.

Materials
Cat cadavers, live cats, canine intubation model, endotracheal tubes, laryngoscopes

Client:
Mrs. Kristen Cooley
Clinical Skills Training Center
Veterinary Medicine
(608) 263-9847
kgcooley@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
McLean Gunderson
(608) 890-3777
mgunderson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


32. Development of a pen-sized, sterilizable and disposable laser pointer

laser_pointer

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics

Summary
There is an ongoing and ever increasing need for the development of a pen-sized, sterilizable and disposable laser pointer to be used in the operativing room to point out findings on the screens of the monitors that show the arthroscopic images from the many joints (e.g. knee, hip, shoulder, etc.) that we evaluate and treat through arthroscopy. We have used laser pointers that we stick inside a sterile bag so that we can use them during surgery, but they’re clumsy and there is always the risk that the bag may be punctured and the surgical field contaminated. I believe there would be a huge market for these sterilized laser pointers since for every major hip, knee, or shoulder arthroscopy case there would be a physician’s assistant, fellow, or resident scrubbed in and thus, the surgeon would want to be able to point out the arthroscopic findings to his assistants. The laser pointers need to be sterile and disposable since they will at times be dropped on the floor, and there really isn’t time during the case or between cases to re-sterilize them.

References
Nothing has been published regarding sterilizable laser pointers.

Client:
Dr. James S. Keene, MD
Orthopedic Surgery
Medical School
(608) 238-3736
keene@ortho.wisc.edu


33. Respiratory motion MRI phantom

respiratory_phantom

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation, Radiology
Skills: Chemistry, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) software technology have made it possible to image lung structure with quality approaching that of x-ray computed tomography (CT). These MRI methods, however, require 5-10 minute scan times and therefore must incorporate respiratory gating or motion compensation techniques to mitigate motion artifacts.

While simple respiratory gating methods have proven highly successful in healthy human subjects who have regular, triphasic respiratory waveforms, they have not been as successful in sick human subjects who can have much more variable breathing patterns.

It would be very useful to have a MRI-compatible phantom that could simulate respiratory motion using actual measured human patient respiratory waveforms. This would help with the development of more robust respiratory gating or respiratory motion correction algorithms and would facilitate cross-platform standardization of structural lung imaging techniques across the different MRI equipment manufacturers’ platforms.

There are existing products on the market that are MRI compatible and simulate respiratory motion in 1-dimension using a piston-like design. These have generally been targeted at the radiation treatment planning market in which simulation of the superior-inferior motion of a tumor is goal.

With structural lung MRI imaging methods, artifacts arise not only from the superior-inferior motion of the diaphragm, however, but also from the expansion and contraction of the chest wall in the transverse dimension (antero-posterior and right-left). Therefore, a somewhat compliant chest wall enclosure, a more mobile "diaphragm", and some moist sponge-like, open-cell foam material within an air-tight bag connected to an input/output tube to represent the lungs and trachea would be ideal.

In order to drive the respiratory motion, the phantom should allow either passive or active ventilation to be simulated. Passive ventilation could be simulated by connecting the phantom airway to a MRI-compatible ventilator capable of simulating the input respiratory waveform. Active ventilation could be simulated by direct mechanical drive of the diaphragm and the chest wall.

Materials
example CT and MRI medical images
medical image processing software
actual 5-10min respiratory waveforms acquired from real patients.

References
Soultanidis, G. M., Mackewn, J. E., Tsoumpas, C., & Marsden, P. K. (2013). PVA Cryogel for Construction of Deformable PET-MR Visible Phantoms. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60(1), 95–102. http://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2013.2238952

Hellerbach A, Schuster V, Jansen, A, Sommer J. MRI phantoms -- Are there alternatives to agar? PLOS ONE, 8(8):e70343

US Patent # 4,729,892 "Use of cross-linked hydrogel materials as image contrast agents in proton nuclear magnetic resonance tomography and tissue phantom kits containing such materials" (Paula T. Beall)

US Patent # 5,141,973 "Metho of preparing polyvinyl alcohol gel" (Tomokazu Kobayashi and Toshio Morihiro)

Shelley PET/MRI/CT compatible respiratory tumour motion phantom http://www.simutec.com/Products/Respiratoryphantoms.html

Shelley MRI compatible heart motion phantom http://www.simutec.com/Products/dynamicmultimodality.html

Client:
Dr. Scott Nagle
Radiology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-6429
snagle@uwhealth.org


34. Non-invasive quantitative airflow measurement

airflow_measurement

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics,
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
A need for a non-invasive quantitative flow sensor device arises not only in the research and teaching field but also in the medical filed inside and especially outside of the hospital environment. I am a pediatric anesthesiologist who works with very sick children and encounters difficult airway situations on a daily basis. Currently, the assessment of airway patency and hence airflow is a subjective measure and very dependent on provider expertise.

There are indirect airflow measure and surrogate measures available which are limited in their interpretation and are not accurate since they require either an invasive tool (airway intubation), or patient co-operation (spirometry), or need markers (magnetometer, pneumotography), or are not quantitative (End-tidal Co2 measurement, single laser sensor), or are limited to body movement (Fiber-Grating vision sensor, infrared thermography). Currently there is NO device available which meets these criteria
of measuring airflow non-invasively and quantitatively which has high sensitivity and low mean error.

The product would be a device, which continuously and non-invasively measures airflow through the upper airways (via a nasal cannula and/or face mask which is used on induction of pediatric patients), giving a quantitative measure of airway patency and indirectly information about ventilator effort/mechanics in non-intubated patients and facilitates early detection of decreased airflow during drug administration.

This device will be a respiratory thermal flow sensor (transducer), which will fulfill the requirements to measure volume flow rates during the breathing cycle.

The device must be easy to interpret, easy to apply in a clinical setting, well tolerated by different patient groups (especially the pediatric population), and provide visual and/or auditory information about airflow changes to the provider.
The device will meet the flow range of 0 -2.5 l/min, have a low mean error, show minimal flow resistance, contribute to dead space minimally (less then 10% of physiological dead space), will not need calibration, will have a dynamic range (different respiratory rates and different tidal volumes will be measured with the same device), will be reliable, easy to clean, must be small size and easy to apply.

This tool could also be used as a teaching device for airway management in anesthesia departments and other departments where sedation is given by non-anesthesia providers (any sedation changes the airflow and airway mechanics/ventilator efforts of patients).
In an office based setting, it is essential for practitioners to detect airway problems early allowing intervention in a timely fashion during the procedure preventing potential airway complications. Patient safety in office based settings where sedatives / anesthetics are used by non- anesthesiologists (i.e. dentists, endoscopic outpatient procedures in clinics) would be improved (obviously necessary based on several reports in the media recently documenting inadvertent complications including death in patients undergoing outpatient elective procedures). In the era of obesity and expanding outpatient procedures by non-anesthesiologists, recognition of impeding respiratory compromise is vitally important.

The current modalities to assess airflow changes and ventilator mechanics have limitations (Pulse oximetry, End-Tidal capnography, Thoracic impedance monitoring).

This project idea has its origin in the frustration for me as a pediatric anesthesiologist to teach my residents the respiratory volume changes during initiation of anesthesia for the pediatric patients. The smaller the patients the bigger are the consequences for delayed recognition of airway and flow changes. And this is I, an expert in the field saying this. My passion is to make this safer for our patients and to have a better teaching tool. But outside of our field, non-airway trained and non-anesthesiologist providers perform sedation for procedures. These providers are lack the airway training necessary to detect and treat airway compromise early. Tools currently available are delayed and are very prone to error, false positives leading to provider fatigue and are not reliable.

Materials
Ventilator which are used in the operating rooms to induce our patients into anesthesia

Breathing masks

Ventilator circuits

Hyperinflation and self inflating ambu-bags

Nasal cannulas

End-tidal Co2 moitors

Pulse oxymetry monitors

Flow measurements on our ventilator

My brain to pick on:)

And anything else you need, I can see if I can find it.

References
1: Schena E, Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Cecchini S. Flow measurement in
mechanical ventilation: a review. Med Eng Phys. 2015 Mar;37(3):257-64. doi:
10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.01.010. Epub 2015 Feb 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 25659299.

2: Cleary DR, Phillips RS, Wallisch M, Heinricher MM. A novel, non-invasive
method of respiratory monitoring for use with stereotactic procedures. J Neurosci
Methods. 2012 Aug 15;209(2):337-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.06.029. Epub
2012 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 22771713; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3429636.

3: te Pas AB, Wong C, Kamlin CO, Dawson JA, Morley CJ, Davis PG. Breathing
patterns in preterm and term infants immediately after birth. Pediatr Res. 2009
Mar;65(3):352-6. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318193f117. PubMed PMID: 19391251.

4: Hager DN, Fuld M, Kaczka DW, Fessler HE, Brower RG, Simon BA. Four methods of
measuring tidal volume during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Crit Care
Med. 2006 Mar;34(3):751-7. PubMed PMID: 16505661.

5: Al-Salaymeh A, Jovanović J, Durst F. Bi-directional flow sensor with a wide
dynamic range for medical applications. Med Eng Phys. 2004 Oct;26(8):623-37.
PubMed PMID: 15471690.

6: Kann T, Hald A, Jørgensen FE. A new transducer for respiratory monitoring. A
description of a hot-wire anemometer and a test procedure for general use. Acta
Anaesthesiol Scand. 1979 Aug;23(4):349-58. PubMed PMID: 495038.

Client:
Dr. Guelay Bilen-Rosas
Anesthesiology
School of Medicine
(608) 695-9349
bilenrosas@wisc.edu


35. Field kit for collection of newborn screening blood samples in low resource home settings

blood_collection

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Global Health Engineering, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Rural/Global Medicine
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Licensed Midwives and Public Health Nurses in Wisconsin are called upon to collect newborn blood screening specimens in settings such as Amish farmhouses, that lack resources for protecting the collected specimens from being damaged by environmental factors such as insect contamination, airborne contaminants such as dust and handling by children or other persons in the screening environment during the time that specimen needs to remain uncovered to dry. Additional challenges include protecting the drying specimen from contamination by insects, dust, rain and snow and damage due to excessive heat during the process of transporting the drying specimen from the home to the vehicle and from the vehicle to the office of the midwife.

This project would be to design a field kit that would hold all supplies needed for collection of the specimen (filter paper newborn screening cards, alcohol wipes, sterile or clean gauze, and sterile lancets) and provide horizontal racks with free air flow for drying 3 to 4 collected specimens while at the same time protecting the specimens from contamination and damage during the process of drying and transport.

This kit needs to be small and light weight enough to be carried from home to home by the midwife and needs to have a handle or strap for carrying. Additional samples may need to be added to the drying space without disturbing the samples that are already drying.

If this project is chosen, prior to beginning the project, I suggest that at least one student accompany a Licensed Midwife or Public Health Nurse on a home newborn screening visit in an Amish Community in order to understand the process of newborn blood screening in a low resource home setting and observe the challenges that exist in protecting a newborn screening sample from damage while the specimen is being dried and transported.

Materials
filter paper newborn screening cards, alcohol wipes, sterile or clean gauze, and sterile lancets

References
http://www.slh.wisc.edu/clinical/newborn/health-care-professionals-guide/how-to-collect-a-blood-specimen/how-to-collect-a-blood-specimen-process/

Client:
Ms. Gretchen Spicer
Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene
UW Madison
(608) 532-6464
gretchenspicer@gmail.com

Alternate Contact:
Christine Seroogy MD
(608) 263-2652
cmseroogy@pediatrics.wisc.edu


36. Tri-axial ergonomic knee brace hinge

knee_brace

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Solidworks design; prototyping

Summary
Background:
The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in athletes, with acute and overuse injuries seen as a result of participation in virtually all athletic activities, and is also commonly afflicted by osteoarthritis. Current knee braces are designed to resist abnormal joint motion, augment inherent mechanical stability of the normal knee and assist in restoration of normal mechanical stability in injured or rehabilitating knees. Hinged knee braces provide maximum level of stability, with prevention of hyperextension during activity.

Problem:
While the mechanical performance of hinges has been studied and improved over the years, the ergonomics of the hinge design are often lacking. Most hinges follow a straight line profile, even though the side of the knee does not follow this profile. An examination of leg size (thigh, knee, and calf) across non-athletic and athletic populations is needed to generate a more appropriate shape.

Project Description:
The team will redesign the tri-axial knee brace hinge such that it conforms better to the user’s knee, thus improving the fit, form, and function of the hinged knee braces. Using anthropomorphic research into the profile of the leg (width and curvature along the thigh, knee, and calf), the team will determine the correct shape(s) and size(s) of the hinge to fit a variety of end users (i.e. runners, football players, non-athletes). Emphasis will be placed on accommodating the largest number of end users with the minimum number of different hinges. A computer model will be built for preliminary testing to ensure adequate strength of the hinge (change of material recommendations or dimension and/or angle changes may result from early test results), and a model of the final design will be used to generate a prototype and drawing of the hinge.

Student Output:
•Anthropomorphic research to determine the profile of the leg
•Determination of the correct shape and size (curvature, length of upper and lower arms, width of hinge, etc.) of the hinge to fit the end user
•Building and preliminary testing of a computer model of the hinge design
•Prototype

References
1.Martin, T. J. Technical Report: Knee Brace Use in the Young Athlete. Pediatrics 108, 503–507 (2001).
2.Van Es, K. & Fryatt, K. (ed). Practical Concepts in Bracing. (2001). at
3.Noyes, F. R., Dunworth, L. A., Andriacchi, T. P., Andrews, M. & Hewett, T. E. Knee Hyperextension Galt Abnormalities in Unstable Knees Recognition and Preoperative Gait Retraining. Am. J. Sports Med. 24, 35–45 (1996).
4.Gravlee, J. R. & Van Durme, D. J. Braces and splints for musculoskeletal conditions. Am. Fam. Physician 75, 342–348 (2007).
5.France, E. P. & Paulos, L. E. Knee Bracing. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 2, 281–287 (1994).
6.Iorio, R. & Healy, W. L. Unicompartmental arthritis of the knee. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 85-A, 1351–1364 (2003).
7.Matsuno, H., Kadowaki, K. M. & Tsuji, H. Generation II knee bracing for severe medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 78, 745–749 (1997).
8.Pollo, F. E., Otis, J. C., Backus, S. I., Warren, R. F. & Wickiewicz, T. L. Reduction of Medial Compartment Loads with Valgus Bracing of the Osteoarthritic Knee. Am. J. Sports Med. 30, 414–421 (2002).
9.Gamble, R., Wyeth-Ayerst, J., Johnson, E. L., Searle, W.-A. & Beecham, S. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Arthritis Rheum. 43, 1905–1915 (2000).

Client:
Dr. Sarah Kuehl
Mueller Sports Medicine
(608) 643-8530
sarah.kuehl@muellersportsmed.com


37. Neural coding software suite

neural_coding

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Imaging, Software

Summary
The brain is an immensely complex network of billions of neurons, and the activity of these neurons is the basis for all of the cognitive processes that constitute conscious life. The study of these processes, via computational analyses, have prompted the development of new optimization routines, capable of discovering relevant signals in highly sophisticated systems such as the brain, by engineers and computer scientists. Be that as it may, these state of the art algorithms often remain inaccessible, because their use requires a level of computational knowledge and technical skill that amounts to a substantial barrier, which few cognitive neuroscientists overcome.

A team of student engineers will work together with researchers from UW Madison's Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science, and Psychology departments to transcend this boundary. The aim of the project will be to develop an fMRI analysis suite cable of implementing state of the art machine learning algorithms in conjunction with distributed high throughput computing systems such as HTCondor and the Open Science Grid.

This project is geared towards students with a computational foundation, and the skills that will be developed are best suited towards those with interests in medical imaging, machine learning, statistics, signal processing, cognitive neuroscience, data management, and web/UI design.

Materials
Computational resources and relevant software will be made available to the development team.

References
Figueiredo, M. & Nowak, R. (2014). Sparse estimation with strongly correlated variables using ordered weighted L1 regularization. Eprint arXiv:1409.4005, 2014.

Rao, N., Nowak, R., Cox, C.R., and Rogers, T.T. (2014). Logistic Regression with Structured Sparsity. to appear in the Journal of Machine Learning Research.

Rao, N., Cox, C.R., Nowak, R., and Rogers, T.T. (2013). Sparse Overlapping Sets Lasso for Multitask Learning and its Application to fMRI Analysis. Part of: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26.

Rasmussen M.A. , Bro R. (2012). A tutorial on the Lasso approach to sparse modeling, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 119 21–31.

Wright, S. J.; Nowak, R. D. & Figueiredo, M. A. T. (2009), 'Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation.', IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 57 (7) , 2479-2493 .

Client:
Dr. Rebecca Willett
Electrical and Computer Engineering
College of Engineering
willett@discovery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Chris Cox
crcox@wisc.edu


38. Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection

aortic_dissection

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Aortic dissection occurs when the intimal lining of the aorta tears, allowing blood to pass into the layers of the aorta thereby separating those layers. Blood can pass through the true lumen or the newly created false lumen. This can result in obstruction of blood flow to organs and/or weakening of the aortic wall. Type A aortic dissection involves the ascending aorta and require emergent open surgical repair. Type B aortic dissection involves the descending aorta and may require a surgical operation when complicated by malperfusion of organs. The mortality of this condition remains high 10-12% for all comers and 25% for those who require surgical intervention. Currently, two strategies exist for treatment. The first is covering of the entrant tear with an endovascular stent graft (firm wire cage with fabric lining). In ideal anatomy this prevents propagation of the dissection and restores blood flow to organs by collapsing false lumen. Due to anatomical considerations and complicated flow dynamics of the dissected aorta, often a technique called fenestration is required. This consists of cutting the intimal flap to connect the true and false lumens, which equalizes the pressure between true and false lumen, subsequently restoring the blood flow to organs. If performed through an open surgical incision, the morbidity and mortality was very high due to the complicated anatomy after the aortic dissection. Recently, new technique has been developed to perform fenestration without open surgery. Basically, two wires will be passed into the true and false lumen of the aorta via groin cannulation. These wires with the catheter will then be pushed or pulled to cut the intimal flap. This is called “endoscissors” technique. Although less invasive than open repair, this technique often fails simply because the wires with the catheter cannot cut the thickened intimal flap. Instead, it can tear more intimal off the aortic wall, making the aortic dissection worse. For this reason, we are seeking to design a simple, but elegant “endoscissors” device to cut the intimal flap reliably so that we can perform endovascular fenestration effectively and safely.

Materials
1. standard endovascular equipment (wires, catheters, etc.)
2. access to models of aortic dissection
3. access to collaboration with radiology models of dissection in progression
4. extensive clinical experience with aortic dissection

References
website:
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/41/2873

http://www.annalscts.com/article/view/3851/5093

Journal articles:
1: Vendrell A, Frandon J, Rodiere M, Chavanon O, Baguet JP, Bricault I, Boussat
B, Ferretti GR, Thony F. Aortic dissection with acute malperfusion syndrome:
Endovascular fenestration via the funnel technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.
2015 Jul;150(1):108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.056. Epub 2015 Apr 2. PubMed
PMID: 25940416.

2: Wolfschmidt F, Hassold N, Goltz JP, Leyh R, Bley TA, Kickuth R. Aortic
Dissection: Accurate Subintimal Flap Fenestration by Using a Reentry Catheter
with Fluoroscopic Guidance-Initial Single-Institution Experience. Radiology. 2015
Apr 22:140520. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25902186.

Client:
Dr. Dai Yamanouchi
Surgery
Medicine and Public Health
(212) 810-6442
yamano@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Patrick Phelan
(608) 265-4420
pphelan@uwhealth.org


39. 3D cell co-coculture model of age-related macular degeneration

macular_degeneration_model

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, microfluidics

Summary
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. It affects more than 17 million people in the U.S., which is more than all cancers combined. Neovascularization is the defining feature of late-stage, or ‘wet’, AMD, which represents 90% of AMD cases that lead to blindness. These abnormal vessels leak fluid or blood that damage the retina and cause acute vision loss. Unfortunately, existing treatments for wet AMD are accompanied by serious risks, and over 50% of patients still experience vision loss; the development of more effective therapies has been hampered by limited insight into the molecular mechanisms that promote angiogenesis in the retina.

The goal of this project is to design an in vitro 3D co-culture platform that mimics key components of the retinal milieu, specifically the sclera, choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Development of this platform will require a combination of tissue engineering and microfluidic construction techniques. Ultimately, it is hoped that this 3D system may be used to investigate causes of wet AMD and to identify novel treatments and serve as a drug testing platform.

Client:
Prof. Kristyn Masters
Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering
kmasters@wisc.edu


40. Design of a probe-placement fixture for ex vivo microwave ablation experiments

probe_fixture

BME 200/300

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The overall goal of this project is to design a structure for positioning antenna and temperatures probes during microwave ablation experiments involving ex vivo tissue samples.

Microwave ablation is a minimally invasive thermal therapy currently in clinical use to treat liver, kidney, bone, and lung cancers, and is under development and investigation for treating other types of cancer. Microwave ablation destroys tumor cells using heat generated via microwave power absorption in the cancerous tissue. The microwave “dose” is delivered via a minimally invasive antenna inserted in the tumor. This promising thermo-ablative technique avoids many of the side effects and risks of surgical, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy treatments.

The College of Engineering and the School of Medicine and Public Health are collaborating to explore and develop new microwave ablation technologies. Freshly excised human tissue, obtained from routine surgeries, is often used for initial testing. Precise control of the insertion direction and depth of the ablation antenna and fiber-topic temperature-monitoring probes is needed for our experimental protocol. Additionally, the support structure and the procedure for inserting the probes have to be compliant with strict guidelines for subsequent pathological examination of the excised tissue.

Testing of the designed and fabricated probe-placement fixture will be conducted using ex vivo bovine tissue (liver).

Materials
Variety of standard hand tools
Access to sample antennas and fiber-optic probes
Access to CoE student shops
Materials/supplies can be ordered as needed

References
H. Luyen, F. Gao, S. C. Hagness, and N. Behdad, "Microwave ablation at 10.0 GHz achieves comparable ablation zones to 1.9 GHz in ex vivo bovine liver," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1702-1710, June 2014

H. Luyen, S. C. Hagness, and N. Behdad, "A Balun-Free Helical Antenna for Minimally Invasive Microwave Ablation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 3, pp.959-965, March 2015

http://www.engr.wisc.edu/news/archive/2014/oct15-novel-antenna-ablation.html

Client:
Prof. Susan Hagness
Electrical and Computer Engineering
College of Engineering
susan.hagness@wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Luz Maria Neira, Ph.D. student -- primary contact #1
neira@wisc.edu

Owen Mays, Ph.D. student -- primary contact #2
rmays@wisc.edu


41. Development of a digital biofeedback device to teach abdominal breathing

abdominal_breathing

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
The prescription of breathing exercises is a common in both medical and psychological practices. In particular, slow, deep abdominal breathing has been shown to have therapeutic benefit for a variety of clinical problems, including asthma, anxiety in patients receiving chemotherapy, motion sickness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is also used extensively in stress management programs. There is, in Japanese culture, a variation of abdominal breathing, called hara or tanden breathing, which is taught in Zen meditation, that has also been related to health.

To date, very little emphasis has been placed how to optimize the acquisition of the skill of abdominal breathing, let alone hara breathing. While electronic biofeedback devices using strain gauges or pressure sensors have been shown to be useful in training people in hara breathing, the laboratory equipment used in these studies is expensive and impractical to use one’s daily life. We have developed an analog device based on a manometer sheathed in cloth; it, too, is cumbersome to use.

The purpose of this project is to develop an inexpensive digital biofeedback device to monitor abdominal pressure, and output these pressure readings in a format that can be ingested by diagnostic applications.

Draft specifications for the device are:

• Is Bluetooth / Wi-Fi compatible
• Exports pressure readings in a format easy for Android / iOS apps to ingest
• Pressure readings accurate enough for training purposes [further investigation may be needed to define what level this is]
• Can be adapted for use by large range of individuals of varying body sizes and types.
• Is small enough to easily fit in pocket or clip inside belt
• Can be worn with a variety of types of clothing
• Weighs 100g or less
• Is wear-and-tear resistant
• Self contained, rechargeable power supply sufficient for at least 3 hours of use

Materials
The student(s) will be asked to make recommendations for supplies and equipment required for the project. These items will be purchased as needed by the sponsors.

References
Cysarz, D., & Büssing, A. (2005). Cardiorespiratory synchronization during Zen meditation. Eur J Appl Physiol, 95(1), 88–95. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1379-3

Fumoto, M., Sato-Suzuki, I., Seki, Y., Mohri, Y., & Arita, H. (2004). Appearance of high-frequency alpha band with disappearance of low-frequency alpha band in EEG is produced during voluntary abdominal breathing in an eyes-closed condition. Neuroscience Research, 50(3), 307–317. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2004.08.005

Hirai, T. (1978). Zen and the Mind: Scientific approach to Zen practice. Tokyo: Japan Publications.

Kaushik, R., Kaushik, R. M., Mahajan, S. K., & Rajesh, V. (2005). Biofeedback assisted diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation versus propranolol in long term prophylaxis of migraine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13(3), 165–174. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2005.04.004

Lehrer, P. (2001). Biofeedback for Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Tanden Breathing among Zen Monks: Studies in Cardiovascular Resonance. In Respiration and Emotion (pp. 113–120). Tokyo: Springer Japan. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-67901-1_11

Lehrer, P., Sasaki, Y., & Saito, Y. (1999). Zazen and cardiac variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(6), 812–821.

Yu, X., Fumoto, M., Nakatani, Y., Sekiyama, T., Kikuchi, H., Seki, Y., et al. (2011). Activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system is associated with improvements in mood and EEG changes induced by Zen meditation practice in novices. Int J Psychophysiol, 80(2), 103–111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.02.004

Client:
Dr. Ken Kushner
(608) 235-2905
kkushner@wisconsinzen.org


42. Steerable catheter from electroactive polymers

steerable_catheter

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
Long catheters are used for many types of endovascular procedures in the body. There is a need for steerable catheters for neurosurgical and cardiac applications. Additionally, steerable catheters may be applied to other minimally invasive surgical procedures.

I would like the team to develop a prototype of a steerable catheter using electroactive polymers.

References
Jung, J.-H., Jeon, J.-H., Sridhar, V., & Oh, I.-K. (2011). Electro-active graphene–Nafion actuators. Carbon, 49(4), 1279–1289. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2010.11.047

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uw8FLgiXsmk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqCwHzK81dA

Client:
Dr. Nathaniel Brooks
Neurosurgery
University of Wisconsin
(608) 469-3136
n.brooks@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


43. Ergonomic rodent bleed syringe

ergonomic_syringe

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
When laboratory techs collect blood from rodents for analysis, they hold the syringe in one hand with their thumb and index and draw back with middle finger (the hand is in the supinated position). The amount of blood draw needed requires more length than most human fingers have in that position. Additionally, it is a static hold because the syringe creates negative pressure and can rebound back if released.

Ergonomic Improvement Idea:
o Design a tool or assist for pushing the syringe plunger back and can be used with one hand (stipulation: the motion needs to be very accurate).

Materials
Students will have an opportunity to observe the lab technicians performing this task and an opportunity for lab techs to field test their prototype ergonomic syringe tool. Supplies and materials needed to fabricate the ergonomic tool will be provided.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


44. Mechanism for reducing animal lab technician strain

cage_cleaner

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
Laboratory animal cages need to be sprayed down before entering an automatic tunnel washer. The process currently uses a traditional car wash sprayer. The hoses drop down from the ceiling and there is a handle and nozzle that the tech’s use to spray off the cages. The spraying motion can be an overhead, stooping, bending, twisting motion to reach all parts of the cage. The repetitive stress is in forearm, shoulders & lower back. Each rack takes about 5 minutes to spray of which during this time the staff statically hold the trigger of the sprayer. This task can scheduled up to 2 hours a day for a person.

Ergonomics Improvement Ideas:
o Design a mechanical arm for spraying (reduce the static hold of the handle and recruit biceps muscles rather than forearm muscles)
o Design a shorter nozzle (reduce fulcrum point)
o Design bracing from the forearm to the sprayer (reduce force on forearm muscles

Students will study biomechancial stresses on the arms and demonstrate reduced loading when their new ergonomic design is utilized.

Materials
Students will have an opportunity to observe technicians performing the current task, have access to the laboratory, and pilot these their new ergonomic design.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


45. Ergonomic rodent cage to reduce lab technican strain

ergonomic_cage

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Ergonomics

Summary
Lab rodents are housed in caging on a stainless steel rack with plastic drawers that slide in and out to hold the animals. Each rack can house 50-100 animals (depending on species). The problem is caused when the plastics stick causing strain on lab tech's shoulders, wrists, elbows because of the high forces needed to pull them. The cages stick much like a used drawer on a dresser. Each cage is opened 6-8 times each day and the tech has to reach the top cages as well as the bottom ones, putting them in frequent awkward postures and loads in the arms and shoulders.

Ergonomic Improvement Ideas
o Design a cage opener (pulling mechanism, lever, handle etc. - needs to be very efficient)
o Devise a way to make the plastics stick less (cannot alter size/shape of cages, lubricants need to be able to withstand washing)

Materials
Students will have the opportunity to observe lab techs performing the task and pilot test their prototype mechanism to verify that it reduces loading in the technicians' arms and shoulders.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


46. Measuring exercise systolic BP using finger laser doppler in kids

exercise_BP

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pediatrics, Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
We currently use simple auscultory-cuff method to measure BP during treadmill stress testing in adults and kids. In younger kids, 6-12 yr old however it is often difficult to hear the peak systolic sound that defines systolic pressure. Laser Doppler sampling from 1st finger or thumb at rest gives nice pulsed signal that can be used with BP cuff to find peak systolic BP equivalent. ( We use similar technique now using ultrasound Doppler to measure arm and leg systolic pressures).

The problem is that laser Doppler signals are motion sensitive.
Luckily when we do exercise BPs with kids on treadmill, we hold the arm up off the treadmill.

What we need is stabilizing glove/device that holds a laser Doppler probe in place on 1st finger or thumb pulp, while stabilizing the finger or thumb from movement that causes artifact on laser Doppler signal.

I'm hoping no amplification of signal will be needed.

Materials
I have been collecting laser Doppler devices off Ebay for 20 yrs, and have several Perimed laser Dopplers with different probes, a Transsonic device , and Medpacific device, plus Tektronix oscilloscope.

We can test anything we come up with on ourselves on treadmill.

References
1) "Review of methodological developments in laser Doppler flowmetry"
Rajan V, Varghese B, van Leeuwen T, Stteenbergen W, Lasers Med Sci(2009), 24:269-283.

2) "Assessment of Endothelial and Neurovascular function in human skin
Microcirculation" Roustit and Crakowski, Trends in Pharm. Sci 34:373,
2013

Client:
Dr. Allen Wilson
Pediatric cardiology
UW-Madison
(608) 572-0634
adwilson@pediatrics.wisc.edu


47. Continuous monitoring of asthma control

asthma_control

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
An asthma action plan (AAP) is a set of medication changes custom designed for asthma patients in case of an asthma exacerbation. However, many asthma patients fail to utilize the plan due to the subjective nature of when to implement and insensitivity to early symptoms of an asthma exacerbation. Continuous monitoring of important indicators of asthma exacerbation such as shortness of breath from decreased respiratory volumes, cough and wheeze allows real time detection of an asthma exacerbation and helps patients utilize their AAP in a more timely manner. This project involves taking an existing "asthma shirt" with sensors that measure volume changes and sounds to optimize data collection and establish algorithms to analyze tidal volume, respiratory rate, cough and wheezing sounds, remove motion artifacts, and combine these data to alert the patient to proceed with an AAP.

Materials
1. Asthma shirt that measures ventilation and sounds
2. Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
1. Gavriely, N., Palti, Y., Alroy, G., & Grotberg, J. B. (1984). Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57(2), 481-492.
2. Oletic, D., Arsenali, B., & Bilas, V. (2014). Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing. Sensors, 14(4), 6535-6566.
3. Kraman, Steve S., et al. "Measurement of respiratory acoustic signals: effect of microphone air cavity width, shape, and venting." CHEST Journal 108.4 (1995): 1004-1008.
4. Korenbaum, V. I., Tagil’tsev, A. A., Kostiv, A. E., Gorovoy, S. V., & Pochekutova, I. A. (2008). Acoustic equipment for studying human respiratory sounds. Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 51(2), 296-303.
5. Gaetano D Gargiulo, Aiden O’Loughlin and Paul P Breen, Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study, Physiol. Meas. 36 (2015) N35–49, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/2/N35

Client:
Dr. Sameer Mathur
Medicine-Allergy
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-2804
sm4@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


48. Skin cancer detector

skin_cancer_detector

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
We want to develop a skin cancer detector. It would be placed on the skin to examine moles. A hand held pen sized probe would be placed on the mole. The 2 mm diameter cylindrical tip would have 2 outer electrodes to pass current I into the mole and 2 inner electrodes to measure the resulting voltage V. This yields resistance R = V/I, which may be lower for rapidly developing cancer. A thermocouple or resistance temperature detector would measure temperature, which may be higher for rapidly developing cancer. Write an application to do research on human subjects and submit it to the UW Institutional Review Board (IRB). Test patients at a skin cancer clinic to compare results from cancerous and noncancerous moles.

Materials
Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Rosemount%20Analytical%20Documents/Liq_ADS_43-018.pdf Fig. 4

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
UW Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Donald S Schuster, Dept Dermatology
(608) 238-7179
donaldsgolf@yahoo.com


49. Developing synthetic carttilage - An alternative to joint replacement

synthetic_carttilage

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering
Medical Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering

Summary
The fastest growing segment of our population is the group over age 65, esp those over 85. Degenerative arthritis is very common in this age group and results in significant functional decline. Currently , options to treat degenerative or osteoarthritis include medications like acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc. If medications like these fail to improve the pain, patients are often sent to physical therapy and /or are offered joint injections using cortisone like medications and/or a lubricant similar to joint fluid. These measures often only allow temporary relief. The last option, partial or total joint replacement is expensive, potentially risky and requires a prolonged recovery period.

The accepted pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease is that the cartilage covered joint surfaces over time become dry and cracked ultimately resulting in bone grinding against bone. Many investigators have tried unsuccessfully to identify a material that could adhere to the joint surfaces and provide smooth surfaces so that the person’s joint could once again be functional. The solution, if successfully developed could be injected into the joint space or applied through an arthroscopic procedure without requiring major surgery.

Materials
Non human- e.g. porcine cartilage based joints- e.g. knee
Possbile 3 D printing of joint
Various polymers that could be used as artificial cartilage

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain MD
Dean Clinic
Dean Clinic
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@deancare.com


50. Comfortable mouthpiece for sleep apnea

apnea_mourthpiece

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Xie et al have shown that some sleep apnea patients can be treated by slightly increasing their CO2. Fall 2014 a BME design team increased breathing dead space and thereby increased CO2. But some patients will not wear the mask and straps around the head to hold the mask in place. Design a device to increase dead space with no mask and straps. A possible approach might be to start with a lightweight snorkel mouthpiece and tube that would remain in the mouth while sleeping. Write an application to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for permission to test on human subjects.

References
Xie, A., Teodorescu, M., Pegelow, D., Teodorescu, M., Gong, Y., Fedie, J., & Dempsey, J. 2013. Effects of stabilizing or increasing respiratory motor outputs on obstructive sleep apnea. J. Appl. Physiol., 115, 22-33.
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/sleep_apnea/

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Mehdi Shokouei
(608) 609-1535
m.shakoui@gmail.com


51. Wireless ECG tank top

ECG_tank_top

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Take the portable ECG tanktop that was previously designed and create a marketable product to be used by patients both inside and out of hospitals. Ensure the battery life of the system is at least a 24 hour cycle so the shirt can be worn and take readings without interruption for at least one day. The ECG must also be transmitted via Bluetooth to a smartphone application that can in turn transmit the signal to a hospital database. The system must also analyze any arrhythmia or defect and store the data from the signals before and after the defect so a medical professional could analyze it as well as sending an alert to the patient’s smartphone. Finally the shirt itself must be comfortable to wear and be washable. This means that all electronic components must be either water proof or be removable during washing. Write an application to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for permission to perform research on human subjects.

Materials
Tank top with dry electrodes plus amplifier electronics.

References
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/ecg_tank_top/

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


52. Increased flow breast pump

breast_pump

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Many working women use breast pumps to obtain milk for their baby to be used later when they are at work. Present breast pumps use periodic suction to express milk. However human nursing babies use suction plus their tongue to massage the nipple to increase flow. Design a breast pump that mimics the action of a human baby by massaging the nipple to increase flow. Write an application to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for permission to do research on human subjects.

References
https://www.medelabreastfeedingus.com/products/463/freestyle-breastpump
http://www.evenflofeeding.com/products/breastfeeding/breast-pumps/deluxe-plus-advanced-double-electric-breast-pump/
http://www.nuk-usa.com/breastfeeding/double-electric-breast-pump/
http://www.usa.philips.com/c-p/SCF334_04/avent-comfort-double-electric-breast-pump

Client:
Prof. John Webster
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


53. Measuring mice voiding to study prostate cancer

mouse_voiding

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Oncology, Urology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The most common human male cancer is prostate cancer. Also aging males get prostate hypertrophy, where the prostate enlarges and narrows the ureter. We can't study human voiding so we study mice voiding. The mice cage has a coarse grid so urine drops through it onto filter paper. Under ultraviolet light we can see where and how much urine appears. To reduce manual labor we wish to automate the measurement. Just under the cage floor videorecord x and y to determine drop location, size and time. Catch all in a large funnel to measure volume in a cylinder. Create plots of flow vs. time as in Fig. 3 of http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948219

Materials
Mice cages

References
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948219
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394276

Client:
Prof. Will Ricke
Urology
Medical School
(608) 265-3202
rickew@urology.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu

Mehdi Shokouei
(608) 609-1535
m.shakoui@gmail.com


54. Device to reduce injection pain to the palms and soles for Hyperhidrosis treatment

palm_injection

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) affects 3% of the population. Patients are increasingly seeking care due to the negative impact on their professional and social life. Hyperhidrosis most commonly affects the palms, soles and axillae. Treatment options include topical solutions, oral medications, iontophoresis, surgery and Botox injections. Botox provides up to 6 months of control but must be repeated to maintain effect. The procedure is commonly performed under sedation due to pain. The procedure is poorly tolerated in the outpatient setting where limited anesthesia is achieved with ice packs and a vibratory tool. The project seeks a device that will reduce the pain of injection to the palms and soles in the outpatient clinic setting. This will help improve the patient experience, reduce risk and limit costs.

Client:
Dr. Will Aughenbaugh
Department of Dermatology
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health
(608) 287-2620
waughenbaugh@dermatology.wisc.edu


55. Surgeon's back-support

back_support

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Surgeons bend over up to 45 degrees over a few to several hours per surgery which results in back pain. A device is needed to help reduce loading on the back when bent over during an operation.

The basic goal is to reduce the weight of the upper body when you bend over and make the device portable so that the doctor can move around the surgery table. Preliminary experiments have found that about 1/2 of your weight has to be reduced or supported. The device size must accommodate different size persons.

Client:
Prof. Robert Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering/ BME
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Chase Lee
(732) 463-2100


56. Adopting 3D printing into prosthetics practice: from purchase to first printed prototype

3Dprinted_prosthetics

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, Software, prosthetics

Summary
Prosthetics and anaplastology are fields that increasing must utilize surface scanning and 3D printing technologies for the design, fabrication and fitting of restorative prostheses and related components and devices. The anaplastologist/prosthetist wishes to purchase equipment and the BME student is called upon to research hand held scanners and 3D printing machines that are well matched to produce high resolution facial prosthetics, hand restorations and physical models, within the budget of a small private practice. The project will involve assessing the need for safe scanning, surface resolution, speed, additive or subtractive printing, anatomy of the face and body and how prostheses are designed and fit. A scanner and/or a printer will then be purchased and the students will help implement its use in creating a prosthesis for a patient.

Materials
Access to prosthetics laboratory and materials if needed. Some local 3D printing services and authoritative contacts will be provided.

References
http://www.aao.org/newsroom/news-releases/detail/3d-printed-facial-prosthesis-offers-new-hope-eye-c

http://www.3ders.org/articles/20131108-the-future-of-prosthetics-3d-printed-nose-ear-and-eye.html

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


57. Intraluminal tracheal ring stent for treatment of collapsing trachea in dogs

ring_stemt

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Clinical problem:

Collapsing trachea in small breed dogs

Goal:

To design an intraluminal, self-expanding, ring stent for treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs

Background:

Tracheal collapse is a relatively common problem in small breed dogs such as the Yorkshire terrier, poodle, and Maltese. Tracheal collapse is typically due to chondromalacia and weakening of cartilaginous rings that results in flattening and collapse during breathing. Collapse typically occurs at the thoracic inlet but can involve the entire trachea including the main stem bronchi.

Tracheal collapse is classified as extrathoracic (cervical), intrathoracic or combined depending upon the anatomical location affected. The degree of collapse is also graded on a scale of 1 to 4 with grade 1 representing 25 percent collapse and grade 4 representing 100 percent collapse.

Clinical signs of tracheal collapse include a chronic honking cough that can progress to episodes of severe respiratory distress, hypoxia, cyanosis and collapse. For mild to moderate cases (grades 1 and 2), medical management including cough suppressants, anti-inflammatory medication, and sedation is often successful at reducing coughing episodes. However, tracheal collapse is generally progressive and many dogs go on to develop a more severe grade and eventually require surgical treatment.

Current surgical options include some type stent to support the trachea and prevent further collapse. Stents are classified as either intraluminal or extraluminal.

Intraluminal stents are typically made of a self-expanding metal (nickel-titanium alloy) that are placed under endoscopic or fluoroscopic guidance. The stent is deployed within the lumen of the trachea such that it spans the entire affected area and opens the trachea when it expands.

Extraluminal stents are typically made of rigid polypropylene that is molded into a “C” shape ring. The polypropylene rings are placed around the collapsed portion of the trachea via an open surgical approach and sutured to the cartilage to expand the collapsed area.

Both techniques are relatively effective but do have significant limitations and potential complications.

My experience with these cases has motivated me to investigate a better technique for managing tracheal collapse in dogs that combines the advantages of both the intraluminal and extraluminal stents while avoiding the respective limitations and complications.

Client:
Dr. Robert Hardie
Department of Surgical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 262-7257
hardier@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


58. Developing a closed head injury device for rodents (and/or miniature pigs)

rodent_TBI

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Mechanics

Summary
In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per year. In a population of 291.6 million people, this rate equates to more than 570,000 patients annually. Approximately 15% of these patients succumb to the injury upon arrival to the emergency department.

We would like design a device that will reproducible induce a similar traumatic brain injury (TBI) of two different severities (i.e., microscopic Diffused Axonal Injury (DIA) and cystic infarcts, lesions, or cavities in brain tissue via a closed-head injury (CHI). For a review of in vivo TBI rodent models see http://www.mccauslandcenter.sc.edu/CRNL/sw/tbi/5/Xiong_2013_animal_models.pdf and http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC3593692

We current employed the open-head penetrating TBI model using a computer driven controlled cortical Impact (CCI) pneumatic piston device (for an example see http://www.hatterasinstruments.com/pinpoint.shtml. CHI are more representative of a TBI suffered in human cases after car accident or acceleration (non-impact injury). Closed head injury can cause several different types of brain injury, including coup contre-coup, acceleration-deceleration trauma, rotational trauma and molecular commotion.

According to Love and Webb (1992) the most predominant injury type is acceleration-deceleration trauma. Acceleration-deceleration trauma causes discrete lesions which affect only certain areas of the brain, see http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmccaffrey//syllabi/SPPA336/336unit11.html. Both rotational trauma and molecular commotion cause diffuse damage that impairs many aspects of brain functioning.

Given the prices of the commercial available CHI device prices, most labs normally created their own device in house. For several examples see
http://www.northeastbiomed.com/drupal/node/24
http://wrair-www.army.mil/Documents/PDF%20ONE%20PAGERS/Closed-Head%20Brain%20Injury.pdf

Materials
We will have to first develop the design and in doing so determine what materials and supplies are needed to create a prototype. In the past 2 years, I have worked closing with the VA hospital engineer staff and the Madison Technical Institute, and both sources may be of assistance on this project.

References
This information has been included in the description above so each reference could be utilized appropriately without too much distractions. For an overview of CHI watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_L5hwZvRSgQ

Client:
Dr. Rastafa I. Geddes (or Ras for short)
Medicine
Graduate School of Public Health and Sciences
(404) 671-7981
rigeddes@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contacts:
Icelle M. Anderson
(847) 370-3506
imanderson@medicine.wisc.edu

Gabrielle Farquhar
(973) 459-9853
gfarquhar@medicine.wisc.edu

Dr. Craig S. Atwood (phone extension is 11664)
(608) 256-1901
csa@medicine.wisc.edu


59. Johnson Health Tech: Adaptive fitness equipment

adaptive_fitness_equipment

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
About our Johnson Health Tech:
http://www.johnsonfitness.com/content/corporate-info

Since our beginning in 1975, Johnson Health Tech (JHT) has specialized in the design, production and marketing of award-winning fitness equipment. In our more than 35 years of business, JHT has grown tremendously in the ever-evolving fitness market. Based in Taiwan, we are Asia's largest, the world's third largest and one of the industry's fastest growing fitness equipment manufacturers.

Our brands have been sold across 60 countries and are marketed to the commercial, specialty and home-use markets. Our commitment to product innovation, superior value, and unmatched customer service has made JHT a leading provider of high-quality fitness equipment around the world.

About the project:

We are interested in developing adaptive devices to allow individuals who have lost a limb or have other physical disabilities to use our existing fitness equipment. Specifically, we would like a design team to choose one piece of equipment to modify. The two options are a seated rower or the KRANKcycle.

1. http://www.matrixfitness.com/en/group-training/cardio/Rower
2. http://www.krankcycle.com/

Students will be asked to sign a non-disclosure agreement.
Students may be asked to present at the North American Headquarters in Cottage Grove, Wisconsin.

Materials
A rower or Krankcycle will be made available.
Other materials and supplies will be made available as needed.

Client:
Ms. Jolene Enge
Johnson Health Tech
(608) 839-1240
jolene.enge@johnsonfit.com


60. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound ultra-headband

ultra_headband

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Our lab (Schrage Lab) investigates cerebral and peripheral blood flow regulation. One of the methodologies that we utilized to examine cerebral blood flow regulation is transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). With TCD we are able to insonate the middle cerebral artery (MCA), with a 2 MHz Doppler ultrasound probe placed over the trans-temporal window of the cranium, and examine how cerebral blood flow velocity changes in response to a variety of different stressors. To hold the TCD probe(s) in place we utilize a commercially available headband that allows for insonation of either the right or left MCA.

However, in addition to examining changes in MCA blood flow velocity, we would also like to concurrently examine changes within the basilar artery (BA). To accomplish this we will need to place an additional TCD probe on the back of the skull and insonate through the trans-foraminal window. However, we currently lack a headband the has the ability to hold both a probe for the MCA and BA. We would need to retrofit a traditional MCA headband with a TCD probe holder that would allow us to insonate through the trans-foraminal window and measure BA velocity.

Our goal is to have prototype TCD headband created, allowing us to hold TCD probes concurrently over the transtemporal wind and transforaminal window which will allow us to study cerebral blood flow responses in multiple vessels.

Materials
We have parts of an older TCD headband that would be very useful for the project.

References
-Differential cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in anterior and posterior cerebral circulations
Rachel J. Skow

-Autoregulatory Response and CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar Artery
Cheol Wan Park, MD, PhD

-Simultaneous Vasomotor Reactivity Testing in the Middle Cerebral and Basilar Artery with Suboccipital Probe Fixation Device
Ji Man Hong, MD

-Transcranial Doppler.
Fujioka KA

I can also provide images of TCD headbands to better help describe what we would like out of the project.

Client:
Mr. Garrett Peltonen
Kinesiology (Graduate Student in Schrage Lab)
Education
(608) 263-6308
glpeltonen@wisc.edu


61. Automatic intraventricular drainage system

automatic_IVD

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Currently, intraventricular drainage systems require consistent nursing assistance and for patients to remain in the same position unless a nurse is there to adjust it. Currently, nurses have to manually adjust and level the height of the collection container which is time-consuming and imprecise. A device is needed that eliminates this leveling process through the precise regulation of fluid flow.

Client:
Dr. Joshua Medow
Director of Neurocritical Care
versity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
medow@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


62. Development of a microfluidic sampling and imaging device for microbial bioreactors

microfluidic_sampling

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering
Medical Specialty: Medicine
Skills: Cell Biology, Electronics, Imaging, Software, Microfluidics

Summary
Recently my lab has demonstrated real-time optogenetic feedback control of gene expression in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in a chemostat (Melendez, et al 2014). A chemostat is a bioreactor in which fresh nutrient-limited medium is continuously added and cell culture is continuously removed to keep the culture volume constant. The ability to accurately control a specific protein at a precise concentration will allow researchers to accurately measure the relationship between protein concentration and cell biological outputs including transcription and metabolism. Additionally, the ability to perturb specific proteins can be used for biological network identification. Finally, the ability to do real-time feedback control of protein concentration opens up the possibility of externally controlling synthetic and natural networks. We anticipate eventually being able to extend this technology to stem cells and other biological systems.

To accurately measure cell biology features such as morphology, protein localization, and gene expression in single cells we would like to be able to sample cells from the bioreactor (while these cells are undergoing protein control) and assay these features using fluorescence microscopy. To do this, we need a sampling device that will take a small volume of cells, trap the cells in a microfluidic device on a microscope, allow for imaging, and then move the cells to waste or back into the bioreactor. The sampling and trapping needs to be rapid, minimally perturb the cells, and be timed with appropriate image acquisition. The microfluidic device will most likely need to be valved, which will require an extra layer of device control. Images of the cells then need to be rapidly processed for features such as cell size and localization of fluorescence reporters. A crude device was described in Melendez, et al but it does not allow for detailed imaging. This project will require expertise in cell biology, microfluidics, image processing, instrumentation, and laboratory automation.

Materials
The relevant imaging system (Nikon TI-E inverted microscope), cell culture materials and yeast strains, and the device described in Melendez, et al

References
Melendez, J., Patel, M., Oakes, B.,Xu, P., Morton, P., and McClean, MN.(2014) Real-time optogenetic control of intracellular protein concentration in microbial cell cultures Integrative Biology 6(3) 366-72

Client:
Prof. Megan N McClean
Biomedical Engineering
Engineering
(608) 890-0416
mmcclean@wisc.edu


63. Apparatus for fusion of surface ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy images in cardiac procedures

fiducial_apparatus

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Recently, image fusion between 3D cardiac ultrasound (Echo) and X-ray fluoroscopy (XRF) has been proposed to guide the placement of devices such as artificial heart valves. XRF provides high quality real-time imaging of the metal structures in the devices. 3D Echo provides real-time imaging of cardiac soft tissue anatomy and blood flow. In essence, Echo/XRF fusion combines soft tissue imaging from echo with device visualization from XRF, in order to enable proper positioning of the devices. (*please see the youtube video link at the bottom for a visual demonstration of this technology)


Most of the current reports demonstrating the concept of Echo/XRF image fusion have focused on the trans-esophageal echo (TEE) probe, which enters the esophagus and performs ultrasound imaging from inside the patient. Registration between ultrasound and XRF images is achieved by detecting the probe orientation within the x-ray images. Unfortunately, TEE is invasive, requires general anesthesia, and poses significant patient risks. On the other hand, surface echocardiography is completely non-invasive. Surface echo is performed with an external probe placed against the chest wall. Despite lower image quality than TEE, surface echo maybe be better suited for routine cardiac interventions, due to its lack of invasiveness and high availability in hospitals.


The fusion of surface Echo and XRF has not yet been explored, despite the fact that surface ultrasound is more common than TEE. The main technical challenge with surface Echo/XRF fusion is that the external probe may not be visible in the XRF field-of-view, or if it is visible, it may not be possible to accurately determine its position and orientation from the XRF image. To solve this problem, the external ultrasound probe must be outfitted with x-ray-visible metal fiducials which are rigidly attached to the probe and which extend into the x-ray image (# an example of this can be found in the picture linked at the bottom). The detected orientation of these metallic fiducials can be used to encode the position and rotation of the external probe.


We propose the design and fabrication of a fiducial apparatus for surface Echo/XRF fusion. The apparatus should:

•Be removable – can be removed and easily re-attached.

•Fit precisely to the probe such that the location of the metallic fiducials relative to the probe is stable and reproducible.

•Allow the fiducials to remain in the x-ray field-of-view when the external probe is used in different positions on the chest wall


Students will work closely with a clinician, a Medical Physics professor, and a BME PhD student.

Please see the links to get a better idea the technology!

References:


* Demonstration of Echo / XRF fusion using a TEE probe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40iHkbPTcb0

https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/16409236/BME_2015_Proposal_Drawing.png

Materials
$250 dollars worth of materials, although this project is anticipated to be inexpensive.

References
* Demonstration of Echo / XRF fusion using a TEE probe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40iHkbPTcb0


# Example of x-ray trackable fiducials
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aapm/journal/medphys/32/10/10.1118/1.2047782

Client:
Dr. Amish Raval
Cardiovascular Medicine
Medicine
(734) 915-7992
anr@medicine.wisc.edu

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