Project Selection

Student List

  Level Team Members Project Title Keyword Engineering Specialty Medical Specialty
1 400 5 Bioanalytical uncapping device uncapper Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Research tool
2 400 4 SLIP project (Solution for Leakage through an Innovative Pessary) innovative_pessary Biomaterials, Biomechanics Obstetrics/Gynecology
3 400 4 Pressure monitoring model for casting a distal radius fracture casting_pressure Bioinstrumentation Medical Simulation
4 400 4 Prosthetic ankle with biomimetic motion for weight lifting prosthetic_ankle Biomechanics, Human Factors Prosthetics
5 400 5 Reproducing swallowing in a thyroid exam simulator swallowing_model Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Medical Simulation
6 400 5 Implantable light source for driving optogenetic constructs implantable_light Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Medical Imaging
7 400 5 A miniature microscope for fluorescence imaging mini_microscope Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Research tool
8 400 4 Automatic intraventricular drainage system automatic_IVD Biomechanics Neurology
9 400 5 Virtual Reality Pain Management pain_management Bioinstrumentation Rehabilitation
10 400 5 Ergonomic re-design of a surgical stapling device surgical_stapler Human Factors, Biomechanics Surgery
11 400 3 Magnetic cardioversion magnetic_cardioversion Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
12 400 5 Boston Scientific: Retrograde transpedal access solution bsci_transpedal_access Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
13 400 5 Boston Scientific: Reproductive health non-invasive uterine access bsci_reproductive_health Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors Obstetrics/Gynecology
14 400 4 Temporary pacemaker training simulator pacemaker_simulator Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
15 400 5 Noninvasive tracking of shear wave speeds in tendons during movement tendon_shear Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Research tool
17 400 5 Creation of a urothelial permeability culture chamber tissue_culture_model Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials Research tool
20 200/300 5 Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention dialysis_infection Bioinstrumentation Urology
21 200/300 6 Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection aortic_dissection Medical Imaging, Biomechanics Cardiology
22 400 5 Continuous monitoring of asthma control asthma_control Bioinstrumentation Pulmonology
23 200/300 5 Osteochondral transplant system graft_delivery Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics Orthopedics
24 200/300 5 I have fallen and need to get up-Device to lift a fallen elder back into their chair elder_lift Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Geriatrics
25 400 5 Medical Art Prosthetics: Individualized functional finger prosthesis finger_prosthesis Biomechanics, Biomaterials Plastic Surgery
27 200/300 5 Mobile arm support for wheelchair tennis/adaptive sports/gaming dynamic_arm Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors Rehabilitation
28 200/300 5 Mueller Sports Medicine: Anatomically tracking knee hinge knee_hinge Biomechanics Rehabilitation
29 200/300 5 Baxter: UV disinfection system for access connectors baxter_disinfection Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Surgery
30 400 6 Medical Art Prosthetics: Engineering a composite medical prosthesis composite_prosthesis Biomaterials Prosthetics
31 200/300 5 Medical Art Prosthetics: Prosthetic ear attachment anchor ear_attachment Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors Prosthetics
32 200/300 6 TherVoyant: Compact guide for minimally invasive surgery in an MRI scanner MIS_guide Biomechanics, Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation Surgery
33 400 5 What do you mean I cannot have surgery: my knee is killing me knee_brace Biomechanics Prosthetics
35 400 5 Device for capturing IVC filters filter_capture Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Cardiology
36 200/300 6 Fetal radiation shield for pregnant patients receiving radiation therapy radiation_shield Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Medical Imaging, Human Factors Radiology
37 400 3 Somatosensory stimulation apparatus for rodent cages hindlimb_stimulator Bioinstrumentation Research tool
38 200/300 6 The doppler dot doppler_dot Biomechanics, Human Factors Radiology
39 400 5 Anastamosis tension meter tension_meter Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Urology
40 200/300 5 Tie-over bandage for improved open-wound management bandage Biomaterials, Biomechanics Veterinary Medicine
41 200/300 5 Langendorff apparatus for Guinea pig cardiomyocyte isolation cardiomyocyte_culture Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics Research tool
43 200/300 5 Secondary mobility device for airline travel airline_mobility_device Biomechanics, Human Factors Rehabilitation
45 200/300 5 Arthrocentesis model for veterinary student training arthrocentesis_model Biomaterials, Biomechanics Medical Simulation
47 200/300 5 Use of pH or glucose probes to diagnose compartment syndrome compartment_syndrome Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Orthopedics
48 200/300 5 Rapid urine stone risk detector stone_detector Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Urology
49 200/300 6 Ear gator ear_gator Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials Otolaryngology
52 200/300 5 Ergonomic mojo shaking device ergonomic_shaker Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Research tool
53 200/300 5 Ergonomic pathology tweezers/forceps ergonomic_tweezers Biomechanics, Human Factors Research tool
55 200/300 5 Gavin-Miller extractor nasal_extractor Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors Otolaryngology
57 200/300 5 Rapid needle alignment for localizing breast tumors needle_alignment Biomechanics Oncology
58 200/300 5 Wheelchair attachment for leg-strengthening therapy wheelchair_leg_exerciser Biomechanics, Human Factors Physical Therapy
59 200/300 5 Exercise device for child with profound weakness for use in a wheelchair wheelchair_exerciser Biomechanics, Human Factors Physical Therapy
60 400 4 Directing the contralateral eye during laser retinopexy eye_surgery Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Ophthalmology
61 200/300 5 Real-time measurement of ciliary activity ciliary_activity Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging Research tool
62 200/300 6 Reproducible thermal injury template for burn wound model thermal_injury Biomechanics, Biomaterials Surgery
63 200/300 5 Remote patient monitoring app/device for pregnancy related hypertension disorders hypertension_monitor Bioinstrumentation Obstetrics/Gynecology
64 200/300 5 Flow channel design for improved biomarker detection in liquid biopsy liquid_biopsy Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics Oncology
65 200/300 5 Promoting reproductive autonomy through creation of an IUD self-removal device IUD_removal Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Human Factors Obstetrics/Gynecology
67 200/300 5 Optical measurement of animal tumor volume for cancer research studies tumor_volume Bioinstrumentation Oncology
68 400 5 Haptic stimulation vest haptic_stimulation Bioinstrumentation Emergency
69 200/300 6 Tissue biopsy dissociation biopsy_dissociation Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics Pulmonology
70 200/300 6 Neonatal breathing system neonatal_breathing Biomechanics Anesthesiology
71 200/300 5 Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor protein_sensor Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation Medical Imaging
72 400 5 3D printed cutting guide for orthopedic surgery in animals cutting_guide Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation Orthopedics
73 200/300 5 VibeTech: Software and game to study the effects of therapeutic vibration rehabilitation vibetech Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors Rehabilitation
74 200/300 5 Thermo Scientific: Raman accessory design for manufacturability raman_assembly Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Optics Research tool


1. Bioanalytical uncapping device

uncapper

BME 400
Students assigned: Scottland Adkins, Jake Jaeger, Alec Onesti, Samuel Perez-Tamayo, Katelyn Werth
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics,
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Manually capping and uncapping sample tubes for bioanalytical testing is a time-consuming, strenuous task that poses a risk of repetitive motion injuries to laboratory technicians. At a local commercial laboratory, technicians perform this task up to 700 times each day, provoking the client to request an ergonomic device capable of (semi-) automatically removing the caps from sample tubes in a manner that will not disturb their current workflow. The device should be able to remove caps from several sample tubes at one time, accommodating an entire 32-tube rack. Additionally, the device should be compatible with a variety of sample tube sizes.

A BME design team last year created a working prototype that was capable of uncapping racks of sample tubes at approximately the same rate as the technicians currently uncap by hand. Continuation of this project will involve preventing the contents of the sample tubes from cross-contamination, a critical feature that was not previously addressed. The team would need to conduct tests to demonstrate that their design prevents cross-contamination. Though the removed caps are discarded, it is desirable that they are kept in one location for easy disposal. Currently, the majority of free caps are ejected the onto the lab bench. A novel mechanism is needed to both nudge off caps that have already been unscrewed but remain sitting on top of the tube, as well as guiding them into a disposal container.

Materials
The commercial lab will provide sample tubes, caps and tube racks used. Funds will be made available for supplies as needed, based on consideration of student team requests.

References
This project is being proposed in-conjunction with a local company. Inventors will own their own IP. Strong communication skills and planning of meetings will be important.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
BME/ISE
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


2. SLIP project (Solution for Leakage through an Innovative Pessary)

innovative_pessary

BME 400
Students assigned: Rachel Craven, Alexandra Hadyka, Julia Handel, Kathryn Hohenwalter
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Urinary leakage affects more than half of independent US women aged 65 and older (Gorina), and its direct health care costs exceed $25 billion annually (Miner). Stress urinary incontinence, the leakage of urine associated with activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as coughing, sneezing, and lifting, can be treated with surgery, pelvic floor muscle strengthening, or the use of an intra-vaginal silicone support device called a pessary.

Pessaries are traditionally used to treat relaxation of the vaginal walls (pelvic organ prolapse) and thus sit between the apex of the vagina and the back of the pubic bone, supporting the vaginal apex and anterior wall. Historically, it was believed that loss of support of the bladder neck (the junction between the bladder and the urethra, tube through which urine leaves the bladder) contributed to stress incontinence. Therefore, two pessaries were designed specifically to treat stress incontinence: an incontinence ring and an incontinence dish. These pessaries sit between the apex of the vagina and the pubic bone and each has a knob to support the bladder neck, but neither incorporates a mechanism to prevent rotation of the knob from midline, and they improve symptoms for about 50% of women who try them. In contrast, mid-urethral sling surgery to treat stress incontinence results in improvement or cure in over 90% of women who undergo the procedure.

Over the last twenty years, our understanding about the underlying pathophysiology of stress incontinence has evolved, so that we now recognize the importance of support not just of the bladder neck but also of the urethra itself (Delancey). The two incontinence pessaries that currently exist do not provide urethral support at all, and are limited in their ability to support the bladder neck by the ease with which their knob can rotate.

The purpose of this project is to build an innovative pessary that provides urethral support, which means it will be situated more distally than existing ones, and will have to be supported laterally. This innovative pessary will provide a minimally invasive and more effective alternative to surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

Materials
None

Will have to purchase medical grade silicone

References
Delancey JO1, Ashton-Miller JA. Pathophysiology of adult urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jan;126(1 Suppl 1):S23-32.
Abstract
The anatomic structures that prevent stress incontinence, urinary incontinence during elevations in abdominal pressure, can be divided into 2 systems: a sphincteric system and a supportive system. The action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms at rest constrict the urethral lumen and keep urethral closure pressure higher than bladder pressure. The striated urogenital sphincter, the smooth muscle sphincter in the vesical neck, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the urethra all contribute to closure pressure. The mucosal and vascular tissues that surround the lumen provide a hermetic seal, and the connective tissues in the urethral wall also aid coaptation. Decreases in striated muscle sphincter fibers occur with age and parity, but the other tissues are not well understood. The supportive hammock under the urethra and vesical neck provides a firm backstop against which the urethra is compressed during increases in abdominal pressure to maintain urethral closure pressures above rapidly increasing bladder pressure. The stiffness of this supportive layer is presumed to be important to the degree to which compression occurs. This supporting layer consists of the anterior vaginal wall and the connective tissue that attaches it to the pelvic bones through the pubovaginal portion of the levator ani muscle and also the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia. Activation of the levator muscle during abdominal pressurization is important to this stabilization process. The integrity of the connection between the vaginal wall and tendinous arch also plays an important role.

Miner, P.B., Jr., Economic and personal impact of fecal and urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology, 2004. 126(1 Suppl 1): p. S8-13.

Prevalence of Incontinence Among Older Americans Yelena Gorina, et al NHANES 2007-2010 series 3, No.36 pp1-15

The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: evidence-based review Cameron and Haraway Open Access Journal of Urology 2011:3 109-120

The history and usage of the vaginal pessary: a review Reeba Oliver et al European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2011 156:125-130

www.coopersurgical.com/Milex

Client:
Dr. Gloria E. Sarto
Obstetrics & Gynecology
School of Medicine & Public Health
(608) 262-7573
gsarto@wisc.edu


3. Pressure monitoring model for casting a distal radius fracture

casting_pressure

BME 400
Students assigned: Andrew Baldys, Keshav Garg, Trace Jocewicz, Marshall Schlick
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Project Summary:
The specific aim is to refine and validate a pressure-sensing sleeve to monitor pressures in the application of a short arm cast on a distal radius fracture model. Once completed, this tool could be used in medical student and resident education in learning proper 3-point molding techniques and pressures needed to maintain fracture reduction via real-time feedback. A group of UW undergraduate engineering students has already developed an early prototype of such a pressure sensing sleeve which must now be re-engineered and calibrated to capture the specific locations and pressures required to maintain fracture reduction in our model. No studies to date have explored the pressures present in casting of a fracture. It could also serve as a means to assess casting variability according to years of training and allow these skills to be tracked longitudinally.

Project Narrative:
Closed fracture management via casting is a staple of orthopedic care. Although often viewed as a benign treatment, complications do from arise from improper casting technique. Casting techniques are typically acquired by trial and error and often direct oversight is lacking. By developing a pressure-sensing sleeve in a distal radius fracture model, real-time pressure feedback from a virtual 3D model would be available. Such a model would provide valuable feedback in teaching casting techniques and assessing casting competencies throughout a resident’s training. Ultimately this may improve fracture reduction and casting quality and decrease potential cast treatment complications and the need for surgical intervention of fractures that can be treated non-operatively.

Materials
Prototype model
piezoresistive materials and gloves
arduino board
Sawbones distal radius fracture model
funding

References
McCaig, L., & Burt, C. (2006). National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. ICPSR Data Holdings.

Nellans, K., Kowalski, E., & Chung, K. (2012). The Epidemiology of Distal Radius Fractures. Hand Clinics, 28(2), 113-125.

AAOS (2013). Distal Radius Fractures (Broken Wrist). Retrieved from http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00412

Place, R., Delasobera, E., Howell, J., & Davis, J. (2011). Serious Infectious Complications Related to Extremity Cast/Splint Placement in Children. Emergency Medicine,41(1), 47-50.

Benjamin, C. (2014). Compartment Syndrome. D. Zieve (Ed.), A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Delasobera, Elizabeth (2011). Serious Infectious Complications Related to Extremity Cast/Splint Placement in Children. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/746890_2

Brown,Jennifer (2014). Cast Care. Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cast_care/page7_em.htm

Halanski, M., Noonan, K. (2008) Cast and Splint Immobilization: Complications. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 30-40.

Sawbones (2013). Colles Fracture Reduction and Casting Technique Trainer. Retrieved from http://www.sawbones.com/Catalog/Skills%20Training/Fracture%20Reduction%20and%20Casting/1530#

LilyPad Arduino. LilyPad Arduino Main Board. Retrieved from http://lilypadarduino.org/?p=128

Lider, H., et al (2015). Pressure Sensing During Cast Application for a Distal Radius Fracture. Retrieved from http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/fracture_model/

Client:
Dr. James Stokman
UW Orthopedics
UW Hospital and Clinics
(218) 251-5104
jstokman@uwhealth.org


4. Prosthetic ankle with biomimetic motion for weight lifting

prosthetic_ankle

BME 400
Students assigned: Jason Dekarske, Sahand Eftekari, Hannah Mrazsko, Rachel Tong
Advisor: Joseph Towles
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Machining

Summary
The project sponsor has a lower-limb amputation, but is highly active and finds existing foot prostheses limiting to some of his activities. He is interested in building a prosthetic foot that is better adapted for weight lifting than existing commercial products. The goal of this student project is to develop a prosthetic foot design that exhibits appropriate mechanics for weight lifting exercises such as squats and dead-lifts - especially, keeping both the heel and toe on the ground during deep knee bends. Additional considerations may include comfortable walking and stability in standing. Students will work with the sponsor to specify an appropriate design, and will construct a prototype and test it with the sponsor.

Materials
The project sponsor will supply necessary components, including standard prosthetic adapters and parts. The sponsor also has access to additional machining capabilities if necessary.

References
http://www.biodaptinc.com/ "extreme sports" prosthesis design. These examples inspired the sponsor to create
his own prosthesis for weight lifting.

Client:
Prof. Peter Adamczyk
Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering
University of Wisconsin - Madison
(608) 263-3231
peter.adamczyk@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Adam Griggel
(608) 774-7762
griggel77@gmail.com


5. Reproducing swallowing in a thyroid exam simulator

swallowing_model

BME 400
Students assigned: Madelyn Goedland, He Kang, Alex Smith, Candice Tang, Gregory Wolf
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
Physical examination skills are taught and assessed throughout medical school and residency. Use of simulation technology for teaching and evaluation has introduced a wide variety of options for clinical performance assessment. However, many clinical skills are taught on animal tissue, which can be unavailable, expensive, or short-lived. Our lab is focused on the development of low cost models (out of plastic or silicone materials) to replicate clinical exams. We are looking to update our thyroid exam simulator with a mechanism to mimic the swallowing motion of the thyroid. Our model will need to able to reproduce swallowing in order to allow clinicians to access and diagnose abnormalities found on the thyroid gland.

The ideal solution would provide the following:
* On-Demand swallowing
* Realistic rise and fall for swallowing, with accurate swallow height
* Silent
* Space conscious mechanism, embedded inside our simulator

Materials
Thyroid Exam Simulator
Arduino Uno
Clinician available to address anatomy and procedure questions

References
Past design team work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/thyroid_model/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK244/

Client:
Mr. Calvin Kwan
Department of Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-5241
kwan@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Shannon DiMarco
(608) 263-5218
dimarco@surgery.wisc.edu


6. Implantable light source for driving optogenetic constructs

implantable_light

BME 400
Students assigned: Ian Baumgart, Stephen Early, Clinton Heinze, Karam Khateeb, Marisa Tisler
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Software

Summary
Optogenetic is a rapidly evolving area of investigation taking advantage of an ion channel that opens (activated) upon 470 nm light stimulation. Channel rhodopsin can be expressed in many organs using direct injection of a recombinant virus and activity of excitable cells in an organ controlled by external light stimulation. A fundamental limitation in this area of investigation is the necessity to attach an external light source through a tethered optical fiber to stimulate the cells. Availability of a micro-implantable light source controllable by wireless communication will greatly expand the possibility of exploring the utility of optogenetics in freely moving animals.

A specific task of this project will be to design and create a prototype micro-implantable light source for stimulating channel rhodopsin expressed in the sciatic nerve with the goal of developing a novel method of treating chronic pathological pain.

Materials
cDNA and AAV virus expressing ChR for biological experiments.

References
Lin JY (2011) Exp Physiol 96.1 pp19-25. doi: 10.1113/expphysil.2009.051961

Towne et al (2013) PlosOne 8(8):e72691. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072691

Montgomery et al. (2016) Sicne Transl Med 8:337rv5

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
SMPH
(608) 265-6710
jyang75@wisc.edu


7. A miniature microscope for fluorescence imaging

mini_microscope

BME 400
Students assigned: Kaitlyn Gabardi, Kadina Johnston, Ethan Nethery, Benjamin Ratliff, John Rupel
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Cell Biology, Imaging, Software

Summary
I teach human biochemistry lab (BMC504), where a significant portion of the laboratory is focused on a single metabolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, which produces lactate. My lab currently measures lactate levels in living cells (in real time) using a genetically-encoded fluorescence biosensor for lactate, called Laconic. We employ a $100K microscope; however we would need 6-8 devices for our class of 40 students. Here's where you can help! Our lactate biosensor uses FRET, which requires exciting the sensor with a single LED (430 nm), and recording the fluorescence emission at two different wavelengths (470 nm and 535 nm). Cameras for fluorescence imaging are usually expensive, but "lipstick" or "bullet" cameras (picture a tube of lipstick) are available that connect into a laptop. LEDs and optical filters are cheap.

The challenge is to build a single prototype device that allows us to measure FRET using a miniature microscope, complete with an LED excitation source, optical filters for FRET, and a lipstick camera that connects to laptop freeware that controls the camera.

Materials
Possibly the camera is already available from LOCI, but these are

References
Our lactate biosensor:
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057712

Reading on FRET:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%B6rster_resonance_energy_transfer

Client:
Prof. Matthew Merrins
Medicine
SMPH
(716) 397-7557
merrins@wisc.edu


8. Automatic intraventricular drainage system

automatic_IVD

BME 400
Students assigned: Croix Kimmel, Savannah Kuehn, Eric Solis, Ricardo Zuniga
Advisor: Paul Thompson
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Neurology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
Currently, intraventricular drainage systems require consistent nursing assistance and for patients to remain in the same position unless a nurse is there to adjust it. Currently, nurses have to manually adjust and level the height of the collection container which is time-consuming and imprecise. A device is needed that eliminates this leveling process through the precise regulation of fluid flow.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
A newer approach using a custom valve
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/automatic_IVD/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/IVD_leveler/

A different approach in BME Design using automatic leveling:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/IVD_drain_leveller/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s14/IVD_drain_leveller/

Client:
Dr. Joshua Medow
Director of Neurocritical Care
versity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
medow@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


9. Virtual Reality Pain Management

pain_management

BME 400
Students assigned: Thomas Eithun, Brody Harstad, Nicholas Maurer, Bret Mcnamara, Madeline Rutherford
Advisor: Paul Thompson
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Software, Electronics, Human Subjects

Summary
Discomfort is an unavoidable part of a wide range of medical procedures, rehabilitation exercises, and post-op care. Pain can make procedures more difficult for patients and medical staff while prolonging recovery time. In most cases, the only solution is to administer pain medication which is not always practical. A possible alternative method of pain management is psychosomatic pain reduction via virtual reality (VR).
Virtual reality has been clinically shown to reduce pain experienced by recovering burn victims [2]. The clinical study shows that a virtual antagonistic input tailored to the patient’s pain response can physiologically and subjectively lower the intensity of the pain response. This same concept is also being explored for cancer pain, chronic pain, and routine procedures.
We are expanding on the use of virtual reality pain management by incorporating real-time physiological data to dynamically generate VR experiences. Tailoring the VR environment and stimuli to the real-world physiological data further engages the patient in the virtual world. According to Gate Control Theory, which states that “the level of attention paid to the pain and the emotion associated with the pain all play a role in how the pain will be interpreted,” [1] increasing the level to which a patient is immersed in the virtual world can lessen a pain response.
Target Application:
•Affecting age range from 7-14
•Routine procedure or repetitive post-op procedure: blood draws, vaccinations, stiches, bandage changing, wound cleaning, or rehabilitation exercises
•Minimal-medium pain levels

References
[1] A. Li, Z. Montaño, V. Chen and J. Gold, "Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions", Pain Management, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 147-157, 2011.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138477/
[2] Vrpain.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.vrpain.com/. [Accessed: 06- Sep- 2017].
http://www.vrpain.com/

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
(608) 260-6488
philip.bain@ssmhealth.com


10. Ergonomic re-design of a surgical stapling device

surgical_stapler

BME 400
Students assigned: Therese Besser, Kelsey Linsmeier, Ellen Restyanszki, Yaniv Sadka, Jamie Spellman
Advisor: Mitch Tyler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Human Factors, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Surgical staplers have undergone many design modifications including the recent addition of powered devices. Stapling devices are used both for intestinal resections and anastomoses as well as for vascular control. The users of these devices have also changed overtime with both the increase in female surgeons as well as an aging surgeon population. Opportunities for improvements in device design for the increasingly diversified surgeon users are multiple. This project provides the opportunity for lab based and field study investigation of the ergonomic implications for the device users as well as potential for novel design modifications and/or solutions.

Materials
Sample devices - powered and non-powered.
Access to surgeons for interviews and demonstrations.

References
Past BME Design work:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/surgical_stapler/

http://www.ethicon.com/healthcare-professionals/products/staplers

http://www.medtronic.com/covidien/products/surgical-stapling

J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997 Feb;42(1):1-9.
Surgical staplers: a review.
McGuire J1, Wright IC, Leverment JN.

Surg Technol Int. 2015 Nov;27:97-101.
Current Developments and Unusual Aspects in Gastrointestinal Surgical Stapling.
Frattini F1, Amico F2, Rausei S1, Boni L1, Rovera F3, Dionigi G3.

Client:
Dr. Amy Liepert
Surgery
University Hospital and UWSMPH
(608) 262-6246
liepert@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Mary Sesto
(608) 263-5697
msesto@wisc.edu


11. Magnetic cardioversion

magnetic_cardioversion

BME 400
Students assigned: Srinidhi Emkay, Connor Sheedy, Philip Terrien
Advisor: Mitch Tyler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Cardioversion is a procedure used to restore normal heart rhythm for people with tachycardia (heartbeat that is too fast) or fibrillation (heartbeat is irregular). This is typically done with electric shocks administered through electrodes attached to the chest and/or with medication.

Electric cardioversion has the potential for adverse side effects, including burns and general discomfort for the patient. These are due to the large amount of current needed to stimulate the heart. This may result in anesthesia of the patient and difficulty performing the procedure.

I would like to develop a device which can perform a cardioversion through magnetic induction. The device uses magnetic induction to create an electric field within the heart. This will depolarize the excitable tissue in the heart (cardiomyocytes), resetting and restoring normal neurological peacemaking of the heart.

There are substantial challenges, likely due to the scale of the energy required, and the need to translate a mechanical field into an electrical depolarization in the heart.

For a basic understanding of the concept, refer to transcranial magnetic stimulators.

Needs:
1) Evaluate feasibility
2) Evaluate energy needed
3) determine how much of the heart can be depolarized (The whole heart is ideal, but I expect not practical)
4) depending on how much of the heart could be depolarized, design a way to focus on the area that we need (i.e. the AV node, the atrium, or the whole heart).
5) figure out how to gate it to the heart beat (i.e. depolarize at the same time as the QRS)

There has been some prior interest in this area:
Mouchawar, G.A., et al. “Closed-chest cardiac stimulation with a pulsed magnetic field.” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. March 1992
Abstract
Magnetic stimulators, used medically, generate intense rapidly changing magnetic fields, capable of stimulating nerves. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging systems employ stronger and more rapidly changing gradient fields than those used previously. The risk of provoking cardiac arrhythmias by these new devices is of concern. In the paper, the threshold for cardiac stimulation by an externally-applied magnetic field is determined for 11 anaesthetised dogs. Two coplanar coils provide the pulsed magnetic field. An average energy of approximately 12kJ is required to achieve closed-chest magnetically induced ectopic beats in the 17–26kg dogs. The mean peak induced electric field for threshold stimulation is 213 Vm −1 for a 571 ìs damped sine wave pulse. Accounting for waveform efficacy and extrapolating to long-duration pulses, a threshold induced electric field strength of approximately 30 Vm −1 for the rectangular pulse is predicted. It is now possible to establish the margin of safety for devices that use pulsed magnetic fields and to design therapeutic devices employing magnetic fields to stimulate the heart.

But, with refinements, the ability to focus in a needed area, I think we can overcome these issues.

current I expect the patent strength is a bit low, unless we come up with a better system, or a delivery method.

The market potential is massive.

References
Mouchawar, G.A., et al. “Closed-chest cardiac stimulation with a pulsed magnetic field.” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. March 1992

Pastore, Anna Pia, et al. "A realistic model for the analysis of heart magnetic stimulation." Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 58.2 (2011): 291-300.

Client:
Dr. Nicholas Von Bergen
Pediatrics - Cardiology/Electrophysiology
The University of Wisconsin- Madison
(319) 594-3636
vonbergen@wisc.edu


12. Boston Scientific: Retrograde transpedal access solution

bsci_transpedal_access

BME 400
Students assigned: Taylor Anderson (MSE), Ben Horman, Jen John (MSE), John Kemnitz, Benjamin Mihelich
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
There is a need for therapeutic options for retrograde transpedal access with similar levels of performance and ease of use as what is currently available for antegrade access. In some complex lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) interventions, antegrade crossing is impossible or very challenging so physicians will therefore attempt to access the artery retrograde from the foot (pedal arteries) in order to cross the lesion. However, most suitable therapeutic devices (e.g. balloons, stents, etc.) must be used, or are more convenient to use, antegrade. This requires additional wire exchange work that can lead to longer, more complicated, and risky interventions. If suitable retrograde devices existed, some physicians may eventually even start some procedures from the pedal artery and thus eliminate femoral access.

References
Slides for more info:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/selection/files/1172_bsci_transpedal_access.pdf

All IP developed by this project will belong to BSCI - by selecting this project students agree to sign away their IP rights to BSCI at the start of the semester.

Client:
Mrs. Kelsey Cooper
Boston Scientific
(763) 494-1224

Alternate Contact:
Lisa Shoemaker
(763) 494-1305


13. Boston Scientific: Reproductive health non-invasive uterine access

bsci_reproductive_health

BME 400
Students assigned: Emma Alley, Madeline Honke, Taylor Karns, Jennifer Rich, Anna Tessling
Advisor: Mitch Tyler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics

Summary
There is a need for a non-invasive method to access the uterus without causing patient pain or increasing procedural time, complexity, or cost for the purpose of delivering cells, cells, et cetera. Typical procedures and tools include hysterosalpingogram (HSG), saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS), in vitro vertilization (IVF-ET), speculum, and tenaculum. 80% of procedural pain is associated to use of the tenaculum. The solution must be intended for non-child bearing women in their 30s and 40s, inexpensive(under $150), and comfortable.

References
Slides for more info:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/selection/files/1172_bsci_reproductive_health.pdf

All IP developed by this project will belong to BSCI - by selecting this project students agree to sign away their IP rights to BSCI at the start of the semester.

Client:
Ms. Loren Willson
Boston Scientific
(763) 494-2701
Loren.Willson@bsci.com

Alternate Contact:
Lisa Shoemaker
(763) 494-1305
Lisa.Shoemaker@bsci.com


14. Temporary pacemaker training simulator

pacemaker_simulator

BME 400
Students assigned: Zachary Bower, John Jansky, Makayla Kiersten, Dhyuti Ramadas
Advisor: Amit Nimunkar
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Electronics, Software

Summary
Project Description
Problem: There is no available training device for temporary pacemakers (pacemakers). A training device will have to essentially replace of the patient’s heart (#2 below in background information) and interface with the monitor and the pacemaker to be realistic. Development of such a device would allow trainees (students, nurses, residents, fellows) to learn pacemaker function without using a real patient and exposing patients to the risk of adverse events.

Background: Patients are at high risk for developing abnormal cardiac rhythms in the post-operative period after cardiac surgery. Pacemakers are commonly used after cardiac surgery to provide therapy for some of these post-operative abnormal rhythms. In addition, continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is used in the post-operative period to monitor the patient’s electrical cardiac activity and also to monitor the patients response to the pacemaker, if the pacemaker is used. Our aim is to design and develop a simulation device that would interact with a monitor and pacemaker in the same manner as a patient’s heart. The input and output relationship between the three systems is demonstrated in the following figure and text:

See attachment for images and additional text:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/selection/files/1172_Hagen_pacemaker_simulator.pdf

There are “rhythm generators” on the market that can produce a waveform on a monitor (see Simulaids and Laerdal websites below for examples). However, there are no simulators that interface between the monitor and a pacer, which is our request.

We have developed a tablet based computer software program that will generate rhythms to simulate cardiac activity. The program allows for creation of cardiac rhythms and individual output (morphology and amplitude) for P waves, QRS waves, T waves and the intervals between the waves (Figure 2 above and Figure 4 below). The program allows for at least six inputs from the instructor including:
1. Adjustable heart rate
2. Heart rhythms (In addition to a normal rhythm, we have developed the most common 5-6 rhythms we expect post-operatively and that we can treat with a pacer)
3. Atrial output (mV) to the pacer
4. Atrial sensitivity (mA), response to the pacers output
5. Ventricular output (mV) to the pacer
6. Ventricular sensitivity (mA), response to the pacers output

Requested submission:
Develop an interface (simulated heart) between the tablet program (1), pacemaker (2) and monitor (3) that replicates the electrical conduction system of the heart, specifically the hearts electrical output and its electrical response to the pacemaker. An example using an Arduino Microcontroller is shown in Figure 4. The interface would ideally be hardwired to the pacemaker and monitor, and use wireless technology to the tablet.

The interested team would work closely with the developer of the tablet software to ensure inputs from the operator (instructor) from the tablet is successfully transmitted to the monitor and pacemaker, and that pacemaker output is successfully transmitted to the monitor and tablet.
The simulated heart would have to respond with an electrical heartbeat (P, QRS, and T waves) when the pacer output (mA) exceeds the atrial and/or ventricular sensitivity threshold of the simulated heart.

Materials
Temporary Pacemaker, cables and wires, tablet, electrocardiogram monitor, cables and leads.

References
No pubmed articles found related to temporary pacemaker, training, and/or simulation were found except the following:
Ahlfeldt H, et al. Computer simulation of cardiac pacing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1988 Feb;11(2):174-84.

The temporary pacemaker we use is the Medtronic Dual Chamber External Pacemaker Model 5388 and is at the following website:
http://www.medtronic.com/for-healthcare-professionals/products-therapies/cardiac-rhythm/pacemakers/external-pacemakers/index.htm

Examples of ECG can be found at the following website:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/2155828/EKG-Examples
Rhythms we would be interested in include normal sinus rhythm, junctional rhythm, third degree AV block and supraventricular tachycardia. We would want to be able to vary the rate of these rhythms.

There are many companies that have created rhythm generators including Laerdal and Simulaids. We have both available to us at UWHC and AFCH.
http://www.laerdal.com/us/doc/177/HeartSim-200#/Webshop
http://www.simulaids.com/102.htm

Client:
Dr. Scott Hagen
Pediatrics
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 443-8606
shagen@pediatrics.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Joshua Medow
(608) 609-9278
medow@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


15. Noninvasive tracking of shear wave speeds in tendons during movement

tendon_shear

BME 400
Students assigned: Hanna Barton, Logan Connor (ME), Catharine Flynn, Benjamin Myers, John Zunker (ME)
Advisor: Joseph Towles
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Interdisciplinary project with Mechanical Engineering design students.

This senior design project focuses on designing a portable version of a device for noninvasively tracking shear wave speeds in tendons during movement. Researchers at the UW Neuromuscular Biomechanics laboratory have recently shown that tendon wave speed serves as a surrogate measure of the tensile stress acting on the tissue. The underlying phenomenon is akin to the tension-dependent vibrations seen in guitar strings. The current laboratory research apparatus consists of a piezo-actuated tapper to induce the waves and an array of skin-mounted accelerometers that track the wave's propagation. Accelerometer signals are recorded via a computer data acquisition system that samples data at extremely high rates (~50 kHz) to track shear waves that can travel at speeds up to 100 m/s in loaded tendons. The current device, termed a shear wave tensiometer, works well but is tethered, limiting it's use to laboratory enviornments. The intent of this senior design project is to design and prototype a self-powered, portable version of the shear wave tensiometer. The design project will consist of developing an actuator that could be strapped over a tendon and easily programmed to pulsively push on the tendon and induce waves at rates up to 100 Hz. The team will also design and implement a modular controller and data acquisition system, allowing for on-board measurements. The design process would require development of a self-powered tapping mechanism, designing electronics for the collection and storage of accelerometer data, ergonomics considerations, and an analysis of power consumption requirements. The design should enable field-based measurements of tendon wave speeds, which can be interpreted in terms of biomechanical tissue loads. The device has many practical applications in both fundamental biomechanics research and clinical environments where knowledge of tissue loads can potentially be used to assess injury thresholds, measure tissue damage, and monitor recovery following surgical and rehabilitative treatments.

Client:
Dr. Michael Cheadle
Mechanical Engineering
COE
mcheadle@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Prof. Darryl Thelen
Mechanical Engineering
thelen@engr.wisc.edu


17. Creation of a urothelial permeability culture chamber

tissue_culture_model

BME 400
Students assigned: Austin Feeney, Emma Herrig, Hunter Johnson, James Jorgensen, Andrew Miller
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Electronics

Summary
In health, the bladder epithelium (urothelium) forms a complex barrier that restricts the translocation of ions, solutes, and bacteria into the body despite large changes in the volume, tonicity and composition of urine. During urinary tract infections E. coli damages this urothelial barrier by altering tight junction integrity between the epithelial cells thereby increasing urothelial permeability and clinical morbidity. This barrier function loss is manifested as changes in measured voltage and current across the epithelium resulting in a decreased calculated transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Currently short-term (5-10h) mechanistic studies use Ussing chambers to measure changes in urothelial biopsy TEER while long-term (days) studies rely on cell culture models. Neither is ideal as the short-term studies do not provide adequate time for tight junction damage and repair while long-term cell culture studies are unable to reliably mimic urothelial architecture. Hence our laboratory has been attempting to adapt an organoid culture model (ref 1) for long-term TEER measurements. Unfortunately, urothelial explants contract unpredictably over time and when using Corning Transwells the scaffolding becomes exposed making tissue TEER measurements unreliable.
We are proposing to develop a multichamber system capable of fixing the urothelium at a constant diameter within a Transwell-like cell culture system. The system would need to be reuseable, able to be sterilized, able to maintain a healthy urothelium at a constant diameter, and provide the ability for accurate TEER measurements for 5d.

Materials
Our laboratory has an EVOM2 (World Precision Instruments) and Ussing chambers (Physiologic Instruments) to measure TEER. We also have access to a cell culture incubator, autoclave, and ethylene oxide sterilizer. Throughout the semester we will also have access to urothelium to test the model. However the urothelium is only available on certain days/times (10 collections during the fall semester).

References
1) Janssen DAW, et al. A new, straightforward ex vivo organoid bladder mucosal model for preclinical research. J Urol 2013;190:341-349.

2) Srinivasan B, et al. TEER measurement techniques for in vitro barrier model
systems. J Lab Autom 2015; 20(2): 107–126.

3) Wood MW et al. Uropathogenic E. coli promote a paracellular urothelial barrier defect characterized by altered tight junction integrity, epithelial cell sloughing and cytokine release. J Comp Path 2012;147:11-19.

4) [a]https://www.wpiinc.com/clientuploads/pdf/EVOM2_IM.pdf[/a[

5) [a]https://www.corning.com/worldwide/en/products/life-sciences/products/permeable-supports/transwell-snapwell-netwell-falcon-permeable-supports.html[/a}

Client:
Dr. Michael Wood
Medical Sciences
Veterinary Medicine
(919) 559-7941
mwood5@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Bliss Thiel
bethiel@wisc.edu


20. Dialysis solution analysis for infection prevention

dialysis_infection

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Amanda Cave, Bledat Gjinolli, Tanya Iskandar, Kaela Ryan, Simon Schirber
Advisor: Walter Block
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis are trained to detect infection. The standard method requires the patients to inspect a small amount of fluid that has been drained out in a small transparent container. The patients are looking for a change in transparency of the fluid as this would suggest infection. This method has limitations for those with visual problems as well as the relative change can be misleading.

The project that I would like to propose would be the development of a device to aid in the detection of a change in the transparency for these patients. The poor detection of change for many patients has resulted in infection, hospitalization, loss of ability to do dialysis and even death.

This is a continuation project from last semester. I would like to continue with this project including pursuit of another method that was proposed.

Previous method was the use of Optics to determine the presence of cells in the fluid which would indicate possible infection.
I would like to try use of Smart phone technology involvement especially the camera to detect possible infection.
so project would be development of Device to work in conjunction with a smart phone and it's software ( To be developed as well) to determine the presence of White Blood cells.

Materials
Previous material available.
Will need to be purchased for additional items.

References
BME Design: Past Teams Spring 2015-16:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/dialysis_infection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s17/dialysis_infection/

Client:
Dr. R. Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW Hospital
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


21. Novel endovascular device for aortic dissection

aortic_dissection

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Lauren Heinrich, Janae Lynch, Gabriella Medeiros Simas, Shannon Recktenwald, Frank Seipel, Sam Simon
Advisor: Naomi Chesler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Aortic dissection occurs when the intimal lining of the aorta tears, allowing blood to pass into the layers of the aorta thereby separating those layers. Blood can pass through the true lumen or the newly created false lumen. This can result in obstruction of blood flow to organs and/or weakening of the aortic wall. Type A aortic dissection involves the ascending aorta and require emergent open surgical repair. Type B aortic dissection involves the descending aorta and may require a surgical operation when complicated by malperfusion of organs. The mortality of this condition remains high 10-12% for all comers and 25% for those who require surgical intervention. Currently, two strategies exist for treatment. The first is covering of the entrant tear with an endovascular stent graft (firm wire cage with fabric lining). In ideal anatomy this prevents propagation of the dissection and restores blood flow to organs by collapsing false lumen. Due to anatomical considerations and complicated flow dynamics of the dissected aorta, often a technique called fenestration is required. This consists of cutting the intimal flap to connect the true and false lumens, which equalizes the pressure between true and false lumen, subsequently restoring the blood flow to organs. If performed through an open surgical incision, the morbidity and mortality was very high due to the complicated anatomy after the aortic dissection. Recently, new technique has been developed to perform fenestration without open surgery. Basically, two wires will be passed into the true and false lumen of the aorta via groin cannulation. These wires with the catheter will then be pushed or pulled to cut the intimal flap. This is called “endoscissors” technique. Although less invasive than open repair, this technique often fails simply because the wires with the catheter cannot cut the thickened intimal flap. Instead, it can tear more intimal off the aortic wall, making the aortic dissection worse. For this reason, we are seeking to design a simple, but elegant “endoscissors” device to cut the intimal flap reliably so that we can perform endovascular fenestration effectively and safely.

The design faculty feel this is a multi-semester project.

Materials
1. standard endovascular equipment (wires, catheters, etc.)
2. access to models of aortic dissection
3. access to collaboration with radiology models of dissection in progression
4. extensive clinical experience with aortic dissection

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f15/aortic_dissection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/aortic_dissection/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s17/aortic_dissection/

Websites:
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/41/2873
http://www.annalscts.com/article/view/3851/5093

Journal articles:
1: Vendrell A, Frandon J, Rodiere M, Chavanon O, Baguet JP, Bricault I, Boussat B, Ferretti GR, Thony F. Aortic dissection with acute malperfusion syndrome: Endovascular fenestration via the funnel technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Jul;150(1):108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.056. Epub 2015 Apr 2. PubMed
PMID: 25940416.

2: Wolfschmidt F, Hassold N, Goltz JP, Leyh R, Bley TA, Kickuth R. Aortic Dissection: Accurate Subintimal Flap Fenestration by Using a Reentry Catheter with Fluoroscopic Guidance-Initial Single-Institution Experience. Radiology. 2015 Apr 22:140520. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25902186.

Client:
Dr. Dai Yamanouchi
Surgery
Medicine and Public Health
(212) 810-6442
yamano@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Patrick Phelan
(608) 265-4420
pphelan@uwhealth.org


22. Continuous monitoring of asthma control

asthma_control

BME 400
Students assigned: Alli Abolarin, Albert Anderson, Annamarie Ciancio, James Malcheski, Christina Sorenson
Advisor: Paul Thompson
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
An asthma action plan (AAP) is a set of medication changes custom designed for asthma patients in case of an asthma exacerbation. However, many asthma patients fail to utilize the plan due to the subjective nature of when to implement and insensitivity to early symptoms of an asthma exacerbation. Continuous monitoring of important indicators of asthma exacerbation such as shortness of breath from decreased respiratory volumes, cough and wheeze allows real time detection of an asthma exacerbation and helps patients utilize their AAP in a more timely manner. This project involves taking an existing "asthma shirt" with sensors that measure volume changes and sounds to optimize data collection and establish algorithms to analyze tidal volume, respiratory rate, cough and wheezing sounds, remove motion artifacts, and combine these data to alert the patient to proceed with an AAP.

Materials
1. Asthma shirt that measures ventilation and sounds
2. Electronics in Bioinstrumentation Lab

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/asthma_control/
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/asthma_control/
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s17/asthma_control/

1. Gavriely, N., Palti, Y., Alroy, G., & Grotberg, J. B. (1984). Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57(2), 481-492.
2. Oletic, D., Arsenali, B., & Bilas, V. (2014). Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing. Sensors, 14(4), 6535-6566.
3. Kraman, Steve S., et al. "Measurement of respiratory acoustic signals: effect of microphone air cavity width, shape, and venting." CHEST Journal 108.4 (1995): 1004-1008.
4. Korenbaum, V. I., Tagil’tsev, A. A., Kostiv, A. E., Gorovoy, S. V., & Pochekutova, I. A. (2008). Acoustic equipment for studying human respiratory sounds. Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 51(2), 296-303.
5. Gaetano D Gargiulo, Aiden O’Loughlin and Paul P Breen, Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study, Physiol. Meas. 36 (2015) N35–49, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/2/N35

Client:
Dr. Sameer Mathur
Medicine-Allergy
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-2804
sm4@medicine.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
John Webster
(608) 263-1574
john.webster@wisc.edu


23. Osteochondral transplant system

graft_delivery

BME 200/300
Students assigned: David Fiflis, Grace Li, Alexander Teague, Zachary Wodushek, Josiah Wolf
Advisor: Bill Murphy
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The treatment of chondral defects in young active patients continue to evolve. Although stem cell therapies show promise, they are still in early development especially for the treatment of focal lesions. Moreover, the use of osteochondral grafts have the ability to transfer mature hyaline cartilage with respective extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the bone graft has the innate ability to heal into place. Several recent studies, however, have shown that success depends on maintaining chondrocyte cell viability, a goal that is paradoxically difficult due to our current surgical technologies. My idea is the development of a system that will allow surgeons to transplant osteochondral grafts without potentially, or at least minimizing, damage during surgery. My thoughts, after preliminary data collection of impaction force during implantation, is the development, of a system to screw in the plug rather than impact the graft. This will require a drill tap, a reamer to prepare the osteochondral graft, and a insertion tool that would be similar to a screwdriver to allow the surgeon the ability to both screw in and rotate out the bone graft.

Materials
Cadaveric specimens
Fresh grafts
Sutures
Current osteochondral autograft instrument

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/graft_delivery/
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s17/graft_delivery/

1.Borazjani BH, Chen AC, Won CB, et al. Effect of impaction on chondrocyte viability during insertion of human osteochondral grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88-A(9):1934-1943.
2.Cook JL, Stannard JP, Stoker AM, et al. Importance of donor chondrocyte viability for osteochondral allografts. Am J Sports Med. 2016 May;44(5):1260-1268
3.Flanigan DC, Harris JD, Trinh TQ, et al. Prevalence of chondral defects in athletes’ knees: A systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):1795-1801.
4.Ghazavi MR, Pritzker KP, Davis AM, et al. Fresh osteochondral allografts for post-traumatic osteochondral defects of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1997;79:1008-1013.
5.Gross AE, Kim W, Las Heras F, et al. Fresh osteochondral allografts for posttraumatic knee defects: long-term followup. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008;466(8):1863-1870.
6.Kang RW, Friel NA, Williams JM, Cole BJ, Wimmer MA. Effect of impaction sequence on osteochondral fraft damage: the role of repeated and varying loads. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Jan;38(1):105-113.
7.Pallante AL, Chen AC, Ball ST, et al: The in vivo performance of osteochondral allografts in the goat is diminished with extended storage and decreased cartilage cellularity. Am J Sports Med 2012;40(8):1814-1823.
8.Pallante AL, Gortz S, Chen AC, et al: Treatment of articular cartilage defects in the goat with frozen versus fresh osteochondral allografts: Effects on cartilage stiffness, zonal composition, and structure at six months. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012.94(21):1984-1995.
9.Sherman SL, Garrity J, Bauer K, Cook J, Stannard J, Bugbee W. Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation of the knee: Current Concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2014;22:121-133.

Client:
Dr. Brian Walczak
Orthopedics
SMPH
(630) 631-8227
walczak@ortho.wisc.edu


24. I have fallen and need to get up-Device to lift a fallen elder back into their chair

elder_lift

BME 200/300
Students assigned: John Beckman, Stephan Blanz, Joshua Liberko, Jared Piette, Josh Schroeder
Advisor: Aaron Suminski
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Geriatrics
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
The fastest growing segment of our population is > 85 years of age. Many of these elders continue to live in their home despite significant frailty. They often live with a similarly frail caregiver. When someone like this falls and is unable to get back up, they often have to summon paramedics or other people that could help them back into the chair. The use of 911 for this common non emergent situation wastes significant resources and takes emergency personnel away from other more emergent tasks.
If we could develop a device that could lift the fallen elder back up into their chair, this would allow more efficient use of limited resources.
The device should be low cost, durable, easy to use, and effectively elevate the fallen elder so that they can get back into their chair.
The only device that I have found is an inflatable lift manufactured in UK.

Materials
Two options possible-
Hydraulic lift with small motor or inflatable elevating device.
Wheels

References
Past BME Design work:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/elder_lift/

Available upon request

Client:
Dr. Philip Bain
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@ssmhealth.com


25. Medical Art Prosthetics: Individualized functional finger prosthesis

finger_prosthesis

BME 400
Students assigned: Naren Chaudhry, QI Cheng, Karl Fetsch, John Riley, Shannon Sullivan
Advisor: Joseph Towles
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Plastic Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics, 3D printing

Summary
For individuals that have suffered amputation of the phalanges, current variations of finger prostheses are tailored to one of three characteristics: cosmetic, mechanical, or myoelectric. While cosmetic fingers offer optimized discretion, mechanical prostheses restore active function, and myoelectric prostheses enable advanced communication between electrical signals in the arm to a robotic prosthetic, the availability of a prostheses that incorporates more than one of these aspects is next to none. Therefore, this team proposes to design a financially reasonable and mechanically functional finger prosthesis without sacrificing aesthetics. In collaboration with the client, Mr. Gregory Gion, the team would ideally work towards the integration of a compact mechanical unit into the existing, incredibly detailed silicone prostheses that are crafted by companies such as the Medical Art Prosthetics clinic. The most important aspect of this innovation requires the restoration of flexion and extension in a residual finger, capped by a finger socket provided by the prosthetist.

Materials
Polymers - silicones, polyurethanes, epoxies, PMMA, etc. Additional resources and budget available to purchase hardware. Access to scanning/3D printing process on UW campus. Access to laboratory for experimentation with materials,fabrication and assembly of prototypes.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/finger_prosthesis/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s15/finger_prosthesis/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f14/finger_prosthesis/

www.didrickmedical.com, www.NakedProsthetics.com
www.MedicalArtProsthetics.com, www.HandProsthesis.com
www.FingerProsthesis.com

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


27. Mobile arm support for wheelchair tennis/adaptive sports/gaming

dynamic_arm

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Yash Gokhale, Callie Mataczynski, Roberto Romero, Mengizem Tizale, Carlos Veguilla
Advisor: Willis Tompkins
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
This project involves creating a dynamic mobile arm support for a quad wheelchair tennis player in order to increase range of motion to better execute forehands and backhands.

Currently, mobile arm supports are understandably targeted at assisting with everyday functions such as eating, hygiene, and working. However there are no devices specifically aimed at more rigorous tasks like competitive adaptive sports.

In this particular case, without assistance, arm range of motion is limited to horizontal and downward directions. The support/assist would give the player additional upward vertical range of motion and support for a backhand shot. The player is normally right-handed but currently plays left-handed since the left arm is stronger. This solution may or may not include arm supports for both arms or buttons/switches for the unsupported arm/hand.

Note that this type of support would be beneficial for many other adaptive sports, in addition to VR gaming which requires use of tracked hand controllers.

The player is open to any/all types of devices including mechanical, electrical, inflatable, etc. Although an inconspicuous (wearable beneath clothing) solution is ideal, it would not be necessary for this project.

Materials
Wheelchair to mount any devices to.
Theraband exercise bands
24v power source
Various wheelchair parts as needed

References
http://pattersonmedical.com/app.aspx?cmd=get_subsections&id=57758
https://www.ncmedical.com/item_1569.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582429/
http://jaecoorthopedic.com/products/categories/Mobile-Arm-Supports/Suspension-Products/Suspension-Mobile-Arm-Supports/

Client:
Mr. Dan Dorszynski
(808) 389-4740
wetsand@gmail.com


28. Mueller Sports Medicine: Anatomically tracking knee hinge

knee_hinge

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Carter Griest, Isaac Hale, Jessi Kelley, Courtney Lynch, Jonah Mudge
Advisor: Walter Block
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Background:
The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in athletes, with acute and overuse injuries seen as a result of participation in virtually all athletic activities, and is also commonly afflicted by osteoarthritis. Current knee braces are designed to resist abnormal joint motion, augment inherent mechanical stability of the normal knee and assist in restoration of normal mechanical stability in injured or rehabilitating knees. Hinged knee braces provide maximum level of stability, with prevention of hyperextension during activity.

Problem:
Knee brace hinges utilize a variety of bending mechanisms to minimize lateral movement while allowing flexion and extension of the knee. However, it is a challenge to create a durable hinge that effectively mimics the motion pattern of the bending knee, controls lateral movement, while maintaining a low profile, minimizing weight, and is not prohibitively expensive.

Project Description:
The team will study and describe the motion of the knee during flexion and extension in order to design a knee brace hinge which better mimics the motion of the knee during a bend, thus improving the function of the hinged knee braces. The hinge will need to be designed to function for a variety of end users (i.e. runners, football players, non-athletes). Emphasis will be placed on accommodating the largest number of end users with the minimum number of different hinges, though multiple hinge sizes would be acceptable. A computer model will be built for preliminary testing to ensure adequate strength of the hinge (change of material recommendations or dimension and/or angle changes of components may result from early test results), and a model of the final design will be used to generate a prototype and drawing of the hinge.

Student Output:
• Motion tracking information to describe the motion of the knee during flexion
• Determination of the correct shape and size of the hinge components to best function for a wide array of end users
• Building and preliminary testing of a computer model of the hinge design
• Prototype

Materials
library of multiple existing hinge designs
knee braces to contain prototype hinges

Client:
Dr. Sarah Kuehl
Mueller Sports Medicine
(608) 643-8530
sarah.kuehl@muellersportsmed.com


29. Baxter: UV disinfection system for access connectors

baxter_disinfection

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Isabel Erickson, Laura Guerrero, Kyuhyun Lee, Yiqun Ma, Ryan Wisth
Advisor: John Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Electronics, Microbiology

Summary
Access connector contamination can lead to peritonitis in patients undergoing home peritoneal dialysis (PD), and other infections when used for intravenous fluid administration. Povidone-Iodine based connector contact is currently a common approach for PD connector disinfection, but 1) introduces the risk of the solution entering the patient, 2) may not reach all surfaces that may be contaminated, and 3) requires disposable caps containing the solution. An alternative strategy could utilize ultraviolet (UV) radiation to disinfect/sterilize potentially contaminated surfaces. The goal of this project is to design and develop a system that can treat access connectors (1 or multiple designs) with UV and potentially be integrated in a device such as a PD cycler. Additionally, a means of confirming proper dosage delivery could be included with the system. The project will likely involve design and rapid prototyping of a fixture, control over a UV source, and potentially basic microbiology experiments to demonstrate disinfection effectiveness.

Materials
All IP developed by this project will belong to Baxter - by selecting this project students agree to sign away their IP rights to Baxter at the start of the semester.

Client:
Dr. Shawn Oppegard
Baxter Healthcare
(224) 270-4154
shawn_oppegard@baxter.com


30. Medical Art Prosthetics: Engineering a composite medical prosthesis

composite_prosthesis

BME 400
Students assigned: Vincent Belsito, Eduardo Enriquez, Laurie Mckenna (MSE), Piper Rawding (MSE), Rodrigo Umanzor, Nicholas Zacharias
Advisor: Tracy Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Biomaterials

Summary
Silicone is a wonderful material for simulating life-like craniofacial and body prosthetic restorations. However, it falls short or fails in certain conditions due to its surface properties and wear characteristics. A novel non-silicone polymer used in other prosthetic markets has been identified by Medical Art Prosthetics that we wish to apply into our silicone devices in a durable way. A polymer preparation and processing method is desired to move us closer to custom assembly of our devices.

The silicones and identified polymer will be provided and the sample molds, laboratory materials and lab access will all be provided. Materials are commercially available and prosthetic grade safe.

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


31. Medical Art Prosthetics: Prosthetic ear attachment anchor

ear_attachment

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Joseph Campagna, Mitchell Glodowski, Kinzie Kujawa, Cristian Naxi, Anna Samuelsohn
Advisor: Naomi Chesler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Silicone ear prostheses are created and provided to individuals born without an ear of other cancer or trauma patients who have sustained amputation of the ear. Current attachments between the bone-anchored (osseointegrated) abutments and the prosthesis-borne magnets either break away to easily or too hard in which case components are stressed to premature failure. Patients travel a great distance for the specialized prosthetic results of Medical Art Prosthetics, so an improved design or alternate attachment is desired to improve retention and durability of the prosthesis. The sponsor of this project will provide at least one free-hand drawing of a prototype for possible engineering.
Protected Project: A specific attachment on the market will be provided to the group for the purpose of re-engineering for better performance, cost savings and laboratory processing efficiency.

Materials
Cochlear Americas “Vistafix System”
-product catalog
-patient treatment guide

Panthera dental attachments
-button system

Client:
Mr. Gregory Gion
Medical Art Prosthetics, LLC
(608) 833-7002
g.g.gion@sbcglobal.net


32. TherVoyant: Compact guide for minimally invasive surgery in an MRI scanner

MIS_guide

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Molly De Mars, Zachary Hite, Mark Nyaeme, Bailey Ramesh, Caitlin Randell, Haley Yagodinski
Advisor: Beth Meyerand
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Medical Imaging, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Animal Experiments, Imaging, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Surgeons are increasingly selecting minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures, due to better patient recovery, improved outcomes, and reduced operation time. A typical MIS procedure involves placing a thin catheter or needle at a precise location in the body. Image guidance is thus becoming more important, as more invasive and delicate procedures are performed. For some types of surgery, particularly brain surgery, MRI is the preferred modality to provide optimal targeting information.

One of the major problems in MIS brain surgery is to accurately and rapidly drill a hole in the skull and then place a catheter through the hole to a specific location. Current hardware guides can be accurate but are very time-consuming to use, limiting their appeal and usage. Furthermore, current guides tend to be relatively large, limiting the possible positions within the MRI scanner and MRI head coil.

This project will design and create a working model for a MIS guide that is:
- small
- robust
- sterilizable
- accurate to 1 mm at a 12 cm depth
- MRI compatible
- MRI visible
- interfaces with surgical planning software and image guidance software
- scalable to commercial production

The students will be able to work with a Neurosurgeon, Dr. Azam Ahmed, who is keenly interested in developing viable hardware and software solutions to advance his field.

Materials
1) Surgical drill, catheters to design and test device
2) Access to MRI scanner
3) Access to surgical planning software
4) Access to image guidance software
5) Access to animal experiments

Client:
Dr. Terry Oakes
TherVoyant
(608) 669-6622
terry.oakes@thervoyant.com

Alternate Contact:
Wally Block
(608) 772-5642
wfblock@wisc.edu


33. What do you mean I cannot have surgery: my knee is killing me

knee_brace

BME 400
Students assigned: Jennifer Leestma, Matthew Mcmillan, Phillip Michaelson, Jared Muench, Douglas Streeten
Advisor: Joseph Towles
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Prosthetics
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Osteoarthritis is a very common problem affecting older adults. The fastest growing segment of the population is the group > age 85. Degenerative joint disease involving the weight bearing joints including the knees is very common. Medications, steroid injections and injection of hyaluronic acid can reduce pain temporarily. A significant number of these patients under total knee replacement. Unfortunately, not all elderly patients are good surgical candidates. Persistent severe pain often leads to the elder becoming more sedentary and ultimately affects their quality of life.

If we could design a novel knee brace that unloads the knee using shock absorber type technology as seen in objects such as mountain bikes, we could relieve the weight bearing related pain associated with walking in these elderly patients.

The brace would have to be durable, inexpensive, lightweight, easy to put on and take off and allow for significantly less direct force applied to the knee.

Materials
Metal, plastic, canvas straps

Client:
Dr. Philip A. Bain
SSM Health/Dean Medical Group
Dean Medical Group
(608) 438-7719
philip.bain@ssmhealth.com


35. Device for capturing IVC filters

filter_capture

BME 400
Students assigned: Joseph Ashley, Lexi Doersch, Will Flanigan, Emily Foran, Brett Struthers
Advisor: Paul Thompson
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Cardiology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Electronics, Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE, includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is a common condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are over 500k cases of VTE each year in the United States, which account for approximately 300k deaths. The standard treatment for VTE is anticoagulation (ie, blood thinners). However, many patients cannot be put on anticoagulation or fail it (ie develop new blood clots despite being on it). In those patients, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are often placed. There are many different types or designs of IVC filters. The purpose of an IVC filter is to catch large blood clots that break off from the lower extremities and prevent them from going to the lungs. The number of IVC filters placed has doubled in the past decade with >250k being placed in 2012. Historically, IVC filters were left in place indefinitely. However, filters that have been in place for a long time are associated with complications, including filter fracture, migration, penetration through the caval wall, and caval thrombosis/occlusion. For that reason, we now seek to remove filters as soon as the patient no longer needs it (preferably within the first 3 months). Filters that have only been in for a short period of time are usually easily removed with standard technique (a long sheath and a snare device). Those that have been in for a long time or filters designed to be permanent require much more complicated techniques including wire loop snare, rigid forceps or an excimer laser. One of the more difficult steps in removing a chronically embedded filter is engaging or capturing the filter, generally the first step before attempting to collapse the filter into a sheath. Some filters have a hook, which facilitates this. However, many filters do not have a hook, have a hook that is bent/broken, or have hooks that are covered in scar tissue. Those filters require formation of a wire loop snare, which can be a complex or tedious task involving looping a wire through/under the filter, snaring it, and bringing it back through the puncture site to form a loop. This can be difficult and time consuming. The goal of this project would be to design a device that engages or latches onto all or most IVC filters such that this step in a retrieval becomes easier and faster. Depending on the design, it could be used for both standard and complex filter retrievals. Several filter retrieval sets on are on the market, but only work with specific filter types and can only be used for simple retrievals, not complex retrievals.

Materials
Students would have access to a number of different types of IVC filters as well as standard equipment used in retrievals. They can observe clinical cases and we have access to an animal lab if a prototype were developed. For example, a pig lab could be performed to test the device. Lab space is available in WIMR.

References
1.Iliescu B, Haskal ZJ. Advanced techniques for removal of retrievable inferior vena cava filters. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012 Aug;35(4):741–50. 

2.Kuo WT, Odegaard JI, Rosenberg JK, Hofmann LV. Laser-Assisted Removal of Embedded Vena Cava Filters: A 5-Year First-in-Human Study. Chest. 2017 Feb;151(2):417–24. 

3.Kuo WT, Robertson SW, Odegaard JI, Hofmann LV. Complex retrieval of fractured, embedded, and penetrating inferior vena cava filters: a prospective study with histologic and electron microscopic analysis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013 May;24(5):622–630.e1–quiz631. 

Client:
Dr. Paul Laeseke
Radiology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-7508
plaeseke@uwhealth.org

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Michael Woods
(608) 263-8328
mwoods@uwhealth.org


36. Fetal radiation shield for pregnant patients receiving radiation therapy

radiation_shield

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Julia Garofalo, Emily Knott, Julia Mauser, Maura McDonagh, Lizzy Schmida, Ethan Wen
Advisor: Ed Bersu
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Medical Imaging, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Radiation Measurements

Summary
Approximately 4000 women per year will require radiation therapy treatments during their pregnancies. Fetal radiation dose from radiation therapy to the mother depends on a number of variables, including treatment technique, treatment site, fetus gestational age, and prescribed radiation dose. The effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus are moderately understood, and in general, effects are reduced when fetal dose is reduced. This motivates the use of shielding around the pregnant patient. For photons in the therapeutic energy range (bremsstrahlung x rays with peak energies of 6-10 MeV), appropriate shielding usually consists of several hundred pounds of lead held safely over the fetus.

The Department of Human Oncology is seeking a safe and effective shielding device for use in the Radiation Therapy department of University Hospital. Thankfully, we only see pregnant patients very rarely, but having an effective shield before the next patient arrives is a goal of ours. The shield will need to be mobile, will need to be adaptable to a variety of treatment delivery machines and techniques, and will need to be safe to use. The project will hopefully include designing, fabricating, and testing the shield with clinical treatment delivery systems. The students on the project will work with the faculty medical physicists and clinical engineers in the Radiation Therapy group at University Hospital.

Materials
No materials are pre-made for this project. The Department of Human Oncology is committed to funding the fabrication of the final appropriate design.

References
One of the older and still better resources on this topic: the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report from Task Group 36, entitled “Fetal Dose from Radiotherapy with Photon Beams.” This can be found online at:

http://www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/RPT_50.pdf

and includes background information as well as photographs of several older shields.

A more modern reference: “Revisiting fetal dose during radiation therapy: evaluating treatment techniques and a custom shield” by Owrangi et al (2016). Found online at:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1120/jacmp.v17i5.6135/abstract

Client:
Prof. Zac Labby
Department of Human Oncology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-5103
zelabby@humonc.wisc.edu


37. Somatosensory stimulation apparatus for rodent cages

hindlimb_stimulator

BME 400
Students assigned: Luke Dezellar, Timothy Lieb, Emmy Russell
Advisor: Mitch Tyler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Peripheral nerve injuries are common, debilitating and costly. Approximately 2.8%-5% of all trauma patients in the US sustain such an injury with nearly 100,000 peripheral nerve repairs being performed annually costing approximately 150 billion dollars. The most important clinical outcome following nerve repair, is functional ability, and despite advances in microsurgical technique, poor functional outcomes are frequent. Unfortunately, the cause for outcome variability is unknown and functional outcome is difficult to assess and measure experimentally.

The goal of this project is to design and validate an experimental apparatus that can provide somatosensory stimulation (i.e. vibration) to the hindlimb of a rodent would greatly improve the ability to asses nerve regeneration in rats for a wide range of studies- including but not restricted to, surgical repair methods, tissue engineering and neural interfacing.

References
http://www.vulintus.com/mototrak/

Client:
Dr. Aaron Dingle
Surgery
School of Medicine and Public Health
dingle@surgery.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Aaron Suminski
(608) 263-6963
suminski@neurosurgery.wisc.edu


38. The doppler dot

doppler_dot

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Crysta Frank, Luke Hetue, Anna Keller, Luke Le Clair, Jacob Mundale, Galen Riley
Advisor: Naomi Chesler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Radiology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
In both reconstructive and Vascular surgery frequent monitoring of vessel patency/sufficiency from the surface of the skin is a critical practice which guides major clinical/surgical decisions. This is typically accomplished via pencil doppler which requires the application of gel and searching for the a doppler signal each time one wishes to evaluate.

This project would seek to create a cost efficient device that can remain in place over the vessel of interest and be accessed frequently with great accuracy and no mess. This would likely consist of a material that conducts sound as well as the gels we currently use or a doppler like device that can remain in place and be plugged in whenever we wish to evaluate.

References
Cluff, K., Becker, R. A., Jayakumar, B., Han, K., Condon, E., Dudley, K., et al. (2017). Passive Wearable Skin Patch Sensor Measures Limb Hemodynamics Based on Electromagnetic Resonance. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering.
http://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2017.2723001

Client:
Dr. Nicholas James Albano
Surgery
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
(914) 494-1394
nalbano@uwhealth.org


39. Anastamosis tension meter

tension_meter

BME 400
Students assigned: Leslie Franczek, Tianna Garcia, Morgan Kemp, David Lahm, Shelby Mochal
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Mechanics

Summary
Anastamoses are used to join two hollow structures, and allow passage of contents. This is a common technique used throughout surgery on bowel, vascular and urologic structures. One of the principles is for the anastamosis to be tension-free, however, there is no study determining the acceptable level of tension for biologic structures. I believe that this information does not exist largely due to inadequate tools to measure tissue tension. What I envision is a device that can be used in the operating room with a series of hooks or other structure to delicately hold both ends of tissue and when approximated and released determine objectively the amount of tension/force pulling these structures apart. Surgeons can use this information to determine if more dissection should be done to relieve this tension or if it is adequate. Handheld force meters and tension meters exist, however to be able to be used intraoperatively on sterile tissue, it needs to be sterilizable, or have a disposable component, it needs to measure small forces, and needs to be quick to set up.

Client:
Dr. Brian Le
Urology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(703) 477-5514
leb@urology.wisc.edu


40. Tie-over bandage for improved open-wound management

bandage

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Joshua Begale, Hannah Bennett, Thomas Guerin, Lee Hermann, Mason Schilling
Advisor: Beth Meyerand
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Veterinary Medicine
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics, cadaver use

Summary
PROJECT GOAL

To design a better tie-over type bandage that provides complete coverage of a wound, maintains secure attachment to the surrounding skin during ambulation, and allows for simple and easy changing of bandage material when required.

BACKGROUND

Traumatic and contaminated wounds are a common problem in veterinary medicine. Management of these types of wounds involves thorough debridement and lavage to remove any devitalized and contaminated tissue followed by repeated bandage changes while the wound heals by granulation tissue formation, contraction and epithelialization (i.e. second intention healing). For most wounds, second intention healing takes days to weeks to complete and thus proper bandaging is imperative for a successful outcome.

For wounds located on the limb or trunk, a traditional encircling bandage can be used to cover the wound during the healing process. However, for wounds located on the perineal or inguinal regions, an encircling bandage is not feasible and is often replaced by the use of a tie-over bandage.

A tie-over bandage involves the use of suture loops or other types of “anchors” positioned circumferentially around the wound. The wound is then covered or packed with the appropriate bandage material. The bandage is then held in place by tying or “lacing” the loops together over the bandage to secure it in place. The bandage is changed by simply untying or cutting the lacing and removing the bandage material. After the wound is cleaned and lavaged, new bandage material is replaced and the steps repeated.

The advantages of a tie-over bandage include 1) it allows for coverage of wounds located near the anus, prepuce, vulva, or inguinal area that are not easily covered with a traditional encircling bandage, and 2) it reduces the amount of bandage material required to cover the wound since wrapping the entire limb or trunk is not necessary with a tie-over bandage.

The disadvantages of a tie-over bandage include, 1) the suture loops often traumatize the skin and need to be replaced due to irritation or pulling out, 2) the bandage material is often not well secured with the tie-over laces or loops and can be easily dislodged, 3) the edges of the wound are often exposed and susceptible to contamination, and 4) maintaining a water-resistant barrier over the wound and avoiding “strikethrough” from wound exudate can be difficult.

POTENTIAL MARKET NEED

The use of tie-over bandages to manage open-wounds in both human and veterinary medicine is very common and yet the current techniques and materials for creating a tie-over bandage are quite rudimentary with significant short-comings. There is significant room for improvement of the current techniques and a device meeting the criteria listed below would appear to have tremendous market potential in the billion-dollar wound management category of health care products.

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IMPROVED TIE-OVER BANDAGE

•Allow for normal activity and range of motion of the limbs
•Be flexible and maintain coverage of the wound when the patient ambulates
•Maintain secure contact with the surrounding skin yet avoid irritation or excessive tension
•Provide a protective water-resistant barrier over the bandage material
•Allow for the bandage material to be easily changed and re-secured
•Be able to fit wounds of various sizes and locations
•Be constructed of relatively inexpensive and available materials

AREAS OF FOCUS FOR DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

•The design of the suture loops or anchors placed around the wound to secure the lacing

Consider alternative adhesives or attachments devices that could be placed circumferentially around the wound

•The design of the “lacing” system used to secure the bandage material

Consider flexible “sheeting” that conforms to the shape of the wound and provides complete coverage of the bandage material

Materials
MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES AVAILABLE

Supplies necessary for creating a typical tie-over bandage are available for evaluation of the current design and short-comings. In addition, canine cadaver specimens are available for testing prototype design in realistic anatomical conditions.

References
REFERENCES

1. Tobias J, Tobias K. Tie-over bandages: It's a stretch. NAVC Clinician’s Brief, August 2012, pages 34-37
https://www.cliniciansbrief.com/article/wound-management-tie-over-bandages

2. Chandler J. DVM360, Surgery-STAT: Tie-over bandage- a solution for wounds in difficult places. June 2009
http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/surgery-stat-tie-over-bandage-solution-wounds-difficult-locations

3. Jo HJ, et. al. Redoable tie-over dressing using multiple loop silk threads. Arch Plast Surg. 2013, 40:259-262
https://e-aps.org/upload/pdf/aps-40-259.pdf

4. Singh H, et. al. A simple and rapid method of repeated tie-over dressing. Indian J Plast Surg. 2015, 48:75-78
http://www.ijps.org/article.asp?issn=0970
0358;year=2015;volume=48;issue=1;spage=75;epage=78;aulast=Singh

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.155274

Client:
Dr. Robert Hardie
Surgical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 262-7257
robert.hardie@wisc.edu


41. Langendorff apparatus for Guinea pig cardiomyocyte isolation

cardiomyocyte_culture

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Samuel Moss, Grace Restle, Brittany Russell, Alyssa Walker, Ethan York
Advisor: Wan-Ju Li
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Tissue Engineering, Cellular Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Animal Experiments, Cell Biology

Summary
The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) has provided a powerful tool to study heart function as a complement to in vivo animal models. Indeed, isolated cardiac cells have been used to provide valuable insight into cellular and sub-cellular physiology (Ca2+ homeostasis, cellular excitability, cellular structure visualization, molecules localization, etc). Currently available alternative options to primary CMs (immortalized cell line, iPSC cells) lack many of structural and functional characteristics of adult cardiac cells strengthening the need of using isolated CMs. Cardiomyocyte isolation procedure such as Langendorff technique are therefore of critical importance, as are methods for cell culture which aim to preserve the integrity and function of the CM.

The goal of this project is to build a Langendorff system to isolate CMs from Guinea pig heart, which will be used freshly or cultured for further applications. The Langendorff method allowed retrograde perfusion of the excised heart through the aorta with an enzyme-containing solution that will digest the tissue and liberate the isolated cells. The apparatus consists in reservoirs linked to a tubing system ending with a cannula that holds the excised heart from the animal. Temperature is controlled by a water bath and maintained through the entire apparatus via thermal isolated tubing system.

Students will build a Langendorff apparatus and will assess efficiency, reproducibility, and viability of the isolated CMs in order to improve the Langendorff system. Suitability of the freshly isolated cells for experiments will be tested by biochemical and electrophysiological experiments. Finally, students will establish a protocol for maintenance in culture of isolated cardiac cells.

Materials
Water bath
Tubing
Dissecting material (instruments for surgery)
Water pump

References
Louch W.E., Sheehan K.A. & Wolska B.M., Methods in Cardiomyocyte Isolation, Culture, and Gene Transfer. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 51(3): 288–298 (2011)

Horackova M. & Mapplebeck C., Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 67(7):740-50(1989)

Tytgat J., Cardiac myocyte isolation. Cardiovascular Research 28:280-283 (1994)

Huang D., Harackova M. & Pressler M., Changes in the expression and distribution of connexin 43 in isolated cultured adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes. Experimental Cell Research 228, 254–261 (1996)

Client:
Dr. Erick B Rios Perez
Neuroscience
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Wisconsin Institutes of Medical Research
(608) 265-3162
riosperez@wisc.edu


43. Secondary mobility device for airline travel

airline_mobility_device

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Benjamin Ayd, Justin DeShaw, Will Fox, Grant Karlsson Ellifson, Kendall Kupfer
Advisor: Aaron Suminski
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Currently, wheelchair users are not allowed to remain in their personal wheelchairs on airplanes. Personal chairs must be stowed, usually in the cargo area. Therefore users must transfer to a narrow aisle wheelchair and then transfer to their seat when boarding. The reverse is done upon arrival. Immobile travelers may need to be lifted from aisle chair to seat and back. Due to inappropriate training, variations in equipment, or significant disabilities, this could result in injury. At a minimum the entire process is an inconvenience and under certain circumstances can cause embarrassment or stress for disabled travelers.

The goal of this project is to design a secondary wheelchair or device that would eliminate transfers altogether for disabled travelers. Such a device would embolden disabled travelers, reduce the risk of injury, and save time and resources for airlines.

This device would be considered secondary because in theory it would either attach to or sit on top of the user's regular wheelchair. The user would transfer onto the device at home or at their vehicle. Then upon arrival at the airplane door, the wheelchair user would simply release their regular chair to be taken to cargo, while now sitting upon the secondary device which could be rolled to their seat and the user can either remain on the device if it could fit under and on the seat or be lowered down onto their seat and the device stowed on the plane.

This device could also be made available for users at airport check-in or gates if they do not personally own one so as to still eliminate half of the transfers required at the airport.

Materials
Base wheelchair to use as primary chair

References
These sites show concepts of airline wheelchairs that would still require a user to be transferred in the airport onto it.
https://www.allwheelsup.org/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GV72LMO0-Q

Client:
Mr. Dan Dorszynski
(808) 389-4740
wetsand@gmail.com


45. Arthrocentesis model for veterinary student training

arthrocentesis_model

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Chrissy Kujawa, Kelsey Murphy, Tarika Patel, Hayley Raj, Isabella Reichardt
Advisor: Beth Meyerand
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Medical Simulation
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Arthrocentesis (sampling of joint fluid or a "joint tap," by putting a needle through the skin and into a space between bones at a joint) is an essential skill for veterinarians. Teaching the proper technique currently requires the use of either live patients or cadavers. The former isn't ideal as operator error natural in the learning process may decrease sample quality. The use of cadavers, however is also not ideal due to their limited number of uses before complete tissue degradation and ethical issues. Human arhtrocentesis models exist, but not for the joints commonly sampled in veterinary medicine. The differences in anatomy and size between humans and dogs/cats also limits the utility of human simulators. The aim of this project is to create a model of the canine forelimb to teach arthrocentesis to veterinary students. Ideally, this model would have easily replaceable "skin" and "joint capsule" that could be filled with a variable amount of fluid to increase or decrease the difficulty of the procedure.

Materials
Needles and syringes, anatomically correct models of canine and feline joints, clinical skills training center at the school of veterinary medicine with a variety of materials currently used to simulate animal skin for the training of veterinarians.

References
A knee model for arthrocentesis simulation (journal article): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12757070

Improving sixth year medical students' performance in knee arthrocentesis using a synthetic knee model (journal article):
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988953

Human knee arthrocentesis models:
https://www.simulab.com/products/arthrocentesis-model
http://syndaver.com/shop/synatomy/arthrocentesis-knee/

Client:
Dr. Jessica Pritchard
Department of Medical Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine
(267) 221-6702
jpritchard2@wisc.edu


47. Use of pH or glucose probes to diagnose compartment syndrome

compartment_syndrome

BME 200/300
Students assigned: William Bacon, Heather Barnwell, Kristina Geiger, Alexander Goodman, Carly Rogers
Advisor: Walter Block
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Animal Experiments, Biomaterials, Cell Biology, Chemistry

Summary
Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) impacts many trauma patients and presents medical providers with perplexing dilemmas regarding the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. ACS diagnosis is most frequently based on clinical examination findings,but, clinical scenarios arise where examination is not possible. In these cases objective data are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Intracompartmental (IC) pressure measurement is the current standard of care when clinical evaluation is not possible. The use of IC pressure measurements has three major flaws. First, the recommended pressure threshold for decompression is not clear. Secondly, IC pressure measurements have an alarmingly high false positive rate. Finally, limb positon and acquisition location can significantly alter the results of an IC pressure reading.These issues with IC pressure measurements highlight the possibly of ACS misdiagnosis, resulting in either overtreatment patients with the morbidity of unnecessary fasciotomies or undertreatment of patients resulting in permanent dysfunction.


We hypothesized that biochemical markers are would be more sensitive and specific than pressure readings for determining muscle hypoxia and therefore for diagnosing the critical underlying pathology in acute compartment syndrome. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate levels can detect muscle ischemia in situations of arterial occlusion, venous hypertension, and hypoperfusion. We have previously published the utility of intracompartmental glucose concentration and partial pressure of O2 and are working on data on pH concentrations on diagnosing compartment syndrome. In all of our animal studies pH and glucose measurements are able to detect compartment syndrome.

The focus of this project would be designing a device that is easy for clinicians to place in muscle compartments and quickly and accurately measure pH and or glucose concentration.

Materials
pH probes, glucose sensors.
we have access to dogs.

References
Can intramuscular glucose levels diagnose compartment syndrome?
Doro CJ1, Sitzman TJ, O'Toole RV. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Feb;76(2):474-8

Whitesides TE, Haney TC, Morimoto K, Harada H. Tissue pressure measurements as a determinant for the need of fasciotomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975;113:4351.

McQueen MM, Court-Brown CM. Compartment monitoring in tibial fractures: the pressure threshold for decompression. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996;78:99104.

Heckman MM, Whitesides TE Jr, Grewe SR, Judd RL, Miller M, Lawrence JH III. Histologic determination of the ischemic threshold of muscle in the canine compartment syndrome model. J Orthop Trauma. 1993;7:199210.

Prayson MJ, Chen JL, Hampers D, Vogt M, Fenwick J, Meredick R. Baseline compartment pressure measurements in isolated lower extremity fractures without clinical compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 2006;60:10371040.

Sitzman TJ, Hanson SE, King TW, Gutowski KA. Detection of flap venous and arterial occlusion using interstitial glucose monitoring in a rodent model. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:7179.

Oliver NS, Toumazou C, Cass AE, Johnston DG. Glucose sensors: a review of current and emerging technology. Diabet Med. 2009;26:197210.

Setälä LP, Korvenoja EM, Härmä MA, Alhava EM, Uusaro AV, Tenhunen JJ. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate response in an experimental model of microvascular flap ischemia and reperfusion: a microdialysis study. Microsurgery. 2004;24:223231.

Setälä L, Joukainen S, Uusaro A, Alhava E, Härmä M. Metabolic response in microvascular flaps during partial pedicle obstruction and hypovolemic shock. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007;23:489496.

Client:
Dr. Christopehr Doro
UW orthopedics
UWMF
(608) 334-2397
doro@ortho.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Alexander Siy
(608) 263-6938
siy@ortho.wisc.edu


48. Rapid urine stone risk detector

stone_detector

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Tyler Bambrough, Alex Locsin, Jack O'Keefe, Will Olson, Pazee Xiong
Advisor: Bill Murphy
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Urology
Skills: Biomaterials, Chemistry, Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Development of a home device that can be used by patients to detect the concentration of urine test values so patients can measure the response to therapy. The therapy would be medications or diet changes that would help prevent kidney stones. The urine values I would be interested in include pH, Specific Gravity, Oxalate, Citrate, Calcium, Sodium, and possibly other electrolytes. The project would be to focus on one or more of these. Ideally would be simple for the patient use and also incorporate a cellular device allowing transmission of data.

Client:
Dr. Roy Allan Jhagroo
Nephrology
UW
(305) 772-2526
rajhagroo@medicine.wisc.edu


49. Ear gator

ear_gator

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Brooke Aschbacher, Kari Borowski, Elise Gendreau, Alexander Henry, Ryan Yost, Ashley Zagaros
Advisor: Ed Bersu
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Biomaterials, Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
To build a better way to clean your ears.
While, at first blush, such a project may not appear terribly engaging, there are real biomechanical questions and potential for broad commercial application if an effective device is created.
I am an Emergency Medicine physician. I commonly see patients secondary to cerumen impaction. The current best home option is a Q-tip. Debrox is a commercial solution that purports utility but generally receives a skeptical response from the patients I see. People readily pay the cost of an Urgent Care visit to have their ears cleaned. In private, it is remarkable how much people can obsess about cleanliness of their ears. I am unaware of any technological upgrade from Q-tips & irrigation.
The device I imagine would be a handheld device, held up to the ear. A seal would be made around the external auditory canal & a thin hollow filament, placed off center on a rotating flange would create mechanical disruption of the cerumen. At the same time, special fluid spraying from the center of the filament would help in disrupting the cerumen. For patient satisfaction, it'd be important to have collection of the fluid so the patient could visualize all the detritus removed from their ear canal.

Materials
This would be at the discretion of the team. Attention to the delicate tissues involved would be critical in the success of the device.

References
A successful device would have an opportunity to replace the Q-tip. It could be marketed at a cost of an automatic toothbrush. Replacements for the proprietary fluid cartridges could be sold as well. Markets include anyone who uses Q-tips, Urgent Cares, Emergency Departments, Nursing homes, etc.

Client:
Dr. Michael Hartmann
Emergency Medicine
UW
(920) 615-1906
mghartmann@gmail.com


52. Ergonomic mojo shaking device

ergonomic_shaker

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Eric Arndt, Junzhou Chen, Steven Oakes, Conor Pedersen, Jake Wenzlaff
Advisor: Aaron Suminski
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Technicians in a local commercial laboratory repetitively shake, by hand, lipid samples containing 30 tubes per batch. This fatiguing manual task results in pain and discomfort in the wrists and arms, muscle fatigue and increased risk of injuries. An electromechanical device is needed that would automatically and simultaneously shake the samples at the proper rate, direction and intensity, without disrupting, and possibly improving, the technicans' workflow. Chemical testing of the shaken samples would need to demonstrate that the mix met the required standards.

Materials
Sample tubes and test chemicals will be provided. Supplies and materials are available for a working prototype based on consideration of student team requests.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


53. Ergonomic pathology tweezers/forceps

ergonomic_tweezers

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Hunter Higby, Teja Mallela, Julia Martin, Andrew Meixelsperger, Chiara Sanders
Advisor: Beth Meyerand
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Animal Experiments, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Technicians in a local commercial laboratory repetitively conduct mouse necropsies using conventional tweezers. The sustained forceful pinching involved in the dissections is causing localized pain and discomfort, muscle fatigue, and increased risk of injuries in the technicians' fingers and hands. A BME design team is needed to design a new type of tweezers/ forceps that would better fit the hands, utilize larger hand muscles, and reduce pinching, yet offer the same level of dexterity and tactility provided by conventional tweezers. Design prototypes should be tested by the technicians in order to demonstrate proof of concept.

Materials
Supplies and materials will be provided on an as-needed basis upon request and consideration by the client.

Client:
Prof. Robert G Radwin
Industrial and Systems Engineering
Engineering
(608) 263-6596
radwin@bme.wisc.edu


55. Gavin-Miller extractor

nasal_extractor

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Jacob Andreae, William Guns, Siddhant Jain, Ben Knudsen, Leo Steiner
Advisor: Naomi Chesler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Otolaryngology
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The Gavin Miller extractor is a device intended to help facilitate the extraction of foreign objects from the nasal canal. Often in Emergency Medicine, we as clinicians struggle with retrieval of foreign objects lodged in the noses of patients; most of which are children. This device will serve to safely extract these objects with the use of an epoxy. Furthermore, this device will have a mechanism to stabilize the device to prevent movement when the patient inevitably moves during the extraction process; thereby preventing unintended epoxy exposure to mucosa instead of the foreign object itself.

Currently, devices on the market such as the Katz extractor utilize a balloon only to facilitate extraction. However this concept is the only one known to use this design to help stabilize the device and use an epoxy in this fashion. I have design concepts/figures outlining the specifics of the design and will be willing to share if needed.

Materials
Funding for device. Medical Expertise.

References
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19018225
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11027049
http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1185.html

Client:
Dr. Christopher J. Ford
Department of Emergency Medicine
Regions Hospital/UW BerbeeWalsh Department of Emergency Medicine
(773) 817-9711
cee4ord@gmail.com


57. Rapid needle alignment for localizing breast tumors

needle_alignment

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Kevin Fantl, Kennedy Pawell, Colin Schrof, Gopika Senthilkumar, Maggie Zhou
Advisor: Lonie Salkowski
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Human Subjects, Imaging, Mechanics

Summary
Once a breast biopsy determines that a breast abnormality is malignant (only 25-30% are cancer), the radiologist must localize the cancer for the surgeon so that the tissues around the area can be removed (lumpectomy). This is frequently done using a mammographic method whereby a needle is directed into the breast, using a light to determine whether the needle is actually perpendicular to the skin. However, this requires constant correction, withdrawl and recorrection.

My idea is to make a tubular device that mounts on the plastic frame of the mammographic device and therefore must direct the needle perpendicular to the gridded frame of the normal mammographic localization frame work. The device would have to be able to be directed anywhere within a 10 x 14 cm opening and be certain to be perpendicular to the frame. The physician would still be the one directing the localizaiton neeedle.

If the device gets to the point that it is clinically useful, I will arrange for IRB materials that would allow use on patient volunteers.

Materials
Plexiglass supplies and machining skills. I will supply the current grid that is used and must be accommodated to.

References
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3244264/

Client:
Dr. Frederick Kelcz
Radiology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 263-9384
fkelcz@uwhealth.org


58. Wheelchair attachment for leg-strengthening therapy

wheelchair_leg_exerciser

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Shan Gill, David Luzzio, Spencer Ortyn, Samuel Parmentier, Daniel Wildner
Advisor: Aaron Suminski
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Many patients experience a physical event that sends them to a wheelchair, from which recovery requires physical therapy. Physical therapy often consists of a few 15 min sessions per week, which may be inadequate for a speedy recovery or, in cases that involve elderly patients, may be insufficient for them to recover out of the wheelchair.

There is need for a device that patients can use outside physical therapy sessions to strengthen their standing leg muscles (e.g., leg press machine). Custom-made exercise wheelchairs exist (e.g., Neurogym, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI9vt-nt3Gc), but they are expensive, not easily adapted to use by multiple patients (requiring “musical chairs” changing for every patient to use) and involve complex possibly difficult movements that are not specific to standing muscles. A preferred option is to bring leg-specific exercise to the patient’s wheelchair as an attachable leg press device. The device will be designed to be easily moved from one wheelchair to the next, thereby making it accessible to many patients. Patients would gain time flexibility and location opportunity (e.g., in their room, in a social or TV area, outside, etc.) with the practicality of remaining in their own chair to carry out more exercise outside their physical therapy sessions.

Currently, no wheelchair-attachable leg press devices exist. We propose to develop one with the following features.

• It attaches easily to wheelchairs so it is readily moved among patients.

• The device can be adjusted to accommodate different leg lengths.

• The press angle can be adjusted to the angle optimal for rehabilitating standing muscles (e.g., Steinkamp et. al., 1993, Biomechanical considerations in patellofemoral joint rehabilitation. Am J Sports Med. 21:438-444).

• The press returns actively; resisting return is an important component of therapy.

• The device counts the number of presses, which allows therapists to monitor use.

• The device locks after a specified number of presses to prevent overuse injury.

We have a drawing of how this device might fit on a wheelchair:
http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/selection/files/1172_Uhlrich_wheelchair.png

Materials
wheelchair

References
Steinkamp et al. 1993, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 21:438-444.

Client:
Dr. Dan Uhlrich
Neuroscience
SMPH
(608) 262-8465
dan.uhlrich@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Lisa Steinkamp
(608) 263-9427
steinkamp@pt.wisc.edu


59. Exercise device for child with profound weakness for use in a wheelchair

wheelchair_exerciser

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Desiree Flouro, Jinyuxuan Guo, Jiayi Lin, Alec Struensee, Aaron Wagner
Advisor: Ed Bersu
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Physical Therapy
Skills: Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
Children with certain neuromuscular diseases have profound weakness but potentially have the ability to either gain strength or at least maintain strength but have difficulty finding methods to exercise. This device will need to attach to a wheelchair for a specific child that cannot sit up so she may exercise her arms and legs. New disease modifying therapies are now available and there is a potential for this child to even gain functional ability.

Materials
The child has a wheelchair and another device that she uses for exercise in her bed but it will not attach to the wheelchair.

References
www.curesma.org

This will give a very user friendly site to understand Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Client:
Ms. Karen Patterson
Doctor of Physical Therapy
UW-Madison
(608) 263-6743
pattersonk@pt.wisc.edu


60. Directing the contralateral eye during laser retinopexy

eye_surgery

BME 400
Students assigned: Rebecca Alcock, Hannah Cook, Tyler Davis, Cody Kairis
Advisor: Jeremy Rogers
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Ophthalmology
Skills: Electronics

Summary
When a patient who is experiencing symptoms consistent with an evolving or newly developed retinal detachment, they often complain of new flashing lights (photopsia) and new floating objects (transient visual obscurations). We often find a retinal hole or tear which requires laser barricade surgery within our clinics while the patient is awake and using her/his contralateral eye to guide the orientation of the eye receiving treatment (both eyes move together). The problem is that we do not have any specific device that is useful to the patient to direct their contralateral eye. There are devices which shine laser pointers at various objects around the room, however those can be distant or difficult to view. I propose the following: a head-mounted apparatus that shows the patients a target while either the contralateral eye is closed (with the aide of something like a Morgan lens) or while the contralateral eye is open but the eye can view a fixed target from a screen that is not far from the eye, something like a VR screen or the like which is easily controlled by the MD.

Materials
VR headsets, surgical loupes, Morgan lenses.

Client:
Dr. Zack Oakey
Ophthalmology
Medicine
(801) 865-1793
oakey@wisc.edu


61. Real-time measurement of ciliary activity

ciliary_activity

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Jurnee Beilke, Jack Fahy, Aman Nihal, Tyler Ross, Benjamin Viggiano
Advisor: Paul Campagnola
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Medical Imaging
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Specialized cells known as ciliated cells perform important functions on epithelial surfaces, using clusters of coordinated appendages to move mucus in the respiratory tract and eggs in the reproductive tract. Dysfunction or destruction of these cilia can result in health problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or infertility. Currently, the activity of ciliated cells is measured by either subjective observations; invasive sampling followed by labor-intensive video microscopy analysis; or by measuring radiolabelled particle clearance. We are seeking a device that would allow for high-throughput, non-radioactive, quantitative measurements of ciliary activity in biological samples over time. Laser scattering spectroscopy was explored in the late 1980s-mid 1990s as a method for measuring ciliary activity in the human nasopharynx and Fallopian tube. These devices worked with some success in research settings but none are currently available and advances in both computing and materials make possible more portable and better functioning devices. We seek to generate a device using laser-scattering principles that performs rapid, non-destructive measurements (seconds to minutes) from multiple biopsy samples (~3 mm in size), such that we can measure the ciliary activity of samples under various conditions at multiple time points. This will require a durable, washable probe to insert into biological media and an easy-to-operate user-interface on the device. This device should be able to send frequency/amplitude data to a computer, where existing software or software developed for this device can record and save device output, and provide basic data in the form of ciliary beat frequency and/or beat intensity. While laser-scattering devices are preferred for their proven ability, other optical or sonic/ultrasonic technologies will be considered viable if they have more favorable measurement or instrument durability properties.

Materials
Biological samples will be procured as needed for testing device. Computers will be provided/procured for any software or input/output testing.

References
Articles describing similar instruments built in 1980-90s:

"Laser scattering instrument for real time in-vivo measurement of ciliary activity in human fallopian tubes"
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8582953

"Laser light scattering spectroscopy: a new method to measure tracheobronchial mucociliary activity"
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC461944/

US Patent (lapsed) for a previously constructed device:
https://www.google.com/patents/US5807264

Client:
Dr. Jonathan Lenz
Medical Microbiology & Immunology
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-0489
lenz4@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Joseph Dillard
(608) 265-2837
jpdillard@wisc.edu


62. Reproducible thermal injury template for burn wound model

thermal_injury

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Alexander Babinski, Sindhu Battula, Gabriela Betancourt, Samuel Crowell, Adrian Omidfar, Alison Schulz
Advisor: Kristyn Masters
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Biomaterials
Medical Specialty: Surgery
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics

Summary
The depth of burn injury in skin determines the regenerative capacity of the wound. There are no reproducible models of burn injury with a consistent depth of injury in human skin samples. Testing of new clinical therapeutics is limited to expensive and time consuming clinical trials or trial and error of already approved products on patients. We are developing an ex-vivo model of burn wounds on human skin (discarded from elective plastic surgery cases) to provide a platform to test new therapeutics for wound healing.
We can recreate various depths of burn injury using electrocautery, scald, and contact methods to generate thermal burns to human skin. We are looking to develop a stamping method that utilizes liquid or metal that can be heated to a specified temperature to generate a burn injury on contact with the skin for a specified period of time and pressure. The goal is to generate a burn injury of consistent depth which is based upon temperature, length of contact and pressure.
Ideally, the stamp used to create the injury would include multiple contact points to generate replicate burn injuries from the same 100 sq cm piece of skin.
We have the methods in our laboratory to analyze the depth of the burn, therefore the generation of the tool to generate the burn is the focus of this project.

Materials
Skin tissue (IRB approval) to test prototypes will be readily accessible in my laboratory located in WIMR.
Histological analysis to validate tool.

References
1: Gaines C, Poranki D, Du W, Clark RA, Van Dyke M. Development of a porcine
partial thickness burn model. Burns. 2013 Mar;39(2):311-9. doi:
10.1016/j.burns.2012.06.011. Epub 2012 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 22981797.

Client:
Dr. Angela Gibson
Surgery
School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 265-9574
gibson@surgery.wisc.edu


63. Remote patient monitoring app/device for pregnancy related hypertension disorders

hypertension_monitor

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Aleysha Becker, Rachel Minehan, Lucas Ratajczyk, Jacky Tian, Alexander Zoellick
Advisor: Willis Tompkins
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
There is a paucity of evidence based care to provide adequate surveillance and treatment of pregnant women with hypertension. Specifically, women who deliver a baby and had hypertension during their pregnancy are at high risk of developing severe hypertension after discharge from the hospital. Complications related to hypertension during pregnancy is responsible for one of the leading causes of maternal mortality world wide.

We have completed a novel program that provides remote patient monitoring of postpartum women after hospital discharge with a tablet computer and blue tooth equipment (scale, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and heart rate monitor) to transmit home vital signs daily to a telehealth nurse. Patients participated in a nurse video telehealth visit 48 hours and 7 days post-discharge. A nurse-driven outpatient treatment algorithm was developed and utilized for initiation and/or cessation of antihypertensive medications. Study follow-up was through 6 weeks postpartum, followed by transfer to routine clinical care.

I would like your assistance in developing our own device (likely with smart phones) to customize remote patient monitoring for pregnant patients. This would involve linking blue tooth equipment for performing vital signs at home through their smart phone/tablet device and link it to a database that medical providers can follow their patients. I have worked with DoIT in the past to help develop the interface to make sharing the home data to a central monitoring platform. This could be a potential collaboration vs. developing that yourselves.

The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and highly effective mechanism for tracking postpartum vitals outpatient during the period that a new mother is at high risk of not complying with standard medical care and follow-up. Our preliminary project had high patient acceptance, compliance and satisfaction. We enrolled 55 subjects in our pilot and had zero hospital readmissions in a patient population that had a baseline readmission rate of approximately 10%. Therefore, if this project is successful it has a high chance of producing large impacts to the quality of maternal care not only at our institution but on a national level.

Materials
-Possible collaboration with DoIT
-Preliminary data from our pilot project with patient feedback to learn how to improve equipment and a device that is more patient friendly
-Access to the old equipment we have used for our preliminary work (Includes a Verizon tablet, blue tooth (blood pressure cuff, oxygen/heart rate sensor, and scale.
-REDCap for data collection- as a possibility

References
References
1.ACOG. Hypertension in Pregnancy: Report of the American College of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy.
Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(5):1122-1131.

2.PeriData.Net®.

3.Magee L, von Dadelszen P. Prevention and treatment of postpartum hypertension. The Cochrane Collaboration. 2013

4.Stergiou GS, Bliziotis IA. Home blood pressure monitoring in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension: a systematic review. Am J Hypertension. 2011;24(2):123-34.

5.Hirshberg A. Telemedicine Platform Provides Convenient Way for Physicians to Manage Patients with Preeclampsia for Life-Threatening Complications. Poster presentation. American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinical and Scientific Meeting in Washington, DC. May 2016

6.Taylor RS, Freeman L, North RA. Evaluation of ambulatory and self-initiated blood pressure monitors by pregnant and postpartum women. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2001;20(1):25-33.

7.Magee LA, von Dadelszen P, Chan S, et al. Women's views of their experiences in the CHIPS (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study) Pilot Trial. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2007;26(4):371-87.

8.Brown MA. Is there a role for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pregnancy?
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2014 Jan;41(1):16-21. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12106.

9.Fidler J, Smith V, de Swiet M. A randomized study comparing timolol and methyldopa in hospital treatment of puerperal hypertension. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1982;89:1031-4.

10.Griffis KR Jr, Martin JN Jr, Palmer SM, Martin RW, Morrison JC. Utilization of hydralazine or alpha-methyldopa for the management of early puerperal hypertension. American Journal of Perinatology 1989;6:437-41.

11.Sayin NC, Altundag G, Varol FG. Efficacy of alpha-methyldopa and nifedipine in the treatment of postpartum hypertension [Postpartum hipertansiyon tedavisinde alfametildopa ve nifedipinin etkinligi]. Journal of the Turkish German Gynecology Association 2005;6

12.Hirsherg A, Levine LD, Srinivas SK. Clinical factors associated with readmission for postpartum hypertension in women with pregnancy-related hypertension: a nested case control study. Journal of Perinatology. 2016

Client:
Dr. Kara Hoppe
Obstetrics & Gynecology, Maternal Fetal Medicine
University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Public Health
(206) 371-4014
khoppe2@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Office
(608) 417-6099
khoppe2@wisc.edu


64. Flow channel design for improved biomarker detection in liquid biopsy

liquid_biopsy

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Andrew Durette, Patrick Kasl, Edwin Neumann, Ryan Opansky, Emily Russell
Advisor: Paul Campagnola
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Biomaterials, Mechanics, Software

Summary
Liquid biopsies offer the promise of a rapid, painless diagnostic test for cancers that are too small to detect with radiological methods or otherwise inaccessible to punch biopsies. The Hong lab in the School of Pharmacy develops nanoscale, biomimetic surfaces for highly selective and efficient capture of cancer cells and other tumor-shed material from blood. Some of this material is quite buoyant, and only a fraction of the material of interest comes into contact with the capture surface.

The purpose of this project is to design and test a flow chamber (or other method) that induces a large majority of nanoscale particles in the chamber to come in close proximity to the capture surface. A successful project might include computational fluid dynamics to identify promising flow chamber geometries, fabrication of a prototype by microfabrication, and evaluation using fluorescent microspheres.

Materials
The Hong lab can provide all the materials required to make capture surfaces, along with the functionalized microspheres necessary to validate the prototype and access to a microscope for data collection.

References
A commonly-used passive mixer in flow channels: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792635/

Recent surfaces for liquid biopsy from the Hong lab
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4066911/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4734638/?report=classic

Client:
Prof. Seungpyo Hong
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmacy
seungpyo.hong@wisc.edu


65. Promoting reproductive autonomy through creation of an IUD self-removal device

IUD_removal

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Leah Fagerson, Janmesh Patel, Jahnavi Puranik, Haleigh Simon, Kavya Vasan
Advisor: Ed Bersu
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Obstetrics/Gynecology
Skills: Biomaterials, Human Subjects, Mechanics, medical models

Summary
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are currently considered one of the most effective forms of reversible contraception available and are considered first-line contraception by professional organizations including OB-Gyn, Family Medicine, and Pediatrics. Though rates of IUD use are rising, uptake remains relatively low. Some women are reluctant to chose an IUD because it requires a follow up doctor visit to remove the device when they want to conceive. Women fear that they will not be able to get the device out when they want it out, or are apprehensive about barriers such as transportation, cost of office visits, or encountering doctors who refuse to remove the device on their request. Despite knowing that the device is not permanent and does not cause reduced future fertility, many women consider the device "semi-permanent" because removal is outside their autonomous control. Lack of IUD uptake results in use of less effective or no contraception, unplanned or mistimed pregnancies, and downstream negative effects on maternal and child health outcomes including significant health disparities. The current project proposes development of a prototype "IUD Self-Removal Device" aimed at asymptomatic women who would like to remove their own IUD in the privacy of their own home. The device will promote patient autonomy, address key barriers to IUD uptake, allow women to plan/time their pregnancies, and ultimately reduce unplanned pregnancies and the health disparities that result.

Materials
IUD models (devices, applicators, relevant medical supplies)
Pelvic models
Speculums

References
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27129934

Foster DG et al. Interest in and experience with IUD self-removal.
Contraception. 2014 Jul;90(1):54-9. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.01.025. Epub 2014 Feb 7.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=dianna+greene+foster+iud+removal

Higgens JA. Pregnancy ambivalence and LARC use among young adult women: A qualitative study. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2017, 49(3):TK, doi:10.1363/psrh.12025

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27771475

Client:
Dr. Cynthie K Anderson
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 239-2916
ckanderson@wisc.edu


67. Optical measurement of animal tumor volume for cancer research studies

tumor_volume

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Juliana Damberg, Nicolas Haller, Jacob Reiss, Robert Weishar, Jessica Zola
Advisor: Justin Williams
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Oncology
Skills: Animal Experiments, Electronics, Imaging, Software

Summary
Cancer researchers often study the effects of various treatments on tumors growing in animals (typically mice). investigators measure tumor growth several times per week and use an estimate of tumor volume calculated based on measurements of "length" and "width". There can be significant day to day and user to user variability leading to a not insignificant amount of uncertainty. This project seeks to develop a quick, reproducible and user-independent method of measuring tumor volume.
Possibilities include using an ipod touch and developing software. may be couple with a light grid projected onto the tumor to aid in contour delineation and size estimates.
For the research project i would envision first measuring the amount of error both within users and between users and using this as a benchmark to improve upon. Could use a 3D printed mouse with a tumor for development purposes.

Depending on the approach there may be IP considerations.

Materials
ipod touch, mice, camera, computer

References
[s]https://bmcmedimaging.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2342-8-16[/a]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2925269/
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.614.6173&rep=rep1&type=pdf

This is the commerical item that I am currently aware of: https://biopticon.com/tumorimager/

Client:
Dr. Randy Kimple
Human Oncology
School of Medicine
(608) 265-9156
rkimple@humonc.wisc.edu


68. Haptic stimulation vest

haptic_stimulation

BME 400
Students assigned: Erik Bjorklund, Andrew Fugate, Calvin Hedberg, Chris Larsson, Andrew Polnaszek
Advisor: Mitch Tyler
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Emergency
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Mechanics, Software

Summary
The opioid abuse pandemic has become an unfortunate public health issue affecting the population worldwide. Over the years, both pre-hospital and hospital medicine has adapted to compensate for patient care involving opioid overdose. In many metropolitan areas, Emergency Medical Services and first responders are trained to administer reversal medications such as naloxone in the field to often unresponsive patients suspected to have overdosed on opioid medications.

Following primary resuscitation efforts, pts are commonly brought to the emergency room where the determination is made if patients will require additional treatments to help compensate for their overdose. One treatment option is to administer additional naloxone. An issue with this option aside from cost, is the potential side effects of naloxone; one of the more severe being a fluid overload to the lung known as pulmonary edema. As an adjunct to administering additional medication, it is often common for Emergency Department staff to be assigned to these patients, solely to monitor them ensuring the patient does not become hypoxic. During this observational period, the assigned staff will often sit close by or in the rooms of these patients, repetitively stimulating them when their respiratory effort depresses. In a busy hospital setting, such as an Emergency Department, providing each overdose patient a one to one sitter for this purpose can consume much needed manpower. For some patients, this repetitive stimulation alone (usually a verbal cue via a loud voice, or physical stimulation) will enough for the patient to awaken and breathe normally until they have time to metabolize the opioid in their system.

As an adjunct to reversal medications and manual stimulation, the tactile stimulation vest was conceived. This device will serve to serve patients of whom have a depressed respiratory drive and require the aforementioned additional stimulation. In by the vest stimulating overdose patient repetitively when they become apneic, the need for constant one on one sitter support for the patient becomes unnecessary. Furthermore, the use of additional naloxone may (in some cases) be bypassed; mitigating unwanted complications of repeat dosages of this drug.

The device will be a vest which is worn by the patient. Built into the vest are pockets which hold designed vibration motors that serve to produce haptic feedback to the patient when their oxygen saturation has reached a particular threshold concerning for hypoventilation. The vibration motors will be designed as linear resonant actuators (LRAs) (similar to tactile feedback felt in pagers and cellular devices). In by using LRA motors, the vibration intensity vector can be directed towards the patient in one axis, improving the linear transmission of the stimulatory haptic vibration.

Currently, there are two design concepts for measuring the patient’s oxygen saturation which would serve as a trigger for the stimulation device. The first concept is to build in an output for the vest to attach to stationary monitors commonly used in the emergency setting. By attaching this output into the monitors, the vest will sync with the SpO2 function. Once a threshold is reached (usually an SpO2 of 90%), the vest would activate, triggering the LRA motors, thus providing the patient with haptic feedback to stimulate breathing. The second design concept for the measurement would be to build a pulse oximeter into the vest itself. The pulse oximeter could be attached to the patient’s finger or earlobe (both of which are common methods used to measure in the Emergency Department setting). Again, after the threshold of an SpO2 of 90% is reached, the LRA motors would be similarly triggered as above.

What makes this invention superior to existing technology?
Currently there is no known technology to date used for the purpose of stimulating patients with opioid hypoventilation. On the market currently are vests designed for weight loss such as muscle stimulation vests which uses transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or TENS to stimulate muscle bodies. However, vest of this sort have very limited scientific data, and have been shown in some cases to have some serious adverse side effects given the use of electricity to cause muscle cell depolarization.

There are also vest used for pediatric patients for compression. These vests have been shown in some studies to help calm children with autism and ADHD; however again, this use is not applicable to the same demographic the stimulation vest is aimed at serving.

Materials
Any supplies for the vest will be funded by myself.

References
Trends in Medical Use and Abuse of Opioid Analgesics http://ja.ma/2uAAk4J

https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2017/04/nonmedical-opioid-heroin-use-among-high-school-seniors

Client:
Dr. Christopher J Ford
Emergency Medicine
Regions Hospital/Former Graduate of University of Wisconsin Berbee-Walsh Dept of Emergency Medicine and have current device with the Morgridge institute, and iOS app being trademarked by the UW office of Legal and Entrepreneurship.
(773) 817-9711
cee4ord@gmail.com


69. Tissue biopsy dissociation

biopsy_dissociation

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Raven Brenneke, Jamison Miller, Nathan Richman, Lauren Ross, Victoria Trantow, Cory Van Beek
Advisor: Wan-Ju Li
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Cellular Engineering, Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Pulmonology
Skills: Cell Biology, Mechanics

Summary
Our asthma research group frequently obtains small tissue biopsies of the lung from human subjects with asthma. These biopsies have a rich potential for interrogation of gene expression and cell surface expression of integrins and cytokine receptors. However, current devices for tissue dissociation are designed for larger scale specimens of tissue. My research group is interested in developing a smaller scale device to dissociate biopsy sized tissue specimens.

Materials
Miltenyi gentleMACS dissociator

References
J Vis Exp. 2009 Jul 2;(29). pii: 1266. doi: 10.3791/1266.

Standardized preparation of single-cell suspensions from mouse lung tissue using the gentleMACS Dissociator.

Jungblut M1, Oeltze K, Zehnter I, Hasselmann D, Bosio A.

Client:
Dr. Sameer Mathur
Medicine-Allergy/Immunology
Medicine and Public Health
(608) 262-2804
skmathur@wisc.edu


70. Neonatal breathing system

neonatal_breathing

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Margaret Edman, Lena Hampson, Sara Jorgensen, Sara Martin, Samuel Peters, Megan Skalitzky
Advisor: John Puccinelli
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics
Medical Specialty: Anesthesiology
Skills: Mechanics

Summary
Ventilating babies in the operating room is difficult. The anesthesia machines we use at American Family Children's Hospital were previously only FDA approved for use in babies >3kg (term babies and older). Our neonatal intensive care unit opened in 2014 and we are so busy we are doubling the size of our unit from 14-28 beds. Our NICU is for surgical patients, so we now routinely care for babies

We currently use the Vital Signs Pediatric Anesthesia Breathing Circuit and Fisher and Paykel Infant Respiratory Care System. The Vital Signs circuit is short and frequently falls apart at the wye-piece. The Fisher and Paykel is extremely heavy. Both circuits have a 90-degree elbow connector that we hook up to our endotracheal breathing tubes, which push the breathing tubes too deep into babies' airways once surgical drapes are in place. Ideally we need a circuit that is able to provide active or passive humidification (using a heat moisture exchanger or the Fisher and Paykel heater and humidifier), with strong connections that does not fall apart, light weight, with the option to have a straight connection or a 90-degree elbow at the end.

Materials
I have multiple circuits to show you. We have a neonatal circuit with a heat moisture exchanger and pediatric Fisher & Paykel humidified circuit in the anesthesia workroom at American Family Children's Hospital. I can bring these to illustrate the drawbacks of these circuits when we meet.

References
https://www.fphcare.co.nz/mr850/
ANESTH ANALG 1991;72:561-7
ANESTH ANALG 1989;69:783-7
Anesth Analg. 2008 May;106(5):1392-400

Client:
Dr. Lana Volz
Anesthesiology
University of WI School of Medicine and Public Health
(608) 354-1542
lmvolz@wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Russ Ward (Anesthesia Clinical Engineer)
(608) 513-4358
rward2@uwhealth.org


71. Quantitative reporting of protein amount by a CCTO sensor

protein_sensor

BME 200/300
Students assigned: David Beedle, Jonathan Evans, Shannon Horel, James Johnston, Patricia Stan
Advisor: Kristyn Masters
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Medical Imaging, Cellular Engineering, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Medical Imaging
Skills: Chemistry, Electronics, Software

Summary
A quantitative reporting of protein level is important in many biomedical applications. For example, the blood coagulation cascade consists of a complex interaction between many proteins ultimately resulting in the formation of a blood clot. Abnormal levels of the coagulation proteins can result in coagulation abnormality leading to pathological thrombosis (too much blood clot) or bleeding. A simple point-of-care reporting of the amounts of proteins of the coagulation cascade will allow rapid diagnosis and treatment for bleeding abnormalities.

The project uses a novel short peptide-based reporter sensitive to the microenvironment. Binding of the reporter to the target protein results in an increase in the light intensity and a shift in the emitted light (i.e. a color changing and turning-on, CCTO sensor). We have identified a CCTO sensor to a model glutathione transferase model protein target and ongoing efforts will attempt to discover CCTO sensors to the coagulation cascade proteins.

The engineering task is to develop a compact inexpensive optoelectronic device for recording and quantifying the CCTO sensor output.

This semester's work will be to expand upon what we have already accomplished by making software improvements and implementing a new device component that utilizes microfluidics to achieve blood plasma separation.

Materials
1. CCTO reporter targeting a model GST protein target with a well-characterized spectral absorption and emission.
2. Supply money of up to $5000. for purchase of materials and supplies.

I envision an LED-based excitation light source stimulating the CCTO reporter where the fluorescence output will be proportional to the amount of target GST protein present. The emitted light will be captured by a photoelectric cell and the analog signal digitized by a A/D converter and processed by an Arduino microprocessor.

References
BME Design: Past Teams:
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s16/protein_sensor/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/f16/protein_sensor/
https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/projects/s17/protein_sensor/

Taki et al "Selection of color-changing and intensity-increasing fluorogenic probe as protein-specific indicator obtained via the 1-BASE-T", Analytical Chem, 2015, epub ahead of print.

Client:
Dr. Jay Yang
Anesthesiology
Medicine and Public Health
jyang75@wisc.edu


72. 3D printed cutting guide for orthopedic surgery in animals

cutting_guide

BME 400
Students assigned: Antonio Acosta (ME), Thomas Friesch, Andrew Knoeppel (ME), Chelsie Metz, Daniel Simmons (ME)
Advisor: Joseph Towles
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Biomechanics, Bioinstrumentation
Medical Specialty: Orthopedics
Skills: Electronics, Imaging, Mechanics, Software, heat transfer

Summary
Joint project with ME students and VetMed

Background:
Bone deformities are complex conditions in animals and people that result in significant pain and disability if untreated. Deformity may result from physeal damage, fracture malunion, or other developmental/metabolic bone disorders. Surgical treatment involves a corrective osteotomy to realign the normal bone anatomy. CT images are used to understand the bone deformity and guide correction, and can be used to print 3D models for assessment and surgical rehearsal (Fig. 1). Limited strategies exist to translate imaging measurements into an accurate surgical plan. Various surgical jigs and cutting guides have been explored for individual cases (Fig. 2); however, limited safety and efficacy data exists to incorporate into routine clinical practice. Plastic guide material may be a source of wound complications (infection, delayed healing) and long term tumor development. Furthermore, it is unknown how accurate these guides are compared to free-hand osteotomies. To this end, most veterinary surgeons use free-hand bone saws to perform these surgeries with variable clinical outcomes.

Program Plan and Schedule:
•Specific aim #1: Determine safety for patient use by evaluation of wear debris, heat, guide deformation with incremental modification of guide tolerance to 2 saw blade sizes
•Aim #2: Determine the accuracy of cutting guide compared to standard of care (no guide, free-hand osteotomy)
•Aim #3: Determine applicability to patient specific locations in ex vivo canine bone comparing custom cutting guide to free-hand osteotomy)

Client:
Mr. Erick Oberstar
Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering
(608) 262-6446
Oberstar@engr.wisc.edu

Alternate Contact:
Dr. Jason Bleedorn
School of Veterinary Medicine
(608) 890-2081
Jason.bleedorn@wisc.edu


73. VibeTech: Software and game to study the effects of therapeutic vibration rehabilitation

vibetech

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Mark Austin, Trevor Piette, Owen Seymour, Kelly Starykowicz, Jeffrey Tsai
Advisor: Walter Block
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Human Factors
Medical Specialty: Rehabilitation
Skills: Electronics, Human Subjects, Software

Summary
Part I: Software

The Problem. The effects of therapeutic vibration are not yet known on patients with cognitive impairments and only limited research has been performed on patients with impaired mobility, so there are no optimized protocols available to ensure that these critical populations receive the treatments they need to maintain good health. Moreover, exercise is inherently difficult for patients with cognitive impairments caused by dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and other ailments.

Scientific Merit. This project aims to develop software on board the 2nd generation VibeTech One™ semi-recumbent therapeutic vibration rehabilitation system to establish what is the best treatment protocol for a single patient with cognitive impairments to improve their lower extremity physical function, reduce levels of pain and anxiety they may be experiencing, and improve their quality of life. Once deemed successful for a single patient, the software will be generalized to help researchers and clinicians conduct clinical trials aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of various protocols on populations of patients with specific conditions and to compare effects between different populations. It is expected that a successful project will result in optimized dosing parameters being discovered which facilitate reversal of atrophy and functional decline experienced by cognitively impaired patients and others for whom weight bearing physical activity is difficult or impossible. Moreover, the software developed here is intended to turn every clinician into a researcher by creating a simple-to-use interface for them to design and run clinical studies on one or more patients.

Broader Impact. This work is expected to lead to the establishment of new international standards surrounding the use of therapeutic vibration for patients in need. It is anticipated that the work completed here will enable VibeTech to positively influence healthcare policy surrounding the care of low functioning patients.

--

Part II: Game

The Problem. Exercise is inherently difficult for patients with cognitive impairments caused by dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and other ailments. These patients experience significant loss of strength and functional decline because of the difficulty in performing complex motor tasks and following instructions to perform weight bearing physical activity and other exercises. Agitation and anxiety are common in patients with severe cognitive impairments, making it extremely difficult for caregivers to assist patients with activities of daily living.

Scientific Merit. This project involves the development of one or more rehabilitation games for the VibeTech One™ therapeutic vibration rehabilitation system based on the needs of a single patient with cognitive impairments. The project will be considered a success if the game(s) provide the patient with (1) a high level of engagement, (2) improvements in lower extremity physical function, and (3) a reduction in agitation after treatment. A successful project will lead to the solution being tested on and adapted to meet the universal needs of other patients with cognitive impairments. If effective, this solution will be implemented on all 2nd generation VibeTech One rehabilitation systems put on the market to offer the first simple-to-use and effective means of enabling patients with cognitive impairments to exercise.

Broader Impact. This work is ultimately expected to lead to the establishment of public healthcare policy surrounding the proper treatment of patients with impaired cognitive function. It is also expected that elements of the presently proposed work will assist in the establishment of new international standards surrounding the use of therapeutic vibration for improving strength and function and reducing pain and anxiety.

Materials
VibeTech will loan one of its new, 2nd generation VibeTech One™ therapeutic vibration rehabilitation systems to the project team as needed for the conduct of this project. The same unit may be used by teams working on related projects should more than one project concept be selected this semester.

References
-www.vibetechglobal.com
-www.spinoff.com/vibetech
-http://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=13148&cn=231
(cognitive impairments, causes, and treatments)

Client:
Dr. Jeff Leismer
VibeTech, Inc.
(920) 287-1930
jeff@vibetechglobal.com


74. Thermo Scientific: Raman accessory design for manufacturability

raman_assembly

BME 200/300
Students assigned: Gavin Dillavou-Brown, Michael Giordano, JJ Lamb, Nicholas Mathew, Tyler Safgren
Advisor: Justin Williams
BWIG member go here to build your team's page.

Engineering Specialty: Bioinstrumentation, Biomechanics, Optics
Medical Specialty: Research tool
Skills: Electronics, Mechanics, Optics

Summary
Currently, the Smart Raman accessories are difficult to build and then align due to the design of the assembly. The manufacturing team can make a good product, but the process is time consuming and an art. The goal of this project is to redesign the layout of the system without compromising the optical layout and performance of the instrument. The students will have the opportunity to learn about the optics of the system and Raman spectroscopy.

Materials
Access to current parts and assemblies

References
Product Description:
https://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/IQLAADGABFFAHCMAPA

Client:
Ms. Taylor Powers
Thermo Fisher Scientific
(715) 797-5205
taylor.powers@thermo.com

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